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    12 March 2013, Volume 39 Issue 03
      Seed-Setting Mode of Monosomic Addition Line M14 of Sugar Beet Beta corolliflora
      MA Lan,DU Hong-Yan,LI Rong-Tian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  381-388.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00381
      Abstract ( 891 )   RICH HTML    PDF (232KB) ( 969 )   Save
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      A cross combination of M14 with green petiole ×B. vulgaris with red petiole was prepared to observe the dominant trait marker of hybridplantsand thegenetic correlation between the maternal plant and F1 generation of M14 based on the SSR analysis. The result showed that M14 had higher transmission rate of the alien chromosome. Multiplied seeds came from the union of male and female gametes under artificial pollination, and the petiole color of all the hybrid plants was red. There was no the exactly identical genotype in the progeny compared with the maternal plant. It indicated that the seed-setting mode of M14 is not apomixis, but sexual reproduction. Southern blot showed that the chromosomes of B. vulgaris reversed from M14 sharing the DNA sequence ofB. corolliflora,it is implying that there was popular meiosis and chromosome aberration during the female gamete formation of sugar-beet M14. The study came to the conclusion that higher transmission frequency of the alien chromosome of sugar-beet M14 is probably induced by the chromosome 9 of Beta corolliflora with gametocidal function.

      Cloning and Expression Analysis of Auxin Response Factor Gene (CsARF1) in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze)
      HAO Xin-Yuan,CAO Hong-Li,YANG Ya-Jun,WANG Xin-Chao,MA Chun-Lei,XIAO Bin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  389-397.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00389
      Abstract ( 909 )   RICH HTML    PDF (770KB) ( 970 )   Save
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      Auxin response factors (ARFs) are transcription factors that bind to TGTCTC auxin response elements in promoters of early/primary response genes and regulate the expression of auxinresponse genes. The full-length cDNA of one ARF gene named CsARF1 (GenBank accession number JX307853) was firstly cloned from tea plant (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by SMART-RACE-PCR. The results indicated that the full-length cDNA of CsARF1 was 3222 bp containing 2463 bp ORF which encoded 820 amino acid residues with a putative molecular mass of 49.35 kD. The soluble protein encoded by CsARF1 functioned in the cytoplasm and consisted of an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain (B3), a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (IAA_ARF), and a Gln, Ser and Leu-rich middle region, which is proposed to function as an activation domain. Blast and phylogenetic analysis showed that the protein encoded by CsARF1 shared the highest identity (83%) with ARF8 in Vitisvinifera, and had close genetic relationship with ARF8 in Solanumlycopersicum. The expression analysis of CsARF1 conducted by qRT-PCT during the different phases of bud dormancy and bud break indicated that CsARF1 had a marked rise in the expression level at deep dormant stage and sprouting stage, demonstrating that CsARF1 is relevant to the regulation of tea plant bud dormancy and bud break.

      Distribution of Vitamin E Content and Its Correlation with Agronomic Traits and Carotenoids Content in Foxtail Millet Varieties in China
      LIU Min-Xuan,LU Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  398-408.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00398
      Abstract ( 865 )   RICH HTML    PDF (298KB) ( 1373 )   Save
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      Wedetermined vitamin E (VE) and carotenoid contents in 200 foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv.) developed varieties from different provinces with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to explore distribution and screen varieties with high VE and carotenoid contents, as well as analyze correlations among total VE content, α-VE content, (β+γ)-VE content, δ-VE content, carotenoid content and agronomic traits. The results showed that the distribution of total VE content, α-VE content and (β+γ)-VE content in foxtail millet varieties were normal, while that of δ-VE content was skwe . (β+γ)-VE content was the most abundant fraction in china foxtail millet varieties. The foxtail millet varieties from Shaanxi and Jilin had the highest total VE contents with significant difference from those of other provinces; those from Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning had highest (β+γ)-VE contents also with significant difference from those of other provinces. There was no significant difference in δ-VE content among varieties of different provinces. Lutein and zeaxanthin were two main carotenoids in foxtail millet varieties. The contents of these carotenoids were extremely different among foxtail millet varieties which came from different provinces. Correlation analysis showed that lutein and zeaxanthin contents were significantly and positively correlated with the total VE content and α-VE content, while significantly and negatively correlated with the δ-VE content. There was no significant correlation between lutein content and (β+γ)-VE content. Total VE content and (β+γ)-VE content were all negatively correlated with 1000-seed weight at 0.05 probability level, δ-VE content was positively correlated with weed weight per plant and spikelet weight at 0.01 probability level. Carotenoid contents were all positively correlated with grass weight at 0.01 probability level.

      Evaluation on Effect of Resistance Improvement of Bacterial Leaf Blight and Brown Planthopper for Three Dominant Indica Restorer Lines
      CHEN Kai,ZHANG Qiang,PAN Xiao-Biao,LI Mei,MENG Li-Jun,XU Zheng-Jin,XU Jiang-Long,LI Zhi-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  409-422.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00409
      Abstract ( 878 )   RICH HTML    PDF (260KB) ( 899 )   Save
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      A novel bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene, Xa23, and brown planthopper (BPH) resistance gene, Bph18(t) were introgressed into three popular restorer lines (Minghui 86, Shuhui 527, and Zhehui 7954) for wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility by marker-assisted backcross and pyramiding breeding approaches in combination with artificial inoculation and stringent phenotypic selections. The four derived BB resistant restorer lines [Minghui 86-Xa23, Shuhui 527-Xa23, Zhehui 7954-Xa23,and Zheshu-Xa23-Bph18(t)] and their derived hybrid combinations with II-32A and Huhan11A demonstrated similar BB resistance spectrum as the donor parent, IRBB23. The three derived BPH resistant restorer lines [Shu 527-Bph18(t), Zhehui 7954-Bph18(t), and Zheshu-Xa23-Bph18(t)] showed resistant or moderate resistant to BPH. The newly developed BB and BPH resistant restorers and their derived hybrids were identical to their respective original versions for agronomic traits especially under disease free condition. However, under severe disease condition, the four BB resistant restorer lines exhibited significantly higher grain weight and spikelet fertility as compared to the respective original restorer lines thus further resulting in BB resistant hybrids with significantly higher grain yields than their respective original hybrids. The results indicated that the Xa23 gene could completely express its dominant resistance in different backgrounds of both restorer and male sterile lines across different growth stages, suggesting its immense breeding value in BB resistance improvement for hybrid rice. However, effect of resistant improvement of Bph18(t) for BPH depends on genetic background. Improvement of resistance of BB and BPH for restorer lines by molecular marker-assisted backcross and pyramiding was deeply discussed.

      Fishing TaSC Interacting Protein in Wheat Using Split Ubiquitin Yeast Two Hybrid System
      LIN Fang-Fang,YANG Xu,WU Xiao-Cui,LIU Xiao-Mei,GE Rong-Chao,ZHAO Bao-Cun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  423-430.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00423
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       The TaSC (Triticum asetivum L. salt-tolerance related gene, GenBank accession number AY956330) has been cloned from wheat salt tolerant mutant RH 8706-49, which is induced by high salinity.To fish interacting proteins of this gene, we used TaSC protein as bait to hybrid with the wheat cDNA expression library using the split ubiquitin yeast two hybrid system in this experiment. A novel wheat gene (GenBank accession number AK336035) encoding a protein with unknown function was isolated, which was designated TaSCIP1 (TaSC interaction protein 1).Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiment confirmed the interaction between proteins TaSCIP1 and TaSC. The separation of TaSC-interacting protein is beneficial to disclose the mechanism of salt tolerance gene TaSC.

      Transformation of Antisense Wheat Mlo (Ta-Mlo) Gene and Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Analysis of Transgenic Plants
      XING Li-Ping,QIAN Chen,LI Ming-Hao,CAO Ai-Zhong,WANG Xiu-E,CHEN Pei-Du
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  431-439.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00431
      Abstract ( 951 )   RICH HTML    PDF (392KB) ( 1240 )   Save
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      The antisense wheatMlo gene, Ta-Mlo, was transformed into wheat (Tritivum aestivum L.) varieties Yangmai 158 and Jimai 20 via biolistic transformation using immature embryo calli as explants. After two rounds of bialaphos selection and regeneration, herbicide-resistant plants were obtained, which were subsequently confirmed by PCR, PCR-Southern hybridization, genomic dot hybridization, and BASTA resistance analysis. The results showed that the Ta-Mlo antisense transgenic Yangmai 158 and Jimai 20 plants were obtained. The real time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis proved that the transcript of Ta-Mlo was knocked down in these transgenic plants. The disease resistance test showed that the six transgenic lines appeared highly resistance to powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). The transgenic lines showed distinct acceleration of the production and stabilization of papillae, and effective suppression to further development of haustoria of Bgt. Therefore, the transgenic lines showed high resistance to Bgt.
      Isolation and Characterization of a Rape MAP Kinase BnMPK9 from Group D
      YU Shun-Wu,ZHANG Li-Da,LIU Guo-Lan,LUO Li-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  440-448.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00440
      Abstract ( 1090 )   RICH HTML    PDF (495KB) ( 923 )   Save
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      Under environmental stresses, plant has developed complex signaling networks to respond environmental signals and adapt to unfavorable conditions. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are one of the most important and conserved system to control cellular response and growth. A gene encoding Mitogen-activated protein kinase was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) treated with drought based on RT-PCR, designated as BnMPK9 (GenBank accession number AY737714). The cloned gene contains a Pkinase domain and a conserved CD domain. BnMPK9 is highly homologous to AtMPK9 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and belongs to the D-Subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinase with phosphorylation motif (TDY). Southern bolt analysis revealed that there were at least two copies in rape genome. Northern bolt analyses showed that BnMPK9 could express in different tissues. The expression level of BnMPK9 transcript was up-regulated by mannitol, UV, and H2O2,but down-regulated by low temperature and salicylic acid (SA). Through Real-time RT-PCR, mannitol and H2O2 treatments could induce its high expression under different time. In root, mannitol treatment could enhance its expression. BnMPK9 was ligated into pYES2.1 and transformed into yeasts, and BnMPK9s expression enhanced yeasts’ resistance to mannitol and peroxide in 600 m mol L–1 mannitol and 0.2 mmol L–1 tBuOOH drug assays. The present studies show that BnMPK9 is a member of MAPK family involved in eukaryotic responses and resistance to osmotic and ROS stresses.
      Heterogeneity of Error Variance and Its Effect on the Variety Evaluation in Corn Regional Trials
      WANG Chun-Ping,HU Xi-Yuan,SHEN Kun-Lun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  449-454.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00449
      Abstract ( 1034 )   RICH HTML    PDF (211KB) ( 1290 )   Save
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      In order to study the heterogeneity state of error variance and its effect on the variety evaluation in corn regional trials, based on the 16 data sets of the corn regional trials in the Northeast and North China from 2003 to 2006, we assessed the error variation between the environments and the fit-goodness of models for homogeneous and heterogeneous errors, and compared the statistical tests for trial effects from the two models. The results showed that the error variance largely varied between environments in all of the considered trials. The model for heterogeneous errors fitted the trial data better than the model for homogeneous errors. Whether the heterogeneity of error variance was considered in the models considerably impacted the test about variety-environment interaction effects and little did the test about variety effects. The model for heterogeneous errors had higher test efficiency than the model for homogeneous errors.

      QTL Analysis of Kernel Ratio, Kernel Depth and 100-Kernel Weight in Maize (Zea mays L.)
      ZHANG Wei-Qiang,KU Li-Xia,ZHANG Jun,HAN Zan-Ping,CHEN Yan-Hui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  455-463.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00455
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      In order to study the genetic mechanism of kernel ratio (KR, %), kernel depth (KD), and 100-kernel weight (100-KW) in maize, we constructed a mapping population consisting of 229 F2:3 lines from the cross between inbred lines Yu 82 and Shen 137. QTL mapping and analysis for the three traits were conducted under the three environments by composite interval mapping (CIM) method. Three, three and four QTLs were detected for kernel ratio, kernel depth, and 100-kernel weight, with the joint contribution rate of 35.5%, 28.1%, and 39.0% respectively. One major QTL qKR1b controlling kernel ratio was detected on chromosome 1, locating in marker of interval umc1335–umc2236, explaining 18.9% of the phenotypic variation. Another major QTL q100-KW9b controlling 100-kernel weight was detected in marker of interval bnlg1209-umc2095 on chromosome 9, with explained 11.7% of the phenotypic variation, and gene action of additive effect. The results showed that some key genes for kernel characters are possibly contained in these regions, having an important researchvalue to analyze the genetic mechanism of maize yield formation.
      Characteristics of Nutrient Uptake and Accumulation in Wheat and Rice with Continuous Cropping under Super-High-Yielding Cultivation
      LI Hong-Wei,YANG Kai-Peng,CAO Zhuan-Qin,WANG Zhi-Qin,YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  464-477.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00464
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      Understandingcharacteristics of nutrient uptake and accumulation in plants would be highly significant in the realization of high-yielding and high efficiency of resource use in rice and wheat. This study aimed at investigating uptake and accumulation characteristics of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in rice and wheat plants under super-high-yielding cultivation in the wheat-rice planting system in the lower reaches of Yangtze River of China. Two high-yielding wheat varieties and two rice varieties were field-grown for two years. Two cultivation patterns, the local farmers’ practice and super-high-yielding cultivation, were used. The super-high-yielding cultivation adopted two new key techniques, i.e., site-specific nitrogen management and alternate wetting and moderate drying irrigation in rice and controlled soil drying irrigation in wheat. In comparison with those under the local farmers’ practice (wheat yield < 8 t ha-1 and rice yield < 9 t ha-1), the total uptake of N, P, or K in plants was significantly increased, and the accumulation of N, P, or K was significantly decreased before stem elongation, whereas it was significantly increased in the durations from the stem elongation to flowering and from flowering to maturity under the super-high-yielding cultivation (wheat yield > 9 t ha-1 and rice yield > 12 t ha-1). The total uptake of N, P, and K under the super-high-yielding cultivation was 265, 58, and 256 kg ha-1 for wheat and 256, 79, and 321 kg ha-1 for rice, respectively. The proportion of N, P, or K accumulated in plants during the mid and late growth period (from stem elongation to maturity) to the total uptake of nutrients was 50–60% for wheat and 60–70% for rice. The super-high-yielding cultivation significantly increased partial factor productivity of N, P, or K (grain yield/the amount of N, P, or K applied), internal nutrient efficiency (grain yield/the total uptake of N, P, or K at maturity), and harvest index of nutrients (uptake N, P, or K in grains/ the total uptake of N, P, or K in plants at maturity), and significantly decreased the absorption amount of nutrients for grain production (the total uptake of N, P, or K in plants at maturity/grain yield). The results suggest that both wheat and rice absorb relatively smaller nutrients at early growth stages and more nutrients during the mid and late growth period, and the uptake and use efficiency of nutrients could be increased under the super-high-yielding cultivation.
      Effects of Shading on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Xanthophyll Cycle of Summer Maize in the Field
      UI Hai-Yan,JIN Li-Bin,LI Bo,ZHAO Bin,DONG Shu-Ting,LIU Peng,ZHANG Ji-Wang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  478-485.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00478
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      A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on photosynthetic characteristic and xanthophyll cycle of summer maize. One non-shading treatment was used as control and three shading treatments with a shading degree of 60% were designed in growing period ranging from tasseling to maturity (S1), from jointing to tasseling stage (S2) and whole growing period (S3), respectively. Two cultivars Zhengdan 958 and Zhenjie 2 were used as experimental materials. Results showed that grain yield decreased significantly under shading condition. Effects of different shading treatments on grain yield showed S3 > S1 > S2, and there was a yield reduction of 96.87% and 90.78% for Zhengdan 958 and Zhenjie 2 in S3. Compared with CK, photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), chlorophyll content decreased and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased at first and then decreased, with the rame tendency for two maize cultivars. The stomatal factor and the non-stomata factor had double impacts decreasing photosynthesis. The actual photo-chemical efficiency (ΦPSII), the xanthophyll cycle pool (A+Z+V) and the de-epoxidation extent of xanthophyll cycle (A+Z)/(A+Z+V) increased, and the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased. In other words, in a long time shading, the distribution of sunlight captured by leaves changed and the start of the xanthophyll cycle promoted the heat dissipation of excess light energy. Meanwhile, the ratio of the energy of photosynthetic electron transport to the absorbed light reduced. Finally, the (A+Z)/(A+Z+V) and NPQ increased rapidly in early days after ceasing shading, showing that leaves adapted shading are sensitive to normal illumination in initial stage of light recovery and the enhancement of xanthophyll cycle restrains the damage of photosynthetic structure by sunlight .
      Nitrogen Uptake of Flue-Cured Tobacco in Typical Types of Soil in Southwest China
      LIU Qing-Li,CHEN Fu,ZHANG Yun-Gui,LI Zhi-Hong,JIAO Yong-Ge,GU Hai-Hong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  486-493.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00486
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      The aims of this study were to ascertain the difference of nitrogen uptake and verify the absorption law of the nitrogen from soil and fertilizer for tobacco grown in southwest China with red soil, yellow soil, and paddy soil by 15N tracer. The results showed a significant positive correlation between N accumulation amount and yield in flue-cured tobacco, and a suitable nitrogen demand of 60–100 kg ha–1 for tobacco in southwest zone. Absorption dynamics of nitrogen were different for flue-cured tobacco planted in various types of soil. For rate of nitrogen absorption before topping, the highest was for the tobacco planted in red soil, followed by that in paddy soil and the lowest was for that in yellow soil. N uptake peaks of tobacco planted in red soil, paddy soil and yellow soil were peaked in 7 weeks, 9 weeks and 11 weeks after transplanting respectively. The absorption changes of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen in tobacco all showed a single peak curve, and the peak of the absorption curves of fertilizer nitrogen was earlier than soil nitrogen. Uptake rate of soil nitrogen in flue-cured tobacco was gradually higher than fertilizer nitrogen after starting prosperous growth and transferred to the stage of soil nitrogen-dominated absorption. The accumulation ratios of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen in tobacco before topping accounted 59.8% and 72.1% respectively. The proportions of N accumulation before topping were 87.8%, 47.3%, and 49.2% for tobacco grown in red soil, yellow soil and paddy soil respectively. In conclusion, the fertilizer N demand for tobacco should be estimated with N requirement and soil N supply before topping under proper N demand according to nitrogen absorption law.
      Effect of Water Shortage and Increasing Nitrogen Application on Photosynthetic Function of Different Hybrid Rice Combinations at Grain Filling Stage
      WU Zi-Ming,WANG Zhu-Qing,LI Mu-Ying,ZENG Lei,SHI Qing-Hua,PAN Xiao-Hua,TAN Xue-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  494-505.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00494
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      The response of photosynthetic function of leaves in aging process to water shortage and additional nitrogen application were studied using premature senescence type and non-premature senescence type of hybrid rice combinations. The results showed that chlorophyll content, leaf area, Rubisco activity and photosynthetic rate decreased, and ZR (zeatin riboside) content declined by water deficiency. There were significantly different responses to water shortage among different combinations. Under water stress, Zhongyou 838, Tianyou 998, and Longping 601 were more sensitive than others, and their chlorophyll decline rate increased by 9–12%, whereas photosynthetic rate decreased by 19.55%, 19.12%, and 12.73% respectively, and their ZR content, Rubisco activity dropped much more than those of other combinations, Under water shortage, additional nitrogen application rate could relieve the effect of water shortage stress, the decline rate of chlorophyll decreased by 6.14–27.10%, photosynthetic rate increased by 9.30–15.81% for Longping 601, Tianyou 998, Xianyou 63, and Zhongyou 838, and 3–5% for Liangyou 6326 and C Liangyou 396. And Rubisco activity was enhanced by 18.94% in Longping 601, 12.16% in Zhongyou 838, and 3–9% in other combinations. Additional nitrogen application increased ZR content by 16.05% in Zhongyou 838, 8.31% and 8.16% in C Liangyou 396 and Xianyou 63, and 4.90% and 1.13% in Liangyou 6326 and Longping 601.The correlation analysis showed that ZR content was positively correlated with, photosynthetic rate and Rubisco activity. Rubisco activity and photosynthetic rate had a positive correlation with chlorophyll content, and content of total sugars and yield were significantly correlated with photosynthetic rate.The conclusion was that water shortage speeds up the aging and the decline photosynthetic function decrease. Increasing moderate nitrogen fertilizer will delay the premature senescence of leaves caused by drought stress, enhance the photosynthetic function, and extend photosynthetic function period, suggesting that N nutrition is the most important factor for regulating rice leaf senescence.
      Dynamic Responses of Nitrogen Accumulation and Remobilization in Summer Maize Organs to Nitrogen Fertilizer
      ZHANG Jing-Ting,LIU Yun-Peng,LI Xu-Hui,LIANG Xiao-Gui,ZHOU Li-Li,ZHOU Shun-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  506-514.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00506
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      A successive two years′ field experiment with five N application rates was conducted using hybrid Zhengdan 958. The results showed that the process of N accumulation in all organs except grain conformed to a unimodal curve in the whole life cycle. The N accumulation in blade, husk and cob reached the peak at around 12 days after silking, and that in stem and sheath at silking stage and then decreased gradually. The N accumulation in grain and the whole plant continuously increased, and the maximum value appeared at maturity. Compared with other organs, blade was more sensitive to N supply and N deficit stress made the N accumulation peak in advance, accelerated blade N remobilization and promoted senescence of blade. N supply significantly improved N accumulation amount and N accumulation rate in all organs at various stages, but did not change the trend of N accumulation. On the whole, the demands of maize organs for N could be met at the N application rate of 180 kg N ha-1, and a higher grain yield also achieved. According to the maximum value of accumulated N in organs, the contribution of remobilized N from maize organs to grain showed a trend of: blade > stem and sheath > cob > bract, and the mean total contribution rate was 53.3%, of which cob and bract accounted for 12.3%, showing an essential part for grain N, too.
      Meta-Analysis of Evolution Trend from 1950s to 2000s in the Relationship between Crop Yield and Plant Density in Maize
      YANG Jin-Zhong,ZHANG Hong-Sheng,DU Jin-Zhe
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  515-519.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00515
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      The relationship between crop yield and plant density in maize is essential for improving cropping systems because of the fact that maize compensates for low plant density is less than other cereals such as wheat. To determine the evolution trend of yield-density relationships from maize plant density experiments reported in China, and to provide potential approaches to improve maize yield, based on requirements for meta-analysis, we collected the historical data of maize plant density experiments from 1950s to 2000s in China containing values more than 1 500 pairs of plant densities and their crop yield. Evolution trends of maximum crop yield, optimal plant density and yield per plant within six decades were examined after all eligible data sets were subject to fitting parabola model and further to statistical analyses such as histogram, correlation, path and gradient. Crop yields in 1970s and 1980s were considerably higher than those in 1950s and 1960s. Crop yield steadily increased in recent three decades and reached the maximum of 10.5 t ha-1. Annual yield increment was 150 kg ha-1 after 1960s. Optimum plant densities for different decades varied from 4.5 to 6.8 plant m-2, showing (1950s and 1960s) < (1970s and 1980s) < 1990s > 2000s. Yield per plant for different decades varied from 0.08 to 0.17 kg and in the order: 1950s > (1960s and 1970s) < 1980s, then gradually increased after 1980s, with a big rise in 2000s. Crop yield loss due to departures from the optimal plant density appeared an increased trend in recent three decades. On the basis of increasing plant density, promoting yield per plant throughout breeding and cultivation approaches may lead to a higher maize production level.

      Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Kinetic Parameters Analyses of Chlorophyll-Reduced Mutant in Brassica napus L.
      XIAO Hua-Gui,YANG Huan-Wen,RAO Yong,YANG Bin,ZHU Ying
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  520-529.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00520
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      We investigatedthe photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters and agronomic traits at five-leaf stage of the chlorophyll-reduced mutant (NY), wild-type (NG), F1 and rF1 of their combinations (reciprocal cross). The results showed that the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids in the mutant were significantly reduced compared with there in other materials, expecially for chlorophyll b. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the mutant was significantly lower than that of wild-type and their F1 and rF1. Relatively high intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and an equivalent stomatal conductance (Gs) in the mutant indicated that stomatal factor was not the limiting factor of the photosynthetic rate. The mutant had higher light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP), and its dark respiration rate (Rd) was equal to that of wild-type, whereas apparent quantum yield (AQY) and quantum yield at light compensation point (φc) in the mutant were significantly decresed. The CO2 compensation point (CCP), rate of photorespiration (Rp) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of the mutant NY were significantly lower than those of the wild-type NG and their combinations of NY×NG and NG×NY, but the mutant had higher CO2 saturation point (CSP). The fluorescence parameters in the mutant, including Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII, qp, NPQ, and ETR were significantly reduced. Lower photosynthetic pigment content may be the main reason for low leaf photosynthetic rate which directly leads to the lower light-harvesting capacity and photochemical conversion efficiencies of the PSII reaction center. Moreover, lasting etiolation of leaves in the mutant had a greater impact on its growth and development, but the photosynthetic characteristics and agronomic traits were restored to normal level in F1 of the cross between the mutant and the normal parent.
      Responses of Drought Stress on Photosynthetic Trait and Osmotic Adjustment in Two Maize Cultivars
      DU Wei-Li,GAO Jie,HU Fu-Liang,GUO De-Lin,ZHANG Gai-Sheng,ZHANG Ren-He*,XUE Ji-Quan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  530-536.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00530
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      The responses of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and osmotic adjustment were studied in two different maize hybrids Zhengdan 958 (drought resistance) and Shaandan 902 (drought sensitive) under three different drought stresses (mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought) and normal irrigation in pot experiment. The results showed that drought stress caused disorder in photosynthesis, damage in the integrity of cellular membranes and increase the amounts of osmotic active substance (proline and soluble sugar) in both two cultivars. Thus these may have an important role in acclimation process to drought stress. However, compared with drought-stressed Shaandan 902, drought-stressed Zhengdan 958 showed higher values of maximum leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax), apparent quantum efficiency (AQY), light saturation point (LSP), maximum rate of electron transport driving RuBP regeneration (Jmax), maximum rate of RuBP carboxylatuin (Vcmax), PSII actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP); higher contents of soluble sugars and proline and lower content of MDA. These results indicate that Zhengdan 958 have a better self-protection of photosynthetic system, greater accumulation of substances for osmotic adjustment for eliminating the negative effects on cellular membranes may be the major physiological traits in the adapt ability to drought conditions.

      Interference of Rice with Different Morphological Types and Allelopathy on Barnyardgrass under Three Planting Patterns
      XU Zheng-Hao,XIE Guo-Xiong,ZHOU Yu-Jie,GAO Shen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  537-548.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00537
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      The interference effects of 17 rice materials with different morphological and allelopathic characteristics on Echinochloa crus-galli were studied using split-split plot experiment design. Three common rice planting patterns including water direct seeding, small rice seedling transplanting and big rice seedling transplanting were designed as main treatment, and two weeding inoculations,  barnyardgrass mixture transplanting and without barnyardgrass as split treatment, and 17 rice materials as split-split treatment. The results showed that direct seeding and small seedling transplanting treatments had better inhibitory effects on plant height, tiller ability and dry weight of barnyardgrass compared with big seedling transplanting treatment. The rice with advantageous morphological and allelopathic characteristics could suppress barnyardgrass effectively. With 30 plants per square meter of barnyardgrass interference competition, the rice yield under three different planting patterns was not significantly different, with 21.73% of reduction due to weed interference. On the other hand, the allelopathic rice materials Xiayitiao, IR644-1-63-1-1 and Gumei 2 controlled barnyardgrass effectively, remaining relatively better rice yield in spite of weed infestation. Barnyardgrass competition restrained rice growth, especially in direct seeding treatment. Under such circumstances, the rice plant height, tillering ability and dry weight in most growth phases of direct seeding treatment were worse than those of transplanting treatments. The effects of weed competition on rice agronomic traits were quite different. Allelopathic rice material Xiayitiao had better tillering ability in tiller stage, and higher plant height and dry weight at most growth stages. Weed infestation could not affect the rice ultimat plant height, but influence rice tillering ability, stem and panicle dry weight remarkably. Weed competition did not change grain weight significantly under three rice planting patterns. The grain weight per rice plant in transplanting treatments was significantly greater than that in direct seeding. The panicle length, total panicle number, setting number and seed setting percentage were also notably larger than those in direct seeding. Both panicle number and setting number of allelopathic rice materials Gumei 2, IR644-1-63-1-1, TN1, and PI312777 were smaller. Although panicle number of allelopathic rice Xiayitiao was smaller, the seed setting percentage was quite higher. Rice materials Zhongzao 27, Zhe 207, Zhe 101, and Zhongzao 22 had higher 1000-grain weight. The 1000-grain weight of allelopathic rice Gumei 2 was significantly larger than those of IR644-1-63-1-1, TN1, and PI312777. The grain weight of Zhe 101, Zhe 207 and Zhongzao 22 was higher; meanwhile, the grain weight of allelopathic rice 156 was significantly larger than that of Gumei 2, Xiayitiao, IR644-1-63-1-1, TN1, and PI312777.
      QTL Identification for Plant Height and Ear Height Based on SNP Mapping in Maize (Zea mays L.)
      ZHENG De-Bo5,YANG Xiao-Hong,LI Jian-Sheng,YAN Jian-Bing,ZHANG Shi-Long,HE Zheng-Hua,HUANG Yi-Qin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  549-556.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00549
      Abstract ( 1126 )   RICH HTML    PDF (478KB) ( 1926 )   Save
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      In order to learn more about the genetic machanism of plant height and ear height, two linkage maps were constructed by SNP markers using two F2:3 families derived from K22 × CI7 and K22 × Dan340 respectively. These two maps included 429 and 344 polymorphic SNP markers respectively and their total lengths were 1 389.3 cM and 1 567.5 cM respectively. The phenotypic data of plant height (PH) and ear height (EH) of two populations were used to detect QTLs in two environments (2010 in Nanning and 2011 in Wuhan) by using the Composite Interval Mapping (CIM) model of WinQTLCart2.5. In total, 21 QTLs for plant height and 27 QTLs for ear height were identified. The phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 4.9% to 17.9%. The results showed that the additive and partial dominant effects were the main genetic basis for plant height and ear height in maize in this study, and the main QTLs for PH and EH were both found on chromosome 7.
      Effects of Basic Fertilizer and Nitrogen Topdressing Treatments at Jointing Stage on Grain Textural Characteristics of Fresh Waxy Maize
      LU Da-Lei,SUN Xu-Li,WANG Xin,YAN Fa-Bao,LU Wei-Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  557-562.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00557
      Abstract ( 661 )   RICH HTML    PDF (151KB) ( 822 )   Save
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      The results of a field experiment using Suyunuo 5 and Yunuo 7 indicated that fertilizer treatments significantly changed the textural properties, and the effects of basic fertilizer on textural characteristics except fracturability and cohesiveness were higher than those of nitrogen topdressing at jointing stage. Variation of adhesiveness, chewiness and fracturability was higher than that of textural characteristics. Higher hardness, fracturability, adhesiveness (absolute value), springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness, and middle resilience were presented in the trestment of N 75 kg ha-1 + P2O5 75 kg ha-1 + K2O 75 kg ha-1 among all the basic fertilizer treatments. With the increment of nitrogen topdressing at jointing stage, springiness was stable, hardness, fracturability, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience were increased first and fallen later, adhesiveness was similar between treatments of nitrogen topdressing at 0 and 150 kg ha-1at jointing stage, while it was lower at 300 kg ha-1. The correlation analysis indicated that hardness and fracturability were positively correlated with springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. Cohesiveness was negatively correlated with springiness and chewiness, while positively correlated with resilience. The positivecorrelations were observed for springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness between each other. Considering of the changing tendency of textural characteristics, the treatment of N 75 kg ha-1+ P2O5 75 kg ha-1 + K2O 75 kg ha-1 as basic fertilizer combined with N 150 kg ha-1 topdressing at jointing stage had higher adhesiveness, chewiness and fracturability, and significantly lower grain hardness in Suyunuo 5 than in Yunnuo 7.
      Expression of Cotton GhPRP5 Gene in Arabidopsis Enhances Susceptibility to ABA and Salt Stresses
      ZHANG De-Jing,QIN Li-Xia,LI Long,RAO Yue,LI Xue-Bao,XU Wen-Liang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2013, 39(03):  563-569.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00563
      Abstract ( 1137 )   RICH HTML    PDF (335KB) ( 1283 )   Save
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      Pro-rich proteins (PRPs) represent one family of Pro- and Hyp-rich structural cell wall proteins that are initially identified as wound-induced gene products in carrot storage roots. Accumulated evidences demonstrate that PRP genes are regulated by various abiotic and biotic stresses and may play a role in plant responses to changes in living conditions. In our previous study, a gene encoding a proline-rich protein designated as GhPRP5 was isolated from cotton cDNA libraries. To validate its function, in this study, we introduced the coding region of GhPRP5into the vector pBI121 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and then transformed the vector into Arabidopsis thaliana. Eight independent T4 homozygous lines with high expression of GhPRP5 were obtained. Germination rate of transgenic lines overexpressing GhPRP5 was not affected under normal conditions; however, salt stress and ABA significantly inhibited the germination of the transgenic lines. When growing on media with NaCl, the GhPRP5-overexpressed plants displayed much less cotyledon greening rate compared with the wild type. In contrast to the normal growth conditions, ABA inhibited the elongation of primary root more severely in the transgenic lines. Quantitative RT-PCR technique was used to analyze the transcription of several stress gene markers (RD29A, RD29B, KIN1,and ABI1) in the transgenic lines and the wild type plants under salt stress and ABA treatments. Expressions of RD29A, RD29B, and KIN1 were induced by ABA and NaCl in the transgenic and the wild type plants, though the induction levels in the transgenic lines were different from those in the wild type. This finding suggests that GhPRP5 is implicated in the regulation of stress gene expression in Arabidopsis. The plant stress signal transduction pathway in which GhPRP5 may be involved needs to be further studied.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
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Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
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