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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 777-791.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83055

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同降水状况下旱地玉米生长与产量对施氮量的响应

宁芳,张元红,温鹏飞,王瑞,王倩,董朝阳,贾广灿,李军()   

  1. 西北农林科技大学农学院 / 农业部西北黄土高原作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室, 陕西杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-20 接受日期:2019-01-19 出版日期:2019-05-12 发布日期:2019-02-27
  • 通讯作者: 李军 E-mail:junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B02);国家自然科学基金项目(31571620);国家自然科学基金项目(31801300);国家高技术研究发展计划项目(863计划)(2013AA102902)

Responses of maize growth and yield to nitrogen application in dryland under different precipitation conditions

Fang NING,Yuan-Hong ZHANG,Peng-Fei WEN,Rui WANG,Qian WANG,Zhao-Yang DONG,Guang-Can JIA,Jun LI()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University / Key Laboratory of Crop Physi-ecology and Tillage Science in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2018-07-20 Accepted:2019-01-19 Online:2019-05-12 Published:2019-02-27
  • Contact: Jun LI E-mail:junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Science and Technology Support Program(2015BAD22B02);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31571620);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801300);the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program)(2013AA102902)

摘要:

水分不足是旱地玉米生长主要限制因素, 渭北旱塬雨养玉米种植区降水季节波动大, 干旱频繁发生, 已严重影响春玉米正常生长发育及产量稳定性。于2016—2018年在渭北旱塬合阳县进行旱地玉米施氮量定位试验, 设置5个施氮量处理, 2016—2017年包括0、75、150、270、360 kg hm -2(分别以N0、N75、N150、N270、N360表示), 2018年施氮量处理为0、90、180、270、360 kg N hm -2(分别以N0、N90、N180、N270、N360表示), 供试品种为郑单958 (ZD958)和陕单8806 (SD8806)。分析了不同降水分布年份施氮量对春玉米生育期土壤水分变化动态、干物质积累动态、产量构成、经济效益及水分利用效率(WUE)的影响。结果表明, 试验年份降水分布可分为穗期多雨、粒期干旱型(2016年和2018年)和穗期干旱、粒期多雨型(2017年)。生长季降水量及其分布显著影响土壤蓄水量和玉米地上部干物质积累, 从而影响玉米产量及其构成因素, 穗期干旱显著降低地上部干物质积累量和穗粒数, 粒期干旱会明显降低粒重。不同降水分布年份施氮处理较N0增产6.72%~91.23%不等, 施氮量对玉米产量、水分利用效率(WUE)影响呈现二次曲线关系, 穗期多雨、粒期干旱型以N270处理籽粒产量和WUE最高, 而穗期干旱、粒期多雨型以N150处理产量和WUE最好。籽粒产量与“休闲至抽雄期降水(FP2)”、“播前土壤蓄水量+播种至抽雄期降水(SP2)”相关性较强(FP2: R 2=0.839 **; SP2: R 2=0.837 **)。根据产量、水分利用和经济收益综合评价, 渭北旱地玉米最适施氮方案为基施氮肥150 kg hm -2, 再根据休闲至抽雄期降水量或播前土壤蓄水量与播种至抽雄期降水量之和预测产量, 估算并及时追施适宜施氮量。

关键词: 春玉米, 降水分布, 施氮量, 产量, WUE

Abstract:

Water deficiency is a main limiting factor for maize growth in dryland. The seasonal fluctuation of precipitation and the frequent occurrence of drought have severely affected the normal growth and stable production of spring maize in Weibei dryland. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Heyang county located in Weibei dryland from 2016 to 2018, with five treatments of nitrogen rates, including 0 kg ha -1 (N0), 75 kg ha -1 (N75), 150 kg ha -1 (N150), 270 kg ha -1 (N270), and 360 kg ha -1 (N360) from 2016 to 2017 and 0 kg ha -1 (N0), 90 kg ha -1 (N90), 180 kg ha -1 (N180), 270 kg ha -1 (N270), and 360 kg ha -1 (N360) in 2018, using two spring maize varieties Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Shaandan 8806 (SD8806). The effects of nitrogen application rates on dynamic changes of soil moisture, dry matter accumulation, yield composition, economic returns and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize during growth period were analyzed in different test years. There were two distribution types of precipitation in the test years, one was rainy at the ear stage and droughty at the grain stage (2016, 2018), while the other was droughty at the ear stage and rainy at the grain stage (2017). Precipitation amount and its distribution in the growing season significantly affected soil water storage and aboveground dry matter accumulation of maize, thus affecting grain yield and its components. Drought at the ear stage significantly reduced aboveground dry matter accumulation and kernel number per ear, while drought in the grain stage decreased kernel weight. The yield of applying nitrogen fertilizer treatment was 6.72%-91.23% higher than that of N0 across three years. The effects of nitrogen rates on grain yield and WUE followed a quadratic curve relationship. In the case of being rainy at the ear stage and droughty at the grain stage there occurred the highest grain yield and WUE in N270, in contrast when it was droughty at the ear stage and rainy at the grain stage, spring maize performed better in N150 treatment. The Grain yield was positively correlated with “precipitation from fallow to tasseling” (FP2) and “the sum of soil water storage before sowing and precipitation from sowing to tasseling” (SP2) (FP2: R 2=0.839 **; SP2: R 2=0.837 **). Based on a comprehensive assessment for grain yield, WUE and net economic returns, the optimum nitrogen application rate in this study is basic fertilizer of 150 kg ha -1 plus top dressing of nitrogen fertilizer in time according to the predicted yield, which is estimated by FP2 or SP2, so as to get the optimized N fertilizer amount and maximized yield, WUE and economic returns in Weibei dryland.

Key words: spring maize, distribution of precipitation, nitrogen application rate, yield, WUE

表1

供试土壤试验前化学基本性质"

土层深度
Soil depth
(cm)
有机质
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
全氮
Total N
content
(g kg-1)
全磷
Total P
content
(g kg-1)
全钾
Total K
content
(g kg-1)
碱解氮
Alkali-hydro
nitrogen
(mg kg-1)
速效磷
Available P content
(mg kg-1)
速效钾
Available K
content
(mg kg-1)
0-20 11.38 0.98 0.79 11.15 56.02 28.39 277.36
20-40 8.53 0.81 0.65 10.41 38.20 24.89 283.09
40-60 8.02 0.63 0.71 11.53 25.74 21.78 233.95

表2

春玉米各生育时期测定时间(月/日)"

年份
Year
播种
Sowing
幼苗
Seedling
拔节
Jointing
抽雄
Tasseling
灌浆
Filling
成熟
Maturity
2016 4/26 6/1 6/27 7/25 8/25 9/17
2017 4/26 5/25 6/26 7/13 8/14 9/22
2018 4/26 5/26 6/28 7/17 8/17 9/10

图1

2016-2018年春玉米生长季逐月降雨量(A)与各生育阶段降雨量分布(B)"

图2

不同处理玉米播前0~200 cm土层土壤蓄水量 ZD958: 郑单958; SD8806: 陕单8806; N0: 施氮量为0 kg hm-2; N75: 施氮量为75 kg hm-2; N90: 施氮量为90 kg hm-2; N150: 施氮量为150 kg hm-2; N180: 施氮量为180 kg hm-2; N270: 施氮量为270 kg hm-2; N360: 施氮量为360 kg hm-2。"

图3

不同处理下春玉米不同生育时期0~200 cm土壤蓄水量 ZD958: 郑单958; SD8806: 陕单8806; N0: 施氮量为0 kg hm-2; N75: 施氮量为75 kg hm-2; N90: 施氮量为90 kg hm-2; N150: 施氮量为150 kg hm-2; N180: 施氮量为180 kg hm-2; N270: 施氮量为270 kg hm-2; N360: 施氮量为360 kg hm-2。"

图4

不同处理下春玉米不同生育阶段干物质积累量 ZD958: 郑单958; SD8806; 陕单8806; N0: 施氮量为0 kg hm-2; N75: 施氮量为75 kg hm-2; N90: 施氮量为90 kg hm-2; N150: 施氮量为150 kg hm-2; N180: 施氮量为180 kg hm-2; N270: 施氮量为270 kg hm-2; N360: 施氮量为360 kg hm-2。"

表3

不同施氮量处理下春玉米产量构成因素及经济效益"

施氮量
N rate
穗数
Spike
number
穗粒数
Kernels per spike
百粒重100-kernel weight (g) 籽粒产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
生物量
Biomass
(kg hm-2)
收获
指数
HI (%)
边际产量
MP
(kg N-1)
边际成本
MC
(Yuan kg-1)
边际收益
MR
(Yuan kg-1)
2016
N0 60224 520 e 31.97 c 9983 18220 54.74 b
N75 63545 545 b 31.66 d 10947 20132 54.11 c 964 0.3351 1.1888
N150 67750 543 c 32.18 b 11882 21397 55.45 a 935 0.3407 1.2512
N270 68279 550 a 32.47 a 12192 21934 55.72 a 194 0.5269 1.1000
N360 69860 532 d 32.09 b 11923 22222 53.49 d -224 0.8000 0.7763
平均Average 65932 538 32.07 11385 20781 54.70
2017
N0 56873 145 e 26.79 e 2209 13257 16.71 d
N75 53333 165 d 31.67 d 2780 17345 16.03 e 571 0.4536 1.1261
N150 58347 235 a 32.74 c 4482 18097 24.72 a 1702 0.2275 1.3625
N270 56667 209 b 34.88 a 4121 19839 20.74 b -226 0.4869 1.1025
N360 50000 208 c 32.93 b 3426 18354 18.67 c -579 1.0197 0.5735
平均Average 55044 192 31.80 3404 17378 19.37
2018
N0 63505 420 e 25.17 e 6718 19451 34.54 d
N90 68331 543 d 26.10 d 9675 21420 45.17 a 2463 0.1050 1.4950
N180 64429 551 c 27.68 a 9821 22286 44.07 ab 122 0.2000 1.4000
N270 65884 559 a 27.43 b 10102 23231 43.48 b 234 0.2752 1.3248
N360 63657 557 b 26.56 c 9411 24334 38.68 c -575 0.4610 1.1390
平均Average 65161 526 26.59 9145 22144 41.19

表4

不同处理春玉米的产量、耗水量及水分利用效率"

品种
Cultivar
施氮量
N application rate
播种期蓄水量
Soil water storage before sowing (mm)
收获期蓄水量
Soil water storage in harvesting (mm)
降水量
Rainfall
(mm)
耗水量
ET
(mm)
籽粒产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
水分利用效率WUE
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
2016
郑单958
Zhengdan 958
N0 440.00 324.51 357.5 472.99 a 9975 d 21.14 b
N75 440.00 348.09 357.5 449.41 a 10893 c 24.29 ab
N150 440.00 350.18 357.5 447.32 a 11864 b 26.58 a
N270 440.00 348.07 357.5 449.43 a 12221 a 27.25 a
N360 440.00 348.00 357.5 449.50 a 11886 b 26.50 a
陕单8806
Shaandan 8806
N0 440.00 367.40 357.5 430.10 b 9771 d 22.78 a
N75 440.00 303.87 357.5 493.63 a 10141 c 20.59 a
N150 440.00 321.72 357.5 475.78 a 10678 b 22.50 a
N270 440.00 334.37 357.5 463.13 ab 10970 a 23.74 a
N360 440.00 330.05 357.5 467.45 ab 10998 a 23.58 a
2017
郑单958
Zhengdan 958
N0 423.62 405.54 362.6 380.68 a 2215 e 5.83 c
N75 410.34 391.09 362.6 381.85 a 2779 d 7.29 c
N150 419.71 391.76 362.6 390.56 a 4474 a 11.48 a
N270 420.35 400.57 362.6 382.38 a 4115 b 10.78 ab
N360 421.82 425.56 362.6 358.86 a 3427 c 9.57 b
陕单8806
Shaandan 8806
N0 418.00 423.05 362.6 357.55 b 2305 e 6.46 c
N75 390.57 372.08 362.6 381.09 ab 3022 d 7.95 b
N150 398.73 349.95 362.6 411.38 a 4170 b 10.16 a
N270 412.64 380.34 362.6 394.89 a 4285 a 10.87 a
N360 395.96 400.60 362.6 357.96 b 3802 c 10.64 a
2018
郑单958
Zhengdan 958
N0 451.88 376.05 225.0 300.83 d 6718 b 22.33 c
N90 443.38 351.20 225.0 317.18 b 9675 a 30.50 a
N180 452.88 365.40 225.0 312.49 c 9821 a 31.43 a
N270 455.23 359.73 225.0 320.50 b 10102 a 31.52 a
N360 452.25 341.28 225.0 335.97 a 9411 a 28.01 b
陕单8806
Shaandan 8806
N0 456.45 375.36 225.0 306.09 d 4670 c 15.26 d
N90 439.14 333.00 225.0 331.14 b 7172 b 21.66 c
N180 454.16 353.96 225.0 325.20 c 9752 a 29.99 ab
N270 456.36 354.43 225.0 326.93 bc 10259 a 31.38 a
N360 465.66 344.64 225.0 346.01 a 9827 a 28.40 b
变异来源 Source of variation
年份Year (Y) ** ** **
施氮量N application rate (N) NS ** *
品种Cultivar (C) NS NS NS
年份×施氮量 Y×N NS NS NS
年份×品种 Y×C NS NS NS
施氮量×品种 N×C NS NS NS
年份×施氮量×品种 Y×N×C NS ** **

图5

不同年份籽粒产量、水分利用效率(WUE)及其与施氮量的相关性 WUE: 水分利用效率。"

图6

籽粒产量与播期蓄水量及不同阶段降雨量的关系 A为籽粒产量与不同阶段降雨量的关系, 其中 FP0为休闲期降水; FP1为休闲至拔节期降水; FP2为休闲至抽雄期降水; FP3为休闲至灌浆期降水。B为籽粒产量与播前土壤蓄水量与不同阶段降雨量之和的关系, 其中SP0为播前土壤蓄水量; SP1为播前土壤蓄水量+播种至拔节期降水; SP2为播前土壤蓄水量+播种至抽雄期降水; SP3为播前土壤蓄水量+播种至灌浆期降水。**表示0.01显著水平。"

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