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作物学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 656-666.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12012

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

播种量和穗肥施氮量对优质食味直播水稻产量和品质的影响

陈云1,2(), 李思宇1, 朱安1, 刘昆1, 张亚军2, 张耗1, 顾骏飞1, 张伟杨1, 刘立军1,*(), 杨建昌1   

  1. 1扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/江苏省作物基因组学和分子育种重点实验室, 江苏扬州 225009
    2扬州大学生物科学与技术学院, 江苏扬州 225009
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-15 接受日期:2021-06-16 出版日期:2021-07-12 网络出版日期:2021-07-12
  • 通讯作者: 刘立军
  • 作者简介:E-mail: yunchen@yzu.edu.cn, Tel: 0514-87979320
  • 基金资助:
    江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目(cx183007);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300502);国家自然科学基金项目(31871557);国家自然科学基金项目(32071947);江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室开放课题(YSCL202102);江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目资助

Effects of seeding rates and panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing

CHEN Yun1,2(), LI Si-Yu1, ZHU An1, LIU Kun1, ZHANG Ya-Jun2, ZHANG Hao1, GU Jun-Fei1, ZHANG Wei-Yang1, LIU Li-Jun1,*(), YANG Jian-Chang1   

  1. 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Centre for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
    2College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2021-02-15 Accepted:2021-06-16 Published:2021-07-12 Published online:2021-07-12
  • Contact: LIU Li-Jun
  • Supported by:
    Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund(cx183007);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300502);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31871557);National Natural Science Foundation of China(32071947);Open Project of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology(YSCL202102);Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

摘要:

播种量是影响直播水稻产量的关键因素之一, 但其对优质食味水稻产量和品质的影响研究相对较少。施用穗肥是水稻高产栽培的重要措施, 但穗肥施氮量对优质食味直播水稻产量和品质的调节效应尚不清楚。本研究以3个江苏省代表性优质食味水稻苏香粳3号、南粳5055和南粳9108为材料, 在行距固定为25 cm条件下, 分析了60、90、120、150和180 kg hm-2等5个播种量对上述品种产量和品质的影响, 并观察了适宜播种量条件下穗肥施氮量对优质食味水稻产量和品质的调节效应。主要结果表明: (1) 苏香粳3号、南粳5055和南粳9108的产量均随播种量增加呈先升后降的趋势。3个品种高产最适播种量分别为130.2~136.5、118.3~119.3和90.0~96.4 kg hm-2。稻米加工品质与播种量呈不同程度负相关, 而垩白粒率、垩白度、蛋白质含量、米粉消解值与播种量呈显著或极显著正相关。胶稠度、直链淀粉含量、食味值和崩解值与播种量均呈显著或极显著负相关。(2) 在高产适宜播种量条件下, 与常规穗肥施氮量相比, 穗肥施氮量减半对南粳5055和南粳9108的产量无明显影响, 但可明显改善稻米的外观品质和食味值。上述结果表明, 优质食味直播水稻最适播种量因品种而异。播种量过大会使优质食味水稻的加工品质、外观品质和食味值变劣。适量降低穗肥施氮量有利于进一步改善优质食味直播水稻的外观品质和食味品质。

关键词: 水稻, 直播, 播种量, 穗肥, 产量, 米质

Abstract:

Seeding rate is one of the key factors affecting grain yield under direct sowing in rice, but there are fewer studies of its influence on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars (GTRC). The application of panicle fertilizer is an important measure for high-yielding cultivation in rice production, however, the effects of panicle fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in GTRC is still unclear. In this study, three representative GTRC (Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108) in Jiangsu province were used as materials, and the effects of seeding rates (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 kg hm-2) and the effect of nitrogen (N) application as panicle fertilizer on grain yield and quality were investigated under direct sowing when the rowing spacing was fixed at 25 cm. The main results were as follows: (1) The yields of Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108 all increased first and then decreased with the increase of seeding rates. The optimum seeding rates for the high yield of the three rice cultivars were 130.2-136.5 kg hm-2, 118.3-119.3 kg hm-2, and 90.0-96.4 kg hm-2, respectively. Rice processing quality was negatively correlated with the seeding rates to different extents, while chalky grain rate, chalkiness, protein content, and setback was significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the seeding rates. Gel consistency, amylose content, taste value, and breakdown were significantly or extremely significantly negatively correlated with seeding rates. (2) Under the optimum seeding rates with the high yield, compared with conventional panicle N application rate, halving the panicle N application had no significant effects on the yields of Nanjing 5055 and Nanjing 9108, but it could significantly improve the appearance quality and taste value. The above results indicated that the optimum seeding rate in GTRC under direct sowing varied with cultivars. Excessive seeding rate would decrease the processing quality, appearance quality, and taste value. Appropriately reducing the amount of N application as panicle fertilizer was beneficial to further improve the appearance and taste quality in GTRC under direct sowing.

Key words: rice, direct sowing, seeding rate, panicle fertilizer, yield, grain quality

表1

产量、主要稻米品质指标的方差分析"

来源
Source of variation
自由度
DF
产量
Grain yield
整精米率
Head milled rice rate
直链淀粉含量
Amylose content
蛋白质含量
Protein content
食味值
Taste value
年份Year (Y) 1 NS NS NS NS NS
播种量Seeding rate (S) 4 63.2** 26.2** 100.2** 76.0** 144.0**
品种Variety (V) 2 222.5** 36.8** 4103.3** 46.5** 468.1**
Y × S 4 NS NS NS NS NS
Y × V 2 NS NS NS NS NS
S × V 8 22.8** 4.69** 4.28** NS 6.73**
Y × S × V 8 NS NS NS NS NS

图1

播种量对优质食味直播水稻产量及其构成因素的影响 SXJ3、NJ5055、NJ9108分别表示苏香粳3号、南粳5055和南粳9108。"

表2

播种量与优质食味直播水稻产量的关系"

年份
Year
品种
Cultivar
播种量(x, kg hm-2)与产量(y, kg hm-2)的关系方程
Equation between seeding rates (x, kg hm-2) and grain yield (y, kg hm-2)
R2 xopt
(kg hm-2)
ymax
(kg hm-2)
2017 苏香粳3号 SXJ3 y = -0.2739x2 + 74.780x + 3161.2 0.9405 136.5 8265.3
南粳5055 NJ5055 y = -0.2991x2 + 71.281x + 5195.3 0.9964 119.2 9442.2
南粳9108 NJ9108 y = -0.2299x2 + 44.311x + 7395.3 0.9024 96.4 9530.4
2018 苏香粳3号 SXJ3 y = -0.3999x2 + 104.14x + 1647.9 0.9754 130.2 8427.8
南粳5055 NJ5055 y = -0.3579x2 + 84.657x + 4579.6 0.9559 118.3 9585.8
南粳9108 NJ9108 y = -0.2119x2 + 38.158x + 7839.2 0.9382 90.0 9557.0

图2

播种量对优质食味直播水稻品种加工品质和外观品质的影响 SXJ3等品种名称缩写同图1。红色、绿色和蓝色不同字母分别表示苏香粳3号、南粳5055和南粳9108播种量处理间差异达0.05显著水平。*和**分别表示在0.05和0.01水平上显著。"

图3

播种量对优质食味直播水稻品种蒸煮食味品质、蛋白质含量和食味值的影响 品种名称缩写同图1。红色、绿色和蓝色不同字母分别表示苏香粳3号、南粳5055和南粳9108播种量处理间差异达0.05显著水平。*和**分别表示在0.05和0.01水平上显著。"

图4

播种量对优质食味直播水稻品种米粉崩解值与消解值的影响 品种名称缩写同图1。红色、绿色和蓝色不同字母分别表示苏香粳3号、南粳5055和南粳9108播种量处理间差异达0.05显著水平。*和**分别表示在0.05和0.01水平上显著。"

表3

穗肥施氮量对优质食味直播水稻品种产量及其构成因素的影响"

品种
Cultivar
施氮量
N rate
(kg hm-2)
穗数
Panicles No.
(×104 hm-2)
每穗粒数Spikelets per panicle 结实率
Filled grain rate
(%)
千粒重
1000-grain weight
(g)
产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
南粳5055 NJ5055 0 361.9 a 103.3 b 87.2 a 25.7 a 8378.0 b
60 368.9 a 113.0 ab 86.5 a 25.5 a 9194.8 a
120 370.1 a 117.2 a 86.2 a 25.4 a 9497.0 a
南粳9108 NJ9108 0 343.2 b 107.2 b 88.0 a 26.5 a 8579.7 b
60 351.3 ab 121.3 ab 87.4 a 26.4 ab 9832.3 a
120 352.5 a 126.1 a 86.1 a 26.0 ab 9950.6 a

表4

穗肥施氮量对优质食味直播水稻主要品质指标的影响"

品种
Cultivar
施氮量
N rate
(kg hm-2)
整精米率
Head rice
(%)
垩白粒率
Chalky kernel
(%)
垩白度
Chalkiness
(%)
胶稠度
Gel consistency
(mm)
直链淀粉含量
Amylose content
(%)
蛋白质含量
Protein content
(%)
食味值
Taste value
南粳5055 NJ5055 0 65.1 b 10.1 b 2.75 c 93.7 a 12.5 a 7.16 b 85.3 a
60 68.9 a 10.6 ab 2.91 b 91.5 ab 12.4 a 7.52 ab 83.6 a
120 70.4 a 10.8 a 3.17 a 88.2 b 12.3 a 7.81 a 79.7 b
南粳9108 NJ9108 0 65.2 b 10.4 b 3.12 c 93.6 a 13.9 a 7.98 b 82.3 a
60 68.9 a 10.8 ab 3.33 b 91.9 ab 12.9 b 8.21 ab 81.7 a
120 70.9 a 11.0 a 3.65 a 88.1 b 12.5 b 8.40 a 75.7 b
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