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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 764-776.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84014

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

减氮追施和增密对全膜覆盖垄上微沟马铃薯水分利用及生长的影响

于显枫1,张绪成1,*(),方彦杰1,陈光荣1,王红丽1,侯慧芝1,马一凡1,赵记军2   

  1. 1甘肃省农业科学院旱地农业研究所 / 甘肃省旱作区水资源高效利用重点实验室, 甘肃兰州730070
    2甘肃省农业生态环境保护管理站, 甘肃兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-30 接受日期:2018-12-24 出版日期:2019-05-12 发布日期:2019-01-07
  • 通讯作者: 张绪成 E-mail:gszhangxuch@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B04);甘肃省农业科学院农业科技创新专项(2017GAAS27);甘肃省重点研发计划项目(18YF1WA092)

Effects of top dressing with reduced nitrogen fertilizer and density enhancement on water use efficiency and growth of potatoes planted in mini-ditch on ridges with plastic mulching

Xian-Feng YU1,Xu-Cheng ZHANG1,*(),Yan-Jie FANG1,Guang-Rong CHEN1,Hong-Li WANG1,Hui-Zhi HOU1,Yi-Fan MA1,Ji-Jun ZHAO2   

  1. 1 Institute of Dryland Farming, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of High Water Utilization on Dryland of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
    2 Gansu Agriculture Environment Protection Station, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
  • Received:2018-01-30 Accepted:2018-12-24 Online:2019-05-12 Published:2019-01-07
  • Contact: Xu-Cheng ZHANG E-mail:gszhangxuch@163.com
  • Supported by:
    The study was supported by the National Science and Technology Research Projects of China(2015BAD22B04);the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Plan of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences(2017GAAS27);the Key R&D Projects in Gansu Province(18YF1WA092)

摘要:

优化垄沟配置方式、种植密度和施肥方式可显著提高降水利用效率、作物产量和水分利用效率。以西北半干旱区全膜覆盖垄上微沟种植马铃薯, 设置49,500株 hm -2(低密度)和64,500株 hm -2(高密度) 2个播种密度, 传统施肥(PM)、减量追施(PMN)、有机肥替代(PMO) 3个施肥模式, 随机区组设计。研究施肥和密度对马铃薯不同生育期土壤温度、阶段耗水量、产量及水分利用效率的影响。结果表明, 增密对土壤温度、叶绿素相对含量(SPAD)和产量无显著影响, 但降低了花前耗水量、单株地上生物量和水分利用效率, 提高了叶面积指数(LAI)和花后耗水量。在块茎膨大期, 高密度处理的LAI较低密度增加了3.64%~15.01%; 花后耗水量在2015—2016年较低密度增加了6.50%~ 48.52%。与PM 处理相比, PMN和PMO均能提高花前土壤温度、现蕾期-块茎膨大期的马铃薯叶片SPAD值和LAI, 其中LAI在花期增加了10.42%~44.26%。PMN和PMO降低了花前耗水量, 增加花后耗水量和地上生物量, 在块茎膨大期地上生物量较PM增加了6.95%~49.85%。PMN能提高低密度马铃薯的块茎产量和水分利用效率(WUE), 2015—2017年产量较PM和PMO分别提高了9.96%~20.87%和13.64%~17.61%, 水分利用效率提高了5.46%~20.81%和13.25%~45.24%。因此, 增加密度对产量和水分利用效率无显著影响, 但化肥减量追施或有机肥替代均可显著促进马铃薯花后耗水和提高LAI, 使马铃薯块茎产量和WUE显著增加, 是西北黄土高原半干旱区增产增效的养分管理模式。

关键词: 减氮追施, 增密, 全膜覆盖垄上微沟, 马铃薯, 产量, 水分利用效率

Abstract:

The optimization of ridge-furrow construction, plant density and fertilizer application are three promising ways to increase rainwater use efficiency, crop yield and water use efficiency. A long-term field experiment was carried out in semi-arid area of northwestern China from 2015 to 2017, using potatoes planted in mini-ditch on ridges with plastic mulching, to explore the effects of fertilizer application and plant density on soil temperature, water consumption at different growth stages, yield and water use efficiency. Two plant densities (low density of 49,500 plants ha -1, and high density of 64,500 plants ha -1) and three fertilization methods (traditional fertilizer application, PM; reduced chemical fertilizer dressing, PMN; and organic fertilizer substitution, PMO) were set up as treatments, using randomized block design with three replications. The high density did not affect soil temperature, SPAD values and yield significantly, but lowered water consumption in pre-flowering stage, above-ground biomass per plant, and water use efficiency. However, LAI and water consumption were improved in post-flowering stage. Compared with low density treatments, LAI in high density increased by 3.64%-15.01%, and water consumption in tuber bulking period increased by 6.50%-48.52%. Both PMN and PMO increased soil temperature in pre-flowering stage, potato foliar SPAD and LAI from squaring to tuber bulking stage, compared with PM. For example, LAI increased by 10.42%-44.26% at flowering stage. PMN and PMO decreased water consumption during pre-flowering period, but increased it during post-flowering period, resulting in a 6.95%-49.85% increment in aboveground biomass at bulking stage. On average, PMN increased potato tuber yield and WUE under low density by 9.96%-20.87% and 13.64%-17.61%, 5.46%-20.81% and 13.25%-45.24%, respectively, compared with PM and PMO. Consequently, the increment of plant density did not affect potato tuber yield and WUE. However, PMN and PMO promoted potato water utilization in post-flowering period and increased LAI, resulting in significant increment of potato tuber yield and WUE, showing an efficient way for fertilization management of potato in semiarid loess plateau of northwestern China.

Key words: reduced chemical nitrogen fertilizer dressing, density enhancement, mini-ditch planting on ridges with plastic mulching, potato, yield, water use efficiency

图1

马铃薯全膜覆盖垄上微沟种植技术示意图"

表1

试验设置"

肥料
Fertilizer rate
代码
Code
密度
Density
(plant hm-2)
肥料种类及用量
Fertilizer type and dosage
肥料总用量
Total fertilizer quantity
传统施肥
Traditional fertilizer
传统施肥低密度
PML
49500 有机肥15000 kg hm-2; 化肥纯N: 180 kg hm-2, P2O5: 105 kg hm-2, 全部基施。
Organic manure 15000 kg hm-2; N: 180 kg hm-2, P2O5: 105 kg hm-2, applied before sowing.
N: 255 kg hm-2, P2O5: 157.5 kg hm-2, K2O: 60 kg hm-2
传统施肥高密度
PMH
64500
减量追施
Reduced chemical fertilizer dressing
减量追施低密度
PMNL
49500 有机肥15000 kg hm-2; 化肥纯N: 135 kg hm-2, P2O5: 73.5 kg hm-2, K2O: 30 kg hm-2。基:追=6:4, 花期追肥。
Organic manure 15000 kg hm-2; N: 135 kg hm-2, P2O5: 73.5 kg hm-2, the ratio between base and dressing fertilizer was 6:4, flowering fertilizer.
N: 210 kg hm-2, P2O5: 126 kg hm-2, K2O: 90 kg hm-2
减量追施高密度
PMNH
64500
有机肥替代
Organic manure substitution
有机肥替代低密度
PMOL
49500 有机肥30000 kg hm-2; 化肥纯N: 90 kg hm-2, P2O5: 52.5 kg hm-2, K2O: 22.5 kg hm-2。基:追=6:4, 花期追肥。
Organic manure 30000 kg hm-2; N: 90 kg hm-2, P2O5: 52.5 kg hm-2, K2O: 22.5 kg hm-2, the ratio between base and dressing fertilizer was 6:4, flowering fertilizer.
N: 240 kg hm-2, P2O5: 157.5 kg hm-2, K2O: 142.5 kg hm-2
有机肥替代高密度
PMOH
64500

图2

2015-2017年马铃薯生育期降水分布和平均气温变化"

表2

施肥方式和播种密度对土壤温度的影响"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
苗期
Seedling
现蕾期
Squaring
花期
Blooming
块茎膨大期Bulking 淀粉积累期Accumulating 收获期Maturing
2015 传统施肥低密度PML 15.5 ab 19.6 b 19.9 a 18.2 a 22.5 a 15.8 ab
减量追施低密度PMNL 15.8 a 20.5 ab 20.7 a 19.1 a 21.7 a 15.4 b
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 15.5 ab 20.4 ab 20.5 a 18.5 a 21.8 a 16.5 ab
传统施肥高密度PMH 15.0 c 19.6 b 19.9 a 18.8 a 22.2 a 16.7 ab
减量追施高密度PMNH 15.6 a 21.0 a 20.3 a 18.6 a 22.9 a 17.2 a
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 15.1 bc 19.9 b 20.1 a 18.4 a 20.9 a 16.0 ab
年份
Year
处理
Treatment
苗期
Seedling
现蕾期
Squaring
花期
Blooming
块茎膨大期Bulking 淀粉积累期Accumulating 收获期Maturing
2016 传统施肥低密度PML 19.8 c 23.5 c 21.6 d 25.0 e 24.1 c 13.2 ab
减量追施低密度PMNL 20.9 d 23.0 d 22.4 cd 26.5 c 24.8 b 12.4 b
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 21.4 b 24.1 b 23.3 b 28.0 a 25.9 a 13.7 a
传统施肥高密度PMH 22.1 a 25.7 a 24.9 a 27.5 b 25.7 a 13.8 a
减量追施高密度PMNH 20.2 b 24.1 b 22.6 bc 25.8 d 24.6 b 12.7 b
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 20.9 b 24.1 b 22.4 cd 25.9 d 24.6 b 13.7 a
2017 传统施肥低密度PML 20.1 c 21.3 a 25.2 ab 25.3 a 23.0 a 17.0 a
减量追施低密度PMNL 20.8 abc 22.6 a 26.0 a 25.6 a 25.0 a 17.5 a
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 21.2 ab 22.0 a 26.0 a 25.7 a 24.0 a 17.8 a
传统施肥高密度PMH 20.3 abc 22.5 a 25.4 ab 25.3 a 23.8 a 17.4 a
减量追施高密度PMNH 21.6 a 23.0 a 25.6 ab 25.4 a 23.6 a 17.2 a
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 20.7 bc 21.8 a 24.3 b 24.1 a 22.9 a 17.5 a

表3

施肥方式和播种密度对叶片SPAD的影响"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
苗期
Seedling
现蕾期
Squaring
花期
Blooming
块茎膨大期
Bulking
淀粉积累期
Accumulating
2015 传统施肥低密度PML 38.4 a 45.2 a 72.0 b 78.1 c 52.6 a
减量追施低密度PMNL 34.6 a 42.6 a 57.6 c 85.9 b 50.2 a
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 32.2 a 45.4 a 86.2 a 96.3 a 46.2 a
传统施肥高密度PMH 35.6 a 40.4 a 77.1 b 76.7 c 51.5 a
减量追施高密度PMNH 34.2 a 42.4 a 87.0 a 72.6 c 50.8 a
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 33.5 a 41.0 a 87.9 a 85.0 b 52.1 a
2016 传统施肥低密度PML 51.0 a 75.0 ab 52.0 a 55.2 a 57.3 a
减量追施低密度PMNL 50.6 a 74.5 ab 51.4 a 54.1 a 54.6 a
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 49.2 a 79.7 ab 52.3 a 55.3 a 54.9 a
传统施肥高密度PMH 47.6 a 69.4 b 51.2 a 55.1 a 58.4 a
减量追施高密度PMNH 51.2 a 85.9 a 50.9 a 55.6 a 56.4 a
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 48.8 a 85.9 a 52.5 a 55.3 a 58.4 a
2017 传统施肥低密度PML 53.9 a 54.6 a 56.3 a 55.9 a 52.7 a
减量追施低密度PMNL 54.5 a 56.0 a 53.5 a 57.9 a 54.2 a
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 54.7 a 54.8 a 57.6 a 57.5 a 54.2 a
传统施肥高密度PMH 53.8 a 55.6 a 55.1 a 59.4 a 51.9 a
减量追施高密度PMNH 56.5 a 53.7 a 55.1 a 54.2 a 50.2 a
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 56.1 a 54.4 a 54.1 a 60.0 a 50.2 a

表4

施肥方式和播种密度对马铃薯LAI的影响"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
现蕾期
Squaring
花期
Blooming
块茎膨大期
Bulking
淀粉积累期
Accumulating
2015 传统施肥低密度PML 3.15 c 3.86 c 4.39 b 3.29 c
减量追施低密度PMNL 4.03 ab 4.60 b 5.03 ab 4.53 ab
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 3.58 bc 4.64 b 4.67 b 4.30 b
传统施肥高密度PMH 3.60 bc 3.93 c 4.88 ab 3.58 c
减量追施高密度PMNH 4.30 a 5.64 a 5.79 a 4.79 a
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 3.92 ab 4.75 b 5.26 ab 4.26 b
2016 传统施肥低密度PML 0.80 d 1.20 b 3.28 a 2.45 b
减量追施低密度PMNL 0.91 d 1.33 b 3.54 a 2.79 ab
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 1.13 c 1.52 b 3.84 a 2.49 b
传统施肥高密度PMH 1.43 b 1.67 b 3.35 a 2.09 b
减量追施高密度PMNH 1.77 a 2.32 a 3.70 a 2.36 b
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 1.88 a 2.24 a 3.83 a 3.41 a
2017 传统施肥低密度PML 1.61 d 2.44 c 4.28 a 3.45 b
减量追施低密度PMNL 1.81 c 3.33 b 4.54 a 3.84 ab
有机肥替代低密度PMOL 2.13 b 3.52 ab 4.59 a 3.49 b
传统施肥高密度PMH 1.93 c 2.37 c 4.35 a 3.19 b
减量追施高密度PMNH 2.82 a 3.32 b 4.70 a 3.36 b
有机肥替代高密度PMOH 2.88 a 3.69 a 4.83 a 4.41 a

图3

施肥模式和播种密度对干物质积累量的影响 PM: 传统施肥; PMN: 减量追施; PMO: 有机肥替代。"

表5

年份、密度和施肥对耗水量的方差分析"

变异来源
Source of variation
平方和
Sum of squares
自由度
df
均方
Mean square
F
F-value
P
P-value
年份Year (A) 10334.39 2 5167.20 84.4341 0.0001
密度Density (B) 494.95 1 494.95 8.0878 0.0075
施肥Fertilization (C) 6078.17 2 2039.08 49.6599 0.0001
A×B 299.21 2 149.60 2.4445 0.1019
A×C 12043.23 4 3010.81 49.1978 0.0001
B×C 2245.68 2 1122.84 18.3477 0.0001
A×B×C 2398.56 4 599.65 9.7984 0.0001

图4

施肥方式和播种密度对阶段耗水量的影响 PML: 传统施肥低密度; PMNL: 减量追施低密度; PMOL: 有机肥替代低密度; PMH: 传统施肥高密度; PMNH减量追施高密度; PMOH:有机肥替代高密度。"

表6

施肥方式和播种密度对总耗水量的影响"

年份
Year
传统施肥低密度PML 减量追施低密度PMNL 有机肥替代低密度PMOL 传统施肥高密度PMH 减量追施高密度PMNH 有机肥替代高密度PMOH
2015 289.7 b 310.6 ab 304.5 ab 311.1 ab 320.2 a 283.0 b
2016 332.7 abc 329.7 bc 348.7 ab 318.7 c 344.3 ab 351.1 a
2017 284.9 e 284.9 e 368.2 a 322.4 c 303.4 d 349.7 b

表7

年份、密度和施肥对产量及WUE的方差分析"

项目
Item
变异来源
Source of variation
自由度
df
平方和
Sum of squares
均方
Mean square
F
F-value
P
P-value
产量 年份Year (A) 2 1716451184 858225592 235.0364 0.0001
Yield 密度Density (B) 1 10842711 10842711 2.9694 0.0939
施肥Fertilization (C) 2 51563415 25781707 7.0607 0.0027
A×B 2 214486100 107243050 29.3699 0.0001
A×C 4 29927497 7481874 2.0490 0.1095
B×C 2 18801364 9400682 2.5745 0.0910
A×B×C 4 221833261 8703072 2.3835 0.0707
水分利用效率 年份Year (A) 2 23650 11825 576.1169 0.0001
WUE 密度Density (B) 1 209 209 10.1753 0.0031
施肥Fertilization (C) 2 664 332 16.1653 0.00001
A×B 2 1844 922 44.9266 0.0001
A×C 4 284 71 3.4612 0.0178
B×C 2 576 288 14.0378 0.00004
A×B×C 4 409 102 4.9848 0.0029

图5

施肥方式和播种密度对产量和水分利用效率的影响 PM: 传统施肥; PMN: 减量追施; PMO: 有机肥替代。"

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