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Acta Agron Sin ›› 2009, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (10): 1778-1790.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01778


Phylogenetic Relationship of Ramie and Its Wild Relatives Based on Cytogenetics and DNA Sequences

LIAO Liang1,2,LI Tong-Jian2,LIU Zhong-Lai2,DENG Hui-Sheng2,XU Ling-Ling2,*,PAN Qi-Hui3,LAI Zhan-Jun3,SHI Qing-Hua1*   

  1. 1College of Agronomy,Jiangxi Agricultural University,Nanchang 330045,China;2College of Life Sciences,Jiujiang University,Jiujiang 332000,China;3Jiangxi Institute of Bast Fiber Crops,Yichun 336000,China
  • Received:2009-02-18 Revised:2009-06-08 Online:2009-10-12 Published:2009-08-07
  • Contact: SHI Qing-Hua,E-mail: shiqh@public.nc.jx.cn;XU Ling-Ling,E-mail: LingL239@163.com


There are 31 species and 12 varieties of Boehmeria Jacq. in China. Boehmeria nivea is an important fiber crop in China and even in East Asia, which has been cultivated for about 4700 years. Because of the dispute in systematic relationship of different sections of Boehmeria among different scholarsthe utilization or protection of B. nivea and its wild resources are restricted. In this paper, the karyomorphology of interphase nuclei and chromosome numbers were investigated in 19 species and 5 varieties, while the sequences of nuclearITS and chloroplast trnL-F were analyzed in 18 species and 9 varieties to explore the relationship between B. nivea and its wild relatives, to speculate how and where B. nivea originated and to effectively utilize plant resources of wild ramie. The cytological observation showed that the interphase karyomorphology of 24 taxa of Boehmeria should belong to pro-chromosome type and diffuse type according to the classification system of Tanaka, in which the interphase nuclei of Sect. Tilocnide and Sect. Boehmeria were pro-chromosome type and those of Sect. Zollingeriana, Sect. Phyllostachys and Sect. Duretia were pro-chromosome type and diffuse type. Cytogenetics examinatation of B. nivea and its 23 wild relatives (chromosome numbers of 15 taxa were reported in this paper at  the first time) showed that 19 taxa were diploid (2n=28), while three taxa in Sect. Duretia, were triploid (2n=42), one was tetraploid (2n=56) and one was pentaploid (2n=70). Analyses based on ITS and trnL-F sequences indicated that Boehmeria could be divided into three basic branches, A (including A1 and A2 sub-branch), B (including B1 and B2 sub-branch) and C. Different individuals or clones of B. clidemioides var. diffusa were gathered into different clades, indicating the hybridization and reticulate evolution among species in Boehmeria, andintrogressionbetween B. nivea and B. clidemioides var. diffusa. The wild core species resources of ramie should include both B. nivea and its three varieties and B. malabarica var. leioclada, B. clidemioides var. diffusa, which all should be intensively protected. It was inferred from the results two evolution routes of Boehmeria were: (1) pro-chromosome evolution line: A2 originated from A1, that is, Sect. Tilocnide from Sect. Boehmeria, and (2) diffuse evolution line: C originated from B, the order of origination is Sect. Boehmeria→Sect. Zollingeriana→Sect. Phyllostachys→Sect. Duretia. These two evolution routes may both originated from the same ancestor. It was implied based on the morphological traits of interphase nucleus and molecular experiment that the relationship of Sect. Zollongerie, Sect. Phyllostachys and Sect. Duretia was close, and the systematic relationship of these three sections based on morphological traits was not supported by the experimented evidences in cytology and molecular phylogeny in this study.

Key words: Boehmeria, phylogenetic relationship, Interphase nucleus, Chromosome numbers, ITS, trnL-F

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