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Table of Content

    12 February 2009, Volume 35 Issue 2
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Inheritance of Elite Alleles of Yield and Quality Traits in the Pedigrees of Major cultivar Families Released in Huanghuai Valleys and Southern China
      ZHANG Jun;ZHAO Tuan-Jie;GAI Jun-YI
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  191-202.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00191
      Abstract ( 2137 )   PDF (1176KB) ( 1293 )   Save
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      It is commonly understand that molecular markers have provided an opportunity for plant breeders to trace genetic relationship precisely among released cultivars, while it can be done only roughly through pedigree analysis. In the present study, 163 released soybean cultivars of the five major family pedigrees in Huanghuai Valleys and Southern China, with 58-161, Xudou 1, Qihuang 1, Nannong 493-1, and Nannong 1138-2 as their respective pedigree ancestor, were analyzed for transition of elite alleles of yield and quality traits in each family pedigree based on the association analysis between 85 SSR loci and agronomic traits in 190 released cultivars in the same region. Two best alleles of each of the nine, three, two and four major loci, explaining 91%, 36%, 13%, and 31% of total phenotypic variation of the four traits, respectively, were traced for their transition in the five cultivar pedigrees. It was found that each pedigree ancestor had its own elite alleles which transited to its progenies, but some of them might be lost during the process. The five family pedigrees tended to share all the elite alleles but with different frequency distributions due to diverse parental materials used in the pedigrees. The cultivars in the pedigrees had different number of elite alleles for yield, where the highest elite allele number contained in a cultivar was seven but not the full of 9 and the average was only 2.33, indicating great yield potential in recombination and accumulation of elite alleles for future breeding. Under the experiment conditions, the average yield of high-yielding cultivars was 2.36 times of that of low-yielding cultivars while the average elite allele number of the former was 4.17 times of that of the latter, but the composition of elite alleles among the high-yielding cultivars was quite different. On the other hand, unusual cases of some cultivars with high yield but less elite alleles and some with low yield but more elite alleles were also observed. It is suggested for breeders to conserve carefully the old cultivars for future breeding since they might have some specific elite alleles in their genome.
      Effect of HMW and LMW Glutenin Subunits on Processing Quality in Common Wheat
      LEI Zhen-Sheng,LIU Li,WANG Mei-Fang,YAN Jun,YANG Pan,ZHANG Yan,HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  203-210.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00203
      Abstract ( 2287 )   PDF (454KB) ( 1518 )   Save
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      Chinese wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered to have acceptable protein content, but weak gluten properties, and is thus of inferior quality for mechanized production of pan bread and noodles in China. Therefore, improvement of gluten quality including strength and extensibility has become a major breeding objective. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determinating the gluten quality in common wheat. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of allelic variation in HMW-GS and LMW-GS especially in subunit 14+15 and Glu-D3 locus on quality traits with two independent trials using 242 and 91 lines of progenies from the cross between PH 82-2 (Glutenin composition of 1, 14+15, 2+12, and Glu-A3d, Glu-B3d, Glu-D3c)and Neixiang 188 (Glutenin composition of 1, 7+9, 5+10, and Glu-A3a, Glu-B3j, Glu-D3b), respectively. The results showed that allelic variation had slight contribution to kernel protein content. Glu-D1 locus took a primary role in processing quality, Glu-D3 locus had slight contribution to them. The effect of locus was 14+15<7+9 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D3c>Glu-D3b at Glu-D3. 1B/1R translocation lines showed more desirable quality characteristics in peak time, right of peak slope, and peak integral than normal lines.

      Establishment of Molecular ID in Soybean Varieties in Heilongjiang
      GAO Yun-Lai,ZHU Rong-Sheng,LIU Chun-Yan,LI Wen-Fu,JIANG Hong-Wei,LI Can-Dong,YAO Bing-Chen,HU Guo-Hua,CHEN Qing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  211-218.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00211
      Abstract ( 2112 )   PDF (584KB) ( 2065 )   Save
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      A total of 1 300 cultivars have been bred in China from 1923 to 2005. To well evaluate and use the cultivars, it is necessary to identify scientifically and accurately them by DNA molecular markers due to traditional identification methods can no longer meet requirements. In the paper, 83 cultivars developed by 13 breeding units from six temperature summation zone in Heilongjiang were investigated, 157 polymorphic alleles were detected with 43 SSR primers covering 19 linkage groups of soybean genetic map, for each primer, 2 to 7 allele variations were detected in all cultivars, and 3.65 on average. According to fragment size of allele variation, the data numeralized from the PAGE bands were analyzed by the software ID Analysis 1.0. Nine primers (Satt100, Sat_218, Satt514, Satt551, Satt380, Satt193, Satt191, Satt442, and Sat_084) could be used to identify all 83 soybean cultivars. The PAGE pattern of each cultivar amplified with the 9 primers could be used as a molecular ID of the cultivars. A set of molecular ID were established for 83 soybean cultivars in Heilongjiang.

      Screening and Application of SSR Molecular Markers for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Chinese Adzuki Bean germplasm Resources
      XU Ning,CHENG Xu-Zhen,WANG Li-Xia,WANG Su-Hua,LIU Chang-You,SUN Lei,MEI Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  219-227.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00219
      Abstract ( 1985 )   PDF (427KB) ( 1399 )   Save
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      Adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd) Ohwi & Ohashi] is a major food legume in China, with special functions in people’ life and agricultural production. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of adzuki bean germplasm and provide information for gene mining and plant breeding, a total of 375 accessions of adzuki bean core collection were analyzed with 13 pairs of microsatellite (SSR) markers screened from SSR primers of adzuki bean and its relatives. A wide genetic variation was observed in all collections. Four to nineteen alleles per SSR primer pair were detected with an average of 10.23 alleles. The mean of polymorphism information content (PIC) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (P) for the collections in China were 0.561 and 93.523%, respectively. The dendrogram by UPGMA cluster analysis among populations showed that there were correlations between the groups clustered and their putative geographic origins, and the collections from northeast had a closer genetic relationship with that from middle-south region of China. SSR data showed that PIC in Hubei, Shannxi, and Anhui provinces was the first three high, which almost located in the central part of the three dimensions of PCO (principal coordinate analysis). We concluded that Hubei, Shannxi, and Anhui provinces were the origin or diversity center of cultivated adzuki bean in China. The results could be available for collection, conservation, and utilization of adzuki bean germplasm resources.

      Genetic Structure and Diversity of Soybean Germplasm in Heilongjiang in China
      QIN Jun,LI Ying-Hui,LIU Zhang-Xiong,LUAN Wei-Jiang,YAN Zhe,GUAN Rong-Xia,ZHANG Meng-Chen,CHANG Ru-Zhen,LI Guang-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  228-238.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00228
      Abstract ( 2224 )   PDF (499KB) ( 1652 )   Save
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      Heilongjiang province is the main production area for soybean (Glycine max) in China, having the high genetic diversity of cultivated soybean. It is useful for breeding and production in the region to develop and create new germplasm. The aim of this study was to reveal genetic structure and genetic diversity of spring seeding soybean germplasm from Heilongjiang, and provide a reliable strategy in soybean breeding program. A total of 140 accessions of soybean cultivars including 78 landraces and 62 developed cultivars were investigated using 60 microsatellite(simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers and 22 phenotypic traits. All accessions were grouped into two clusters based on SSR with UPGMA and Model-base. The results showed that genetic diversity of clusterII was higher than that of clusterI, Nei’s genetic distance was 0.2427 between two clusters. PCO (principlal co-ordinate) analysis revealed that two clusters distributed in different regions, which was closely related to the geographic origin and breeding years. All accessions were also divided into two groups (developed cultivars and landraces) based on variety types, genetic diversity of the landraces was higher than that of developed cultivars. Nei’s genetic distance was 0.1131 between two groups. The PCO figure based on the phenotypic genetic similarity index matrix clustered 140 cultivars into developed cultivars group and landrace group. The first principal component reflected main seed coat color; the second one mainly depended on growth period and maturity data. There were obvious differences on the three principal components, which were composed of six phenotypic characters, between developed group and landraces group, which were not independent genetic clusters. The results indicated that there was abundant genetic diversity in Heilongjiang spring sown soybeans. Thus the optimal strategy combined SSR data and agronomic traits is necessary for genetic diversity analysis of soybean germplasm.
      Inclusive Composite Interval Mapping of Quantitative Trait Genes
      WANG Jian-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  239-245.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00239
      Abstract ( 3488 )   PDF (344KB) ( 2549 )   Save
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      Rapid increase in the availability of fine-scale genetic marker maps has led to the intensive use of QTL mapping in the genetic study of quantitative traits. Composite interval mapping (CIM) is one of the most commonly used methods for QTL mapping with populations derived from biparental crosses. However, the algorithm used in CIM cannot completely ensure that the effect of QTL at current testing interval is not absorbed by the background marker variables, and may result in biased estimation of QTL effect. We proposed a statistical method for QTL mapping, which was called inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). Two steps were included in ICIM. In the first step, stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant regression variables. In the second step, a one-dimensional scanning or interval mapping was conducted for detecting additive (and dominance) QTL and a two-dimensional scanning was conducted for detecting digenic epistasis. ICIM provides intuitive statistics for testing additive, dominance and epistasis, and can be used for most experimental populations derived from two inbred parental lines. The EM algorithm used in ICIM has a fast convergence speed and is therefore less computing intensive. ICIM retains all advantages of CIM over interval mapping, and avoids the possible increase of sampling variance and the complicated background marker selection process in CIM. A doubled haploid (DH) population in barley was used to demonstrate the application of ICIM in mapping additive QTL and additive by additive interacting QTL.

      Characterization and Application of EST-SSRs in Peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.)
      LIANG Xuan-Qiang,HONG Yan-Bin,CHEN Xiao-Ping,LIU Hai-Yan,ZHOU Gui-Yuan,LI Shao-Xiong,WEN Shi-Jie
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  246-254.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00246
      Abstract ( 1774 )   PDF (469KB) ( 1544 )   Save
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      Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China. Although there is a great difference in growth habit, growth stage, and agronomic traits for peanuts, there is little polymorphism on the molecular level of RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. With development of peanut EST, a vast amount of available EST sequence has been documented. The objective of this study was to investigate distribution characteristics of EST-SSRs. Developed with a total of 20 160 EST from cDNA library of two peanut cultivars, There were 651 SSR-containing EST identified, on average, one SSR had 6.8 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motif (62.8%) as the most abundant motif types followed by di- (33.6%), tetra- (1.9%), hexa- (0.8%) and penta-nucleotide (0.8%). The top six motif types with high frequency included AG/TC (25.8%), AAG/TTC (19.1%), AAT/TTA (10.1%), ACC/TGG (7.4%), ACT/TGA (7.0%) and AT/TA (6.1%). Based on the 651 SSR-EST, a total of 233 primer pairs were successfully designed and a subset (100 pairs) were synthesized to test the amplification and polymorphism in 22 peanut cultivars, and to assess the transferability among 16 different wild species. The results showed that 86 primer pairs were amplified effectively in peanut cultivars, 10 primer pairs of which exhibited polymorphism with 2–3 alleles, with an average of 2.2 alleles, were detected. The cross-transferability of cultivated peanut EST-SSR markers to peanut wild species was very high, ranging from 12.5 to 100% with an average of 96%. Seventy-six markers exhibited polymorphism in wild species with 2–9 alleles, and an average of 4.06 alleles. The results indicated that peanut EST could be a resource for developing SSR. The high level of transferability to wild species also implied that EST-SSR is a potentially useful marker for genetic studies in wild species.

      QTL Mapping and Interaction Analysis for 1000-Grain Weight and Percentage of Grains with Chalkiness in Rice
      ZHOU Li-Jun,JIANG Ling,LIU Xi,CHEN Hong,CHEN Liang-Ming,LIU Shi-Jia,WAN Jian-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  255-261.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00255
      Abstract ( 2835 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1552 )   Save
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      There is a close correlation between 1000-grian weight (TGW, an important yield factor) and percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGWC, an important rice quality index). In this study, a backcross inbred lines (BIL) population derived from a cross between Koshihikari (japonica) and Kasalath (indica) was used to detect correlations and among interactions QTL, epistatic and environment on TGW and PGWC. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between TGW and PGWC in the BIL population and the correlation coefficients were 0.42 and 0.35 (P<0.001) in 2005 and 2006, respectively. A total of eleven QTLs and eight epistatic interactions for TGW were detected in 2005 and 2006; of them, five QTLs were repeatedly detected in the two years, and five QTLs and seven epistatic interactions had significantly QE interaction. A total of six QTLs and nine epistatic interactions for PGWC were detected in 2005 and 2006; of them, three QTLs and four epistatic interactions had markedly QE interaction. Three main-effect QTLs simultaneously controlling TGW and PGWC were detected, and their alleles increasing TGW and PGWC were from the same parent; one epistatic interaction had similar effects on TGW and PGWC. Some main-effect QTLs, controlling TGW but not PGWC, such as qTGW-3c, qTGW-4a,and qTGW-6b, could be used for breeding. The strategy was discussed in using QTL mapping results for the marker-assisted selection breeding of TGW and PGWC.

      Genetic Diversity Analysis for Germplasm of Erianthus rockii in China
      LIU Xin-Long,CAI Qing,BI Yan,LU Xin,MA Li,YING Xiong-Mei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  262-269.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00262
      Abstract ( 1860 )   PDF (720KB) ( 1207 )   Save
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      Erianthus rockii is the most important wild resource in sugarcane germplasm, which mainly distributes in Yunnan Province. To well utilize the germplasm in breeding program, it is necessary to understand its genetic background. In this research, 41 clones from national nursery of sugarcane germ were amplified with 10 informative AFLP primers. In total, 860 bands were detected, 629 of which were polymorphic, 36 of which were specific bands, and rate of polymorphic bands was 0.73. The results of genetic similarity coefficients, UPGMA cluster, and principal component analysis showed that 41 sugarcane clones were divided into three groups at 0.715 of genetic similarity coefficient:Yundian 07/23 was only grouped into group A and should be further identified due to its back hair on the sheath different from others, group B included three sugarcane clones from high altitude area, group C included 37 sugarcane clones, containing of 30 from southwest of Yunnan, and 7 from other region. Groups C was divided into 4 sub-groups at 0.738 of genetic similarity coefficient, and the cluster relation was obviouslyreflected the geographic distribution of the clones.Sub-group C4 was divided into 4 sub-sub-groups at 0.765 of genetic similarity coefficient. Yundian07/9/1 and Yundian99/4 in sub-sub-group C4-3 were the most similar, indicating that two clones were duplicate. Sub-sub-group C4-3 included three branches according to 0.773 of genetic similarity coefficient. Principal component analysis for all clones indicated same result obtained from genetic similarity coefficients analysis. Therefore, complex geographical ecological environment is important factor to the genetic diversity and geographical distribution of E. rockii clones.

      QTL Mapping for Grain Yield and Spike Related Traits in Common Wheat
      ZHANG Kun-Pu,XU Xian-Bin,TIAN Ji-Chun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  270-278.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00270
      Abstract ( 2491 )   PDF (346KB) ( 2384 )   Save
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      Grain yield and spike related traits are complex traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). They are often influenced by environmental factors and show a high genotype-environment interaction. Thus, determination of the number, locations, effects of these polygenes is desired for obtaining optimal genotypes in breeding practice. To detect QTLs associated with wheat yield, such as grain yield, spike length, grains pe spike, spikelets per spike, compactness, fertile spikelets per spike, thousand-grain weight, and grain diameter a set of 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between Huapei 3 and Yumai 57 were used with 305 SSR markers covering the whole wheat genome. The DH population and the parents were evaluated for grain yield and spike related traits in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons in Taian, Shandong province and in 2006 cropping season in Suzhou, Anhui province. QTL analyses were performed using the software of QTLNetwork version 2.0 based on the mixed linear model. A total of 27 additive QTLs and 13 pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for grain yield and spike related traits. Of these, eight additive QTLs had significant interactions with environments. Many of the traits shared the same QTL, which was consistent with its high phenotypic correlations and showed tight linkages or pleiotropisms. The Xwmc215–Xgdm63interval on chromosome 5D had the same direction of additive effects on grain yield, grains pr spike, spikelets per spike, compactness, and fertile spikelets per spike with high contribution, which showed pleiotropisms and could be used in marker-assisted selection. And the favorable alleles were contributed by Yumai 57. The QTLs for thousand-grain weight were located on different intervals from the QTLs for grains per spike, which was beneficial to genetic recombinant for them in wheat breeding programs.

      Effect and Action Analysis of qSB-9Tq Conferring Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight
      YIN Yue-Jun, ZUO Shi-Min**, WANG Hui, ZHANG Ya-Fang, CHEN Zong-Xiang, MA Yu-Yin, GU Shi-Liang,PAN Xue-Biao*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  279-285.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00279
      Abstract ( 2065 )   PDF (257KB) ( 1061 )   Save
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      A quantitative trait locus (QTL) contributing partial resistance to rice sheath blight (SB), named as qSB-9, has been confirmed on chromosome 9 of rice. A rice cultivar, Teqing, possesses the relatively resistant allele, qSB-9Tq, and Lemont has the relatively susceptible allele, qSB-9Le. To evaluate the resistance effect and action mode of qSB-9Tq accurately, a BC6F1 plant, from a backcross of Lemont (recurrent parent)/Teqing, with heterozygous genotype of qSB-9TqLe and similar genetic background to Lemont was screened out by using marker-assisted selection. Artificial inoculation with strong pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani line, RH-9, was conducted on the BC6F2 population and the near-isogenic lines (NILs) selected from BC6F3 and BC6F4 generation in a three-year test. Two experimental designs were adopted. One was completely randomized experiment, in which the plants with three genotypes (qSB-9TqTq, qSB-9LeLe, and qSB-9TqLe) on the locus of qSB-9 were distinguished by detecting marker genotypes flanking the qSB-9 in BC6F2 segregation population. The other was a randomized block design with 3 replicates for three NILs in BC6F3 and BC6F4 generations. Results from the two experiments all suggested that the qSB-9Tq was a dominant resistance allele in the interval between the markers of RM242 and Y92.5, and could reduce disease rating about 1.0 score under ‘0–9’ SB-disease rating system. The result of the research laid a strong foundation for the fine mapping and breeding utilization of the qSB-9Tq.

      Mapping of QTL for Embryonic Pigment Components in Brassica napus
      QU Cun-Min,FU Fu-You,LIU Lie-Zhao,WANG Jia-Feng,MAO Li-Jia,YUAN Xiao-Yan,CHEN Li,LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  286-294.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00286
      Abstract ( 1962 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1465 )   Save
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      The quality of rapeseed oil is greatly affected by embryonic pigments, but it has been little research report on the QTL of embryonic pigment components. The objective of this study was to identify QTL controlling embryonic pigment components in Brassica napus using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.The recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population selfed for 7 successive generations by single seed propagating was derived from a cross between black-seeded male parent cultivar Zhongyou 821 and yellow-seeded female parent line GH06. The population was grown at Beibei and Wanzhou in Chongqing in 2007. Four kinds of embryonic pigment components were identified by constructed genetic map. A total of 31 QTL were detected on 14 different linkage groups. Five QTL for anthocyanidin content werelocated on linkage groups 1, 5, 10, 16, and 20, respectively, explaining 6.08%11.67% of phenotypic variation; ten QTL for flavonoid content were located on linkage groups 1, 3, 6, 7, 12, 20, and 25, respectively, explaining 4.48%11.10% of phenotypic variation; eight QTL for total phenol content were located on linkage groups 1, 2, 12, 16 and 20, respectively, accounting for 5.24%10.37% of phenotypic variation; and eight QTL for melanin content were located on linkage groups 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 22, respectively, explaining 5.44%11.32% of phenotypic variation. Five major QTL explainingover 10% of phenotypic variation were found, including 2, 1, 1, and 1 for flavonoid, anthocyanidin, total phenol and melanin content (qFCB-3-2, qFCW-1-1, qACW-10-1, qTPCW-12-1, and qMCB-22-5), which accounted for 11.10%, 10.20%, 11.67%, 10.37%, and 11.32% of phenotypic variation respectively. These results suggest that the embryonic pigments are controlled by many minor-effect genes, with a pattern of quantitative trait inheritance, and the expression of the QTL is affected by environmental factors. QTL for seed coat pigments showed little overlapping with those for embryonic pigments, implying that seed coat pigments and embryonic pigments might be controlled by different genetic systems. Molecular markers closely linked with these QTLscould be applied in marker-assisted selection of embryonic pigment components in Brassica napus.
      Cloning and Function Analysis of hbltl4.2 Gene in Highland Barley(Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.)
      HE Tao,JIA Jing-Fen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  295-300.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00295
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      The response to low temperature stress in highland barley indicates that there is a potential gene bank for cold resistance, which is helpful to develop the genes associated with resistance to cold and to survey the regulation mechanism. The objective of this study was to exploit a new gene with cold resistance, to validate its function. A pair of primer was designed based on the blt14.2 gene sequence documented in GenBank, a low-temperature-responsive (LTR) gene hblt14.2 was cloned by PCR from highland barley with GenBank accession number EF514912. Its length was 470 bp, containing 249 bp ORF, 69 bp 5'untranslated region (UTR) and 152 bp 3'UTR. Nucleotide sequence of hblt14.2 gene shares 98.9% (only five base pairs difference)homology with that of blt14.2 in barley, which encoded a protein of 82 amino acids. Theprotein was a highly hydrophilic small protein with rich Gly, Ala, Leu and Val amino acids, which were similar to proteins encoded by other LTR genes. The hblt14.2 ligated with CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator was inserted into multiple clone site in plasmid CAMBIA1301 to construct plant expression vector pCAMBIA-BI-hblt, which was transformed into tobacco mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgenic plants response to low temperature were investigated. The results suggested that the hblt14.2 is related to cold resistance in highland barley.

      Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Alkaline Tolerance at Early Seedling Stage under Alkaline Stress in Japonica Rice
      QI Dong-Ling,GUO Gui-Zhen,LEE Myung-Chul,YANG Chun-Gang,ZHANG Jun-Guo,CAO Gui-Lan,ZHANG San-Yuan,SUH Seok-Cheol,ZHOU Qing-Yang,HAN Long-Zhi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  301-308.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00301
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      The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root number, root length, seedling height and their relative alkaline damage rates at early seedling stage in rice under 0.15% Na2CO3 alkaline stress were identified using a F2:3 population, which included 200 individuals and lines derived from a cross between two japonica rice cultivars Gaochan 106 and Changbai 9 with microsatellite markers. All the traits above showed a continuous distribution with 1 or 2 peaks in F3 lines under alkaline stress, which were the quantitative traits controlled by major and multiple QTLs. Twenty-six QTLs associated with root number, root length and seedling height and their relative alkaline damage rates at early seedling stage under alkaline stress were detected, and which were located on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11. These QTLs included 4 QTLs associated with root number, 5 QTLs correlated with relative alkaline damage rate for root number, 6 QTLs controlling root length, 2 QTLs for relative alkaline damage rate for root length, 5 QTLs associated with seedling height, 4 QTLs related to relative alkaline damage rate for seedling height. qRN6-1, qRN11, qRRN11-2, qRRL11-2, qSH1, qSH11-2, qRSH5, and qRSH6-2, accouonted for 29.91, 13.42, 23.86, 21.06, 15.81, 16.53, 29.89, and 34.63% of the observed phenotypic variation, respectively. While the marker flanking distance of these QTLs explained larger. The observed phenotypic variation were more than 26.3 cM, except qRN6-1 with 19.0 cM of marker flanking distance, which should be conducted more refined mapping further. Of detected QTLs, the alleles for 13 QTLs originated from the tolerant parent Changbai 9, and the alleles of other QTLs were derived from alkaline sensitive parent Gaochan 106. These gene actions showed mainly part dominance or over dominant effects.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Optimal Model for Dynamic Characteristics of Grain Weight Commonly Used in Wheat and Maize
      FU Xue-Li,ZHAO Ming*,ZHOU Bao-Yuan,CUI Guo-Mei,DING Zai-Song
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  309-316.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00309
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      Grain weight (GW) is one of important components of yield in cereal crops. Currently, there are several models on GW of cereal crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, these models are mostly applicable on a single crop.To establish a common model of GW for at least two crops with wider application under different conditions, three cultivars of winter wheat and four cultivars of summer maize were used in field experiments in four environments in 2006–2008. Each cultivar had three treatments of density. A common GW model, y= a / (1+be-cx), was developed with normalized GWand grain filling duration for the two crops. The parameters of a, b, and c were 1.0624, 52.8653, and 6.7609 (r=0.9916, P<0.01) on the basis of the experimental data, respectively. In different crops, cultivars, and densities, the GW dynamic model kept a relative stable a value, which was around 1; however, the b and c values varied in different conditions. The b value changed slightly with density, and shift from 45.3379 to 66.9306 in different cultivars; whereas, the c value had small differences among different cultivars and densities, and varied from 6.2122 to 6.8025 in winter wheat and from 7.0199 to 7.7325 in maize. The accuracy and precision of the normalized model were tested with theGWdata of winter wheat from Jiaozuo, Henan province and summer maize from Tianan, Shandong province as well as data in this study. The normalized dynamic model could make a good estimation of GW dynamics with the accuracies of 0.9870, 1.0057, and 0.9982, 1.0131, and the precision (R2) of 0.9854, 0.9918 and 0.9772, 0.9926 for winter wheat and summer maize respectively. Compared with other GWmodels established by other researches, normalized GW dynamic model could eliminate the variance of the model parameters caused by location, year, cultivar, and density. Normalized GWdynamic model can predict the increase of GW reliably and easily, if the GWmax and grain filling duration are acquired, and the characteristics of parameter b are ascertained. This model is applicable to calculate the GW of winter wheat and summer maize at early, middle, and late stages of growth under different conditions (region, years, cultivar, and density), and the error is less than 0.2797 between the measured GW and the simulated GW.

      Milling Characteristics and Distribution of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice with Various Grain shapes
      ZHOU Li-Hui,LIU Qiao-Quan,GU Ming-Hong*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  317-323.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00317
      Abstract ( 2202 )   PDF (2560KB) ( 1889 )   Save
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      Rice (Oryza sativa L.), one of the most important crops, is a very good and relatively cheap source of energy and protein. The processing quality and nutrition distribution are different among rice varieties. The objective of the present study was to explore the distribution of proteins in rice kernel and to provide some references on the processing of high-quality rice using three rice cultivars with different quality and grain shapes, including two japonica cultivars Suyunuo and Yangfujing 4901, and one indica rice Qiangluzhan11. The degree of milling (DOM, 0–25%) and milling time were carefully measured, respectively. The results showed that the hardness was increased from outer to inner bran layers, and unchanged in endosperm fractions, which was higher than that of bran layers. This non-linear relationship between milling time and DOM implied variability in hardness within different rice fractions. Furthermore, the analysis of relationship between protein content and DOM indicated that the protein was not equably distributed within the brown rice kernel. The endosperm (DOM > 9%) was identified to contain most of the rice kernel proteins (about 85% of total seed proteins) in all the three cultivars. But the protein content in the brown rice kernel decreased from outer to inner fractions, and that in core endosperm fractions was only about half of that in bran layers. In addition, SDS-PAGE analysis for total proteins in the grains with various DOM showed that the distribution of seed protein components was relatively uniform, suggesting the synchro genetic expression of seed protein components in rice grain.
      Effects of Irrigation Amount on Grain Starch Content, Starch Synthase Activity, and Water Use Efficiency in Wheat
      CHU Peng-Fei,YU Zhen-Wen,WANG Xiao-Yan,WU Tong-Hua,WANG Xi-Zhi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  324-333.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00324
      Abstract ( 2175 )   PDF (548KB) ( 1079 )   Save
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      Water deficiency is one of the main factors limiting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Grain starch, which comprises 65–70% of the dry weight in grains, is influenced by some eco-environmental factors, such as temperature and water content in soils. To study the effects of irrigation stage and amount on grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE), field experiments were carried out in Tai’an and Yanzhou, Shandong Province in 2004–2006 growing seasons with a high-yielding wheat cultivar Jimai 20. The water contents of soil layers within 0–140 cm (2004–2005) or 0–200 cm (2005–2006) were monitored under different irrigation regimes. The treatments of irrigation were at jointing and anthesis stages (W1), and at jointing, anthesis and grain filling stages (W2) with 60 mm water each time in 2004–2005 growing season as well as at jointing and anthesis stages in 2005–2006 growing season with 30 mm (deficient irrigation), 60 mm (moderate irrigation), or 90 mm (luxury irrigation) water per irrigation. No irrigation was taken as the control. The grain starch content and the relative enzyme activity were measured at every 7 d interval after anthesis.The soluble starch synthase (SSS) activity and granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) activity significantly increased at early filling stage and reduced from middle to late filling stage, and the contents of amylopectin, amylose, and starch significantly reduced at late filling stage in the control. Moderate irrigation at jointing and anthesis with 60 mm water each time was in favor of keeping high activities of SSS and GBSS from middle to late grain filling stages. The moderate irrigation had higher levels on the contents of amylopectin, amylose, and starch at late filling stage than the control. However over irrigation significantly reduced the SSS activity and significantly increased the GBSS activity at middle and late filling stages, while over irrigation significantly reduced the amylopectin content and significantly increased the amylose content at late filling stage. Moderate irrigation at jointing and anthesis with 60 mm water each time obtained the highest WUE in the both growing seasons. Over irrigation significantly increased the soil moisture content in 0–60 cm soil layers, significantly reduced the soil water consumption amount, WUE and irrigation water use efficiency, and not significantly increased grain yield.
      Accumulation of Storage Protein and Formation of Protein Body during Barley Endosperm Development
      WEI Cun-Xu,ZHANG Jun,ZHOU Wei-Dong,CHEN Yi-Fang,XU Ru-Gen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  334-340. 
      Abstract ( 1878 )   PDF (3706KB) ( 1335 )   Save
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      Storage proteins are accumulated during the development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm, and, as the source of protein and amino acids for seed germination, concentrated and packaged into protein bodies. The knowledge of the accumulation of storage protein and the formation of protein body is helpful for variety improvement in barley. In this study, using light and electron microscopy, the storage protein and protein body were observed from 6 to 28 days after heading (DAH), a period from the cellularization of endosperm to its desiccation. There were plenty of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in the endosperm cells at 8 DAH with some starch granules around the cell nucleus or along cell membrane. Storage protein granules began to appear in endosperm cell at 10 DAH. Storage protein accumulated in the lumen of ER, then detached from ER and formed protein body. Protein bodies moved into PSV during the early stage of endosperm growth and differentiation. With the development of endosperm, storage protein granules quickly increased, especially in subaleurone cells. PSV was full of protein bodies with some electron-dense materials around PSV during the middle stage of endosperm growth and differentiation. Some newly formed protein bodies were spherical and aggregated in cell matrix. Some protein bodies in PSV or in cell matrix began to aggregate and coalesce, some small protein bodies derived from ER were dispersedly distributed among starch granules during the late stage of endosperm growth and differentiation. Individual protein body was no longer visible, but a protein matrix was confined in the space between starch granules during the mature stage of endosperm development. The results showed that storage protein was initially stored in individual protein body which was derived from the ER, distributed in PSV or cell matrix, and at last changed into protein matrix during caryopsis development.
      Nrediction of Soybean Growth and Development Stages Using Artificial Neural Network and Statistical Models
      ZHANG Jiu-Quan,ZHANG Ling-Xiao,ZHANG Ming-Hua,WATSON Clarence
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  341-347.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00341
      Abstract ( 2137 )   PDF (532KB) ( 1353 )   Save
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      The prediction of soybean phenology is important in many aspects of soybean production. The study objective was to develop predictive models, using a simple and effective modeling technique, which can allow producers to predict soybean growth and development stages in their fields. The experiments were conducted at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, Mississippi (latitude: 33°25' N, longitude: 90°55' W) under irrigated conditions. The models were constructed using four-year field data (1998 to 2001), and validated with the fifth-year data (2002). Potential factors affecting stages of soybean growth and development were considered for developing the models. Affecting factors, such as weeds, insects, diseases, and drought stress, were controlled optimally to simplify the modeling procedures. In addition, stepwise regression (SR) analysis, artificial neural networks (ANN), and interpolation approaches were used to construct the models. The modeling of soybean growth and development processes was separated into two distinct periods: vegetative growth stage (V-stage) and reproductive growth stage (R-stage). The models included ten V-stages (up to V8) and eight R-stages. In the V-stage models, PD (planting date) and mean relative time-span from planting to a particular stage were the only significant parameters, whereas in R-stage models, PD and MG (maturity group) were significant. The models obtained accurate predictions when only using PD, MG, and mean relative time-span from planting to a particular stage. The ANN method provided the greatest accuracy in predicting phenological events, indicating that the ANN method can be effectively applied in crop modeling.

      Differences and Correlations in Grain Yield, N Uptake and Utilization Between Medium-Maturing Indica and Japonica Rice under Different N Fertilizer Levels
      YIN Chun-Yuan;WEI Hai-Yan;ZHANG Qing;DAI Qi-Gen;HUO Zhong-Yang;XU Ke;ZHANG Sheng-Fei;HANG Jie;MA Qun,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  348-355.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00348
      Abstract ( 2117 )   PDF (487KB) ( 1568 )   Save
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      Nitrogen (N) is a very important nutrition element in improving rice yield. Study on the relationship between N absorption and grain yield is necessary to optimize their productivity and reduce environment pollution risk. In this research, a field experiment with 10 medium-maturing medium indica rice (138–143 d) cultivars and 10 medium-maturing medium japonica rice (136–145 d) cultivars was carried out in 2006 and 2007 on the farm of Yangzhou University, Jiangsu province, China. The effects of different N levels including 0, 150, 225, and 300 kg ha-1 N on rice grain yield and the N absorption and utilization of plant at different growth stages were analyzed. Results showed that, with the increase of N application, grain yield of japonica rice increased continuously while yield of indica rice get the highest under the N level of 225 kg ha-1 and then declined under the N level of 300 kg ha-1. Grain yield of indica rice was higher than that of japonica rice under four N levels, which was resulting from the large number of panicles and 1000-grain weight in indica rice with 22.45% and 7.514% higher than those in japonica rice respectively. N accumulations of indica ricein elongation, heading and maturing stages were 24.26%, 3.14%, and 6.45% higher than those of japonica rice, respectively. And N uptake rates of indica rice from transplanting to elongation, from elongation to heading and from heading to maturing were 38.07%, 16.05%, and 23.22% higher than those of japonica rice respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that there existed significant or highly significant positive correlations between yield and indexes of N uptake and utilization, which also illustrated that the higher yield of indica rice was from the intensive N absorption of its plant.

      Endogenous Phytohormone changes in the Release of Dormant Tillering Bud in rice
      LIU Yang,WANG Qiang-Sheng,DING Yan-Feng,LIU Zheng-Hui,LI Gang-Hua,WANG Shao-Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  356-362.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00356
      Abstract ( 2331 )   PDF (326KB) ( 1494 )   Save
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      Tiller number is a major factor affecting rice grain yield. The endogenous hormone has substantial regulative effect on tillering of rice. However, little is known on the hormonal changes in releasing tillering bud. In this study, two indica rice cultivars were used with two treatments, removing panicle and retaining panicle, to investigate the pattern of hormonal changes during the period of dormant tillering bud sprouting. The result showed that the dormant tillering bud released and grew quickly after panicle removing. 1 d after removing panicle, the level of IAA in node and level of ABA in tillering bud decreased significantly, then the contents of these two hormones maintained at a constant level. The contents of Z+ZR in both node and bud increased significantly in panicle removing treatment. However, the content of IAA in the bud and the content of ABA in the node showed no significant difference between the two treatments. Further, the results showed that the ratio of hormones rather than a single hormone has the larger impact on tillering bud growth, with lower values of ABA/(Z+ZR) in bud and IAA/(Z+ZR) ratio in node showing beneficial effect whereas higher values of the two ratios demonstrating deleterious effect on tillering bud growth.

      Three Types of Grafting Techniques Available for Research of Root-Shoot Communication in Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum) Seedlings under Low-Potassium Condition
      LI Bo,WANG Chun-Xia,ZHANG Zhi-Yong,DUAN Liu-Sheng,LI Zhao-Hu,TIAN Xiao-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  363-369.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00363
      Abstract ( 1861 )   PDF (616KB) ( 1226 )   Save
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      Grafting have been widely used to limit the effects of soil and vascular diseases, to increase yield and fruit quality, to induce resistance against low and high temperatures, to enhance nutrient uptake and to study the shoot-root relationship. Up to now, the main objectives of cotton grafts are to propagate somatic regenerated plants, transgenic plants and rare germplasm materials etc., and almost not come down to the research on long-distance signaling in plant. Recently, premature senescence caused by low potassium (K) has become one of the constraints for high yield and fine quality in cotton production.Before using grafting as a tool to investigate the shoot-root communication during this course, applicable grafting methods should be developed firstly. Therefore, we established normal (one scion and one rootstock), Y-type (two scions and one rootstock) and A-type (one scion and two rootstocks) grafting techniques with cotton seedlings (before one-leaf stage) grown in hydroponic condition. The effects of K+ concentration in culture solutions, difference of scion age and rootstock age, different grafting sites and remaining cotyledons of rootstock or not on the survival rate of grafted cotton seedlings were examined. Considering either high survival rate or fast inducement of leaf senescence by low-K after grafting, the following methods were applicable for normal and Y-type grafting: the rootstocks emerged (3 d after germination) in sands without K, were transferred to one-half strength modified Hoagland solution containing 0.1 mmol L-1 K+ (moderate K deficiency) and cultured for 5 d to just appearance of the 1st true leaf; the scions were grown only in sands for 5 d after sowing with fully expanded cotyledons and grafted in cotyledon node of rootstocks with their two cotyledons remained. For A-type grafting, the applicable procedure was as followings: the scions and rootstocks were all cultured with the same procedure for normal and Y-type graftings, the scion was grafted in the part of 2–3 cm below cotyledon node of rootstock. The mean survival rates of normal, Y-type and A-type graftings were more than 95%, 85%, and 90%, respectively. These three types of cotton grafting method were not only available for the research of root-shoot communication, but also for the research of shoot-shoot and root-root signals exchange.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Cloning and Analyzing of G-protein Beta-Subunit Gene in Rhizoctonia solani Causing Soybean Sharp Eyespot
      MA Bing-Tian,QU Guang-Lin,HUANG Wen-Juan,LIN Yu-Fan,LI Shi-Gui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  370-374.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00370
      Abstract ( 2204 )   PDF (592KB) ( 1092 )   Save
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      Soybean sharp eyespotis one of the most serious diseases in world. The protein encoded by G-protein β-subunit (Guanine nucleotide binding protein beta-subunit) gene plays an important role in pathogenesis mechanism. In this paper, the G-protein β-subunit from Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris)causing soybean sharp eyespot was identified. The genome of 1 864 and 1 047 bp open reading frame (ORF) were amplified by PCR and RT-PCR. The gene included 4 introns and 5 exons. Introns ranged in size from 54 to 65 bp, and their sequences complied with the rule of “5'-gt” and “ag-3'” (GenBank Accession No. EU663628). The ORF encoded 348-amino acid polypeptide with 38.24 kD of calculated molecular weight and 6.31 of pI. There were two alpha-helixes and seven beta-sheets including four beta-strands each in its amino acid secondary structure. Two alpha-helixes in its N-terminal and seven beta-sheets formed barrel structure by non-regular curl in the tertiary structure. The deduced amino acid sequence of β-subunit was identical to that from Rhizoctonia solani (GenBank Accession No. EU267677, AY884129), Lentinula edodes (GenBank Accession No. AAT74567), Coprinopsis cinerea (GenBank Accession Number EAU92269), Ustilago maydis (GenBank Accession Number AAN33051) and Filobasidiella neoformans (GenBank Accession No. AAD03596) with 99.43%, 89.19%, 87.97%, 83.66%, 80.23%, and 79.72%, respectively. The amplified ORF was ligated into the prokaryotic fusion expression vector pGEX-4T-2. E. coli BL21 was transformed with this recombinant vector and induced by IPTG for expression. The result indicated that the protein size of ORF matched the prediction. This cloning of this gene provides the evidence for controlling hyphal growth, development and virulence in R. solani.

      Preliminary Study on the Exchange of Gaseous Nitrogenous Compounds in Phyllosphere of Oryza sativa L. at Flowering and Seed Setting Stages
      XU Sheng-Guang,CHEN Neng-Chang,WU Qi-Tang,ZHOU Jian-Min,LIU Xiao-Lin,BI De,LU Wei-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(2):  375-380.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00375
      Abstract ( 2106 )   PDF (575KB) ( 1182 )   Save
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      The exchange of gaseous nitrogenous compounds (NH3, N2O, NO, and NO2) in phyllosphere of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at the flowering and seed setting stages was measured conducted with growth chamber and greenhouse. The results showed as follows: (1) There was no significant emission of NH3 from rice leaves under the favorable illumination in growth chamber during the daytime. (2) There was the obvious uptake of NO by rice leaves; the mean exchange rate of NO in rice phyllosphere was -7.42 µg pot-1 h-1 from 15:00 pm to 18:00 pm and -4.012 µg pot-1 h-1 from 20:00 to 23:00 at night. Further more, there was the significant difference of NO content in air flux deflated from chamber between the treatments with and without rice plant (P<0.05), showing the obvious net NO absorption of rice leaves from the ambient air. As a result, the mean exchange rate of NO was significantly increased accordingly with the increasing of NO content in ambient air. (3) NO2 was also obviously uptakedby rice plant, and the net absorption rates of NO2 in rice phyllosphere were only about 5.6 % of net NO uptake in the day and about 3.9% of net NO uptake at night, respectively. (4) N2O emission from leaves was inhibited evidently by long time of appropriate illumination (10 h, 165 µmol m-2 s-1) in growth chamber with light density regulated or in greenhouse without regulated light during daytime, but, there was obvious N2O emission in rice phyllosphere under the weak light from 19:00 to 9:00 of next day without the control of light in greenhouse, with the mean exchange rate of 5.04 µg pot-1 h-1. However, with long time of appropriate light illumination, the net N2O uptake was not occurred significantly in the course of N2O exchange between rice plant and ambient air. It can be seen from the experimental results that one NO was the main one uptaked by rice leaves from air, and N2O was the main one in gaseous nitrogenous compounds, released from leaves at the rice flowering and seed setting stages.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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