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    12 January 2009, Volume 35 Issue 1
      Screening and Application of EST-based PCR Markers Specific to Individual Chromosomes of Haynaldia villosa
      CAO Ya-Ping,CAO Ai-Zhong,WANG Xiu-E,CHEN Pei-Du
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  1-10.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00001
      Abstract ( 3138 )   PDF (1168KB) ( 1659 )   Save
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      To localize, transfer and use interested genes of Haynaldia villosa, a series of wheat-H. villosa alien chromosome lines including translocation lines induced by irradiation have been developed. To identify H. villosa chromosomes or chromosome segments in these materials, 240 STS primer pairs were designed based on EST sequences of rice and wheat, and 34 of them could amplify specific polymorphic bands between common wheat cv. Chinese Spring and H. villosa. These 34 STS primer pairs were further used for screening markers specific to individual chromosomes of H. villosa using 1V to 7V disomic additional lines and their parents. The results showed that the marker CINAU32-300 could be used to trace chromosome 1V, CINAU33-280, CINAU34-510, CINAU35-1100, CINAU36-380 and CINAU37-400 to 2V, CINAU38-250 to 3V, CINAU39-950 and CINAU40-800 to 4V, CINAU41-745 and CINAU42-1050 to 5V, CINAU44-765 and CINAU45-495 to 7V. These EST-STS markers combined with the two 6V specific markers previously in our institute were used to identify the H. villosa chromosome and chromosome segments of backcrossed generations derived from pollen irradiation. A set of 1V to 7V addition lines and 18 translocation chromosomes involved in different H. villosa chromosomes were identified. Therefore, these chromosome-specific EST-STS markers could be used to detect chromosomes and chromosome segments of H. villosa in common wheat background.

      Cloning and Characterization of a MBF1 Transcriptional Coactivator Factor in Wheat Induced by Stripe Rust Pathogen
      ZHANG Yi,ZHANG Gang,DONG Yan-Ling,GUO Jun,HUANG Li-Li,KANG Zhen-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  11-17.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00011
      Abstract ( 2254 )   PDF (391KB) ( 1752 )   Save
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      To better understand wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) defense responses to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the compatible interaction cDNA library of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is constructed in our laboratory. A total of 594 genes have been identified and 399 genes have been annotated. On the basis of previous study, a new MBF1 gene was isolated from this cDNA library through in silico cloning and RT-PCR approaches. The gene was tentatively designated as TaMBF1a, whose open reading frame was 429 bp in length and encoded 142 amino acids containing a conserved MBF1 transcription activation domain. The amino acid sequence of TaMBF1a shares 92% identify with OsMBF1 in rice and 80% identify with AtMBF1a in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of TaMBF1a gene was at a similar level in leaves, stems, and roots. TaMBF1a protein is possibly a nuclear protein in wheat. The expression patterns results revealed that TaMBF1a was up-regulated in both compatible and incompatible interactions. However, the expression in incompatible interaction was higher than that in compatible interaction. The expression of TaMBF1a was also induced by salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA), suggesting that the SA and ethylene pathways might be involved in regulating the host defence responses.

      Expression Profiles of Rice Soluble Starch Synthase(SSS) Genes in Response to High Temperature Stress at Filling stage
      WEI Ke-Su,ZHANG Qi-Fang,CHEN Fang-Min,ZHONG Lian-Jin,CHEN Neng,XIE Li-Hong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  18-24.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00018
      Abstract ( 2105 )   PDF (283KB) ( 1383 )   Save
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      The expression responses of eight soluble starch synthase (SSS) isoform genes involved in starch synthesis metabolism in rice endosperms were detected by using two temperature treatments (32℃ and 22℃ for the mean daily temperature, respectively) in chambers and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR). The result showed that the expression patterns of SSS genes in rice endosperms under high temperature stress were isoform-dependent, with relatively high expression levels and the up-regulated patterns for some isoform genes (SSSIIb, SSSIIc, SSSIIIb, and SSSIVa, etc), but relatively low expression levels and the down-regulated patterns for other isoform genes (SSSIIa and SSSIIIa, etc); SSSI and SSSIIIa were highly expressed in rice endosperms during whole filling stages in two temperature treatments , implying that SSSI and SSSIIIa are two major isoform genes of SSS; the expressions of SSSIIb, SSSIIIa, and SSSIVa genes were much more sensitive to high temperature stress compared to those ofSSSI, SSIIc, SSSIIIb, and SSSIVb.
      Genetic Variation of Fatty Acid Components in Arachis Species and development of Interspecific Hybrids with High Oleic and Low Palmitic Acids
      JIANG Hui-Fang,REN Xiao-Ping,HUANG Jia-Quan,LEI Yong,LIAO Bo-Shou
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  25-32.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00025
      Abstract ( 1898 )   PDF (365KB) ( 1222 )   Save
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      Wild Arachis species are important resource for genetic improvement of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Fatty acid composition is highly crucial for peanut quality in terms of nutritional value and shelf life duration, thus increasing oleate and decreasing the saturated fatty acids such as palmitic and stearic acids has been important breeding objectives worldwide. In the present study, fatty acids of 87 wild Arachis accessions and 113 interspecific hybrid derivatives were tested. Considerable variation in fatty acid components was observed among the Arachis species involved. Among the saturated fatty acids, lowest content of palmitic acid was identified in A. rigonii. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the highest oleic acid contents were found in A. pusilla and A. duranensis and the highest linoleic acid was in A. batizocoi. Two genotypes (A. duranensis with documented number as 19-6 and A. sp. with documented number as 23-1) with oleic acid content more than 60.0% were identified. Compared to the cultivated peanut, stearic and oleic acid contents were slightly lower and linoleic acid content was slightly higher in the wild species while palmitic acid content was similar to that in A. hypogaea. The interspecific hybrid derivatives had wider ranges of most fatty acids than their parents. The variation of contents of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids among the hybrid derivatives was statistically significant. Six derivatives with oleic acid content over 64.0% and palmitic acid content less than 8.5% were identified, among which yz8913-8 had a high oleic acid content as 67.85% (30.0% higher than its parents) and a low palmitic acid as 7.60%. Based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis, new bands were observed in all these 6 derivatives.
      Cloning of Citrate Synthase Gene in Rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) and Its Expression under Stresses
      TONG Jin,ZHAN Gao-Miao, WANG Xin-Fa,LIU Gui-Hua,HUA Wei,WANG Han-Zhong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  33-40.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00033
      Abstract ( 2026 )   PDF (865KB) ( 1859 )   Save
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      As a key enzyme of some metabolisms, citrate synthase shows a sign for metabolism. In order to investigate the function of citrate synthase gene, the cDNA encoding citrate synthase was cloned from rapeseed leaf by RT-PCR. It was 1 659 bp long and encoded a protein with 476 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence had a mitochondrial targeting signal in N-terminal, which was very similar to the citrate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana (96.0%). Alignment analysis showed that citrate synthase gene had high homology in plants. Under different stresses, we tested the expression of citrate synthase gene in rapeseed leaf by using semi-quantitative PCR. The expression of citrate synthase gene had no obvious change in stresses of salt, dark, high illumination, while was increased at different time in treatments of water logging, drought, IAA, and 6-BA. Interestingly the effect of ABA was contrary to that of IAA. In the treatment of sclerotium blight, the expression of citrate synthase gene was depressed. There was a saddle curve of citrate synthase gene expression in the treatment of gibberellin. The results from real-time PCR of several treatments were mainly in accord with that from semi-quantitative PCR.
      Epistatic Effects and QE Interaction Effects of QTLs for Protein Content in Soybean
      SHAN Da-Peng,ZHU Rong-Seng,CHEN Li-Jun,QI Zhao-Ming,HU Guo-Hua,CHEN Qing-Shan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  41-47.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00041
      Abstract ( 2517 )   PDF (455KB) ( 1604 )   Save
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      Soybean [Glycine max (L). Merr.], widely grown in United States, Brazil, Argentina, and China, is one of the plant protein source. Protein content in soybean is a quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and Currently, SoyBase (2007) documented at least 76 QTL associated with protein content that have been mapped in many different populations and environments. The objective of the paper was to investigate epistatic effects and QE interaction effects of QTLs for protein content by mixed linear model. QTLs for soybean protein content were detected in a five-year experiment with the recombination inbred lines (RIL) population derived from a cross between Charleston and Dongnong 594. Ten QTLs with additive effects for protein content were mapped in the linkage groups B2, C2, D1a, E and N, one of which was the positive effect contributed by Charleston, the others of which were the negative effects donated by Dongnong 94. Fifteen QTLs pairs with epistatic effects for protein content in the RIL were detected, accounting for 13.57% of the general phenotypic variation. There existed interaction between 9 QTLs and environment, and the general contribution to protein content was 4.47%.

      Analysis on Additive Effects and Epistasis Effects of QTL for Plant Height and Its Components Using Single Segment Substitution Lines(SSSLs)in Rice
      ZHAO Fang-Ming,ZHANG Gui-Quan,ZENG Rui-Zhen,YANG Zeng-Lin,ZHU Hai-Tao,ZHONG Bing-Qiang,LIN Ying-Hua,HE Guang-Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  48-56.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00048
      Abstract ( 2651 )   PDF (242KB) ( 1730 )   Save
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      Plant height is a typical quantitative trait that is liable to be influenced by genetic backgrounds and environments. As a novel research material, single segment substitution lines and double segment pyramiding lines in rice will make QTL identification and epistasis analysis more accurate because of diminishing the interference of genetic backgrounds among plants. In this study, Detection of QTLs controlling plant height and its components and analysis of epistasis effects were done with 16 secondary single segment substitution lines and 15 double segment pyramiding lines derived from crossing of primary SSSLs by randomized blocks design. The main results showed that 11 QTLs were detected and distributed on chromosomes 4, 6, and 10, of which three QTLs controlling plant height, one QTL coffering length of the first inernode from the top, two QTLs harboring length of the second internode from the top, two QTLs for length of the third internode from the top and three QTL controlling length of the fourth internode from the top were included. Twenty-three digenic interactions were detected for plant height and its components, of which seven interactions occurred between two loci both not having main effects on the traits, and 16 interactions each involved one locus having a main effect at the single-locus level and another locus that did not show significant effect at the single-locus level. The results indicated that both additive effects of QTL and epistasis effects between QTLs were important genetic components. Efficiency of QTLs identification and epistasis effects analysis between QTLs could be improved using secondary single segment substitution lines and double segment pyramiding lines derived from crossing of primary single segment substitution lines.

      QTL Analysis of Lodging and Related Traits in Soybean
      ZHOU Rong,WANG Xian-Zhi,CHEN Hai-Feng,ZHANG Xiao-Juan,SHAN Zhi-Hui,WU Xue-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  57-65.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00057
      Abstract ( 2158 )   PDF (277KB) ( 1420 )   Save
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      Lodging is an important agronomical trait in soybean, which has obvious negative effect on yield, seed quality and mechanical harvesting efficiency. The 165 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between Zhongdou 29 and Zhongdou 32 were used in two years, with the composite interval mapping (CIM) method to identify the QTLs associated with lodging, plant height, stem diameter, nodes on main stem, branch number, shoot weight, root weight and stem intension. On linkage groups A2, C1, C2, D1a, F, G, I, and L, 25 and 19 QTLs for lodging and related traits were detected in 2006 and 2007, respectively, explaining 4.4–50.1% phenotypic variation. One QTL (qLD-15-1) of lodging and one QTL (qPH-15-2) of plant height on F linkage group were both detected in two years; one QTL of nodes on main stem and 2 QTLs of root weight were detected in two years on G and L linkage groups respectively. The positions of some QTLs of plant height, root weight, shoot weight, stem diameter, nodes on main stem and branch number were close to those of lodging, showing that the lodging resistance is associated with the characters in aerial part and underground portion, the results were consistent with the correlation analysis of phenotypic traits, showing the correlation of these morphological traits in genetics. The QTLs of some traits had the same positions, but were not both detected in two years.

      Cloning and Analysis of Hemoglobin Gene in Cyanobacterium and Transformation into Brassica napus L.
      TAN Xiao-Li,KONG Fan-Ming,ZHANG Li-Li,CHEN Song,QI Chui-Kou
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  66-70.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00066
      Abstract ( 1845 )   PDF (374KB) ( 1254 )   Save
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      Hemoglobin exists in most organisms including animals, plants, protozoa, algae, bacteria and fungi. In the paper, hemoglobin gene SLR2097 was cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is 375 bp in size and encodes123 amino acid polypeptide chains belonging to the truncated hemoglobin family. Hemoglobin canbind oxygen and co-ordinate the heme iron with protein ligation. Database search showed that a motif ‘F-[L]-x(4)-[G]-G-[T]-x(2)-[Y]-x-[G]-[R]-x-[M]-x(3)-H’ occurred in hemoglobins. Therefore, the truncated hemoglobins might evolve from the same ancestor of hemoglobin. The hemoglobin gene SLR2097 was ligated into binary vector pCAMBIA1300-CaMV35S, and then transformed into rapeseed cultivar Ningyou 12 with Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. Phenotype analysis indicated that the expression of hemoglobin gene SLR2097 led to the earlier maturity of transgenic rapeseed. These phenotype variations have a potential application in the rapeseed production in the future.
      Cloning of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase of Brassica napus and Its Induced Expression by Sclerotinia slerotiorum
      YANY Yang-Yang,LI Yun,DING Yong,XI Chun-Lei,ZHANG Cheng-Gui,LIU Ying,GAN Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  71-78.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00071
      Abstract ( 1958 )   PDF (732KB) ( 1146 )   Save
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      Bythe primers designed from conserved homologous sequences of the genes for superoxide dismutase (SOD) among Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica juncea and B. rapa ssp. pekinensis, Cu/ZnSOD and FeSOD genes in B. napus were cloned using the methods of homology-based candidate gene and RACE-PCR. After cloning andsequencing, the full lengths of cDNA of Cu/ZnSOD and FeSOD genes (accession no. AY970822 and EF634058 in GenBank) were 756 and 1 037 bp, respectively. Their corresponding genomic sequences were 1 322 bp for Cu/ZnSOD gene and 1 659 bp for FeSOD gene with accession nos. DQ431853 and EF634057 in GenBank, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the ORF of Cu/ZnSOD gene with 459 bp contained six introns with seven extrons and a polyA tail and could express a protein of 152 amino acids; and the one of FeSOD gene with 792 bp contained seven introns with eight extrons and could determine a protein of 263 amino acids. With cDNA of Cu/ZnSOD gene as probe, Northern blotting analysis showed that its mRNA expression in B. napus cultivars increased after the infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the expression amount in resistant or tolerant cultivars was higher than that in sensitive ones. The same trend was observed for the SOD activity in leaves. These results suggested that SOD genes were related with the resistance to the disease.
      Identification of 1BL/1RS Translocation Based on Mixograph Parameters in Common Wheat
      LIU Jian-Jun,XIAO Yong-Gui,CHENG Dun-Gong,LI Hao-Sheng,LIU Li,SONG Jian-Min,LIU
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  79-86.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00079
      Abstract ( 1985 )   PDF (395KB) ( 1334 )   Save
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      1BL/1RS translocation has been widely used for improving agronomic performance and disease resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), however, it has strong negative effect on processing quality. To develop a method for 1BL/1RS translocation identification with mixograph parameters, 404 advanced lines from 146 crosses in 2005–2006 (Experiment I) and 175 advanced lines and main cultivars of Shandong Province (Experiment II) in 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 cropping seasons were used in this study. All materials were sown under irrigation condition in a randomized complete design with 1 replication in Jinan. The genetic effect of 1BL/1RS translocation on mixograph parameters was investigated. The variations of mixograph parameters under different combinations of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) were also analyzed. 1BL/1RS translocation lines showed significantly shorter mixing time, less bandwidth of peak and bandwidth after 1 min peak, and higher angle of descent and the bandwidth ratio (the ratio of bandwidth of peak/bandwidth after 1 min peak) in comparison with non-1BL/1RS translocation lines. It indicated that the 1BL/1RS translocation has deleterious effects on mixograph parameters. Mixograph of the 1BL/1RS translocation was characterized with the bandwidth sharply declining and narrowing after 1 min peak, and increasing the bandwidth ratio, whereas the bandwidth of non-1BL/1RS translocations declined gently after 1 min peak or had a longer mixing tolerance, and had a little variation about the bandwidth ratio. Furthermore, 85.2% (Experiment I) and 96.8% (Experiment II) accuracies were achieved in grouping the 1BL/1RS translocation and non-1BL/1RS translocation on the basis of the band width ratio, i.e., 1BL/1RS translocation line had a value more than or equal to 1.6, and non-1BL/1RS translocation line had a value smaller than 1.6. Although the Glu-B3 alleles showed better quality parameters when HMW-GS 5+10 was presented, it was still the most unfavorable allele on mixograph parameters among all Glu-B3 alleles. Therefore, mixograph parameters could be used to determine the rheological properties and the presence of 1BL/1RS translocation.
      Effect of Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium and Boron Fertilizers on Yiedl and Profit of Rapeseed(Brassica napus L.)in the Yangtze River Basin
      ZOU Juan,LU Jian-Wei,CHEN Fang,LI Yin-Shui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  87-92.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00087
      Abstract ( 2325 )   PDF (243KB) ( 1542 )   Save
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      Field experiments were conducted at 32 sites in 10 main rapeseed production provinces along the Yangtze River Basin during 2006–2007. The objective of the research was to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and boron (B) on rapeseed yield and profit. The results showed that the combination application of N, P, K and B (NPKB) increased the yield of rapeseed significantly. The average yield of NPKB treatment was 2 590 kg hm-2, which was 1 055, 727, 253, 337 and 639 kg hm-2 higher than those of PKB, NKB, NPB, NPK and FFP (farmers’ fertilizer practice) treatments, respectively. N, P, K and B effect on the rapeseed yield ranked as N > P > KB. The seed yield increment from P, K and B application had negative relationship with soil available P, K and B content, respectively. Compared with PKB, NKB, NPB and NPK treatments, profit of NPKB increased 2868, 2 139, 434, and 1 076 Yuan hm-2. The average profit of NPKB treatment was up to 7 274 Yuan hm-2 according to the fertilizer and rapeseed prices in 2006 and 2007. However, the effects of N, P, K and B fertilizer on yield and profits of rapeseed were not the same in different experimental sites. The 87.5 percent trials showed significant profits from N and P fertilization, and half of the total trials showed high benefit from K application, which the value to cost ratio (VCR) was higher than 2.0. It was concluded that the combination of N, P, K and B fertilizers significantly increased both rapeseed yield and profits.
      Effects of Nitrogen Rate and Transplanting Density on Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Lodging Resistance of culms in Hybrid Rice
      YANG Shi-Min,XIE Li,ZHENG Shun-Lin,LI Jing,YUAN Ji-Chao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  93-103.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00093
      Abstract ( 2349 )   PDF (241KB) ( 2056 )   Save
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      There have been a lot of studies onthe differences and variations in lodging resistance among different rice varieties, but few studies involving the combined effects of nitrogen rate and transplanting density on lodging resistance of a certain hybrid varieties at different planting areas. In order to study the relationship between lodging resistance and physical and chemical characteristics of rice culm and the effects of nitrogen rate and transplanting density on the physical and chemical characteristics and lodging resistance of hybrid rice culm, a split plot field experiment was conducted with hybrid rice Jinyou 527 at Ya’an which altitude is about 600 m and Xichang which altitude is about 1 600 m. The experimental results were as follows. With the increasing of nitrogen rate and transplanting density, the plant height and length of basal internodes increased, the diameter of stem and the wall thickness of culm reduced, and the culm phenotype index decreased. High nitrogen rate and planting density lowered the contents of starch, cellulose and lignin of culm. The contents of N, K, Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn of culm were also influenced by nitrogen rate and transplanting density. As a result, high nitrogen rate and transplanting density reduced the breaking strength and lodging resistance of rice culm. The lodging index positively correlated to plant height gravity center height, length of basal internodes and contents of N and Mg, and negatively correlated to diameter of stem, wall thickness of culm, ratio of weight to length of stem, culm phenotype index, contents of K, Ca and starch, cellulose, lignin of culm. However, the relationship between lodging index and Si content of culm was quadratic function. The optimum Si content for high lodging resistance of rice culm was 4.54.8 mg kg-1. There were some differences in lodging resistance and sensitivities to nitrogen rate and transplanting density between Ya’an and Xichang, so the suitable techniques for high yield and high lodging resistance of culm should depend on the planting area. It was found that the critical lodging index for hybrid rice Jinyou 527 was 200.
      Effects of Irrigation and Planting Patterns on Consumption of Soil Moisture before Sowing and Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat
      LI Quan-Qi,CHEN Yu-Hai,ZHOU Xun-Bo,YU Song-Lie
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  104-109.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00104
      Abstract ( 2018 )   PDF (275KB) ( 1555 )   Save
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      In North China Plain, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is commonly watered with flood irrigation during its growth period. This results in not only very low water use efficiency (WUE) of irrigation, but also the reduction of groundwater level because of over exploitation in this area. To study water-saving techniques in winter wheat production, the effects of irrigation and planting patterns on the consumption of soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), evapotranspiration, grain yield, and WUE were investigated using a winter wheat cultivar “8049” in 2004–2005 and 2005–2006 growing seasons. The four planting patterns were uniform (30 cm) row (traditional pattern), wide (40 cm)–narrow (20 cm) row, furrow (double lines in the furrow with 20 cm spacing, and 40 cm between furrows), and bed (double lines on the bed with 20 cm spacing, and 40 cm between beds). Each planting pattern had four irrigation treatments, i.e., no irrigation, one irrigation at jointing stage, two irrigations at jointing and heading stages, three irrigations at jointing, heading, and milking stages. Compared with uniform row pattern, the consumption of soil moisture was much higher in other three planting patterns. The water consumption of SMBS in furrow planting patterns was mostly centralized in the soil layer below 30–50 cm. Compared with uniform row pattern, the grain yield was significantly increased in furrow planting pattern with two irrigations at jointing and heading stages and three irrigations at jointing, heading and milking stages; whereas, it was not significantly increased in bed pattern under the conditions of one, two, and three irrigations. The WUE of furrow planting pattern was significantly higher than those of the other three patterns with one irrigation at jointing stage or two irrigations at jointing and heading stages. On the basis of the experimental results, it is suggested that the furrow planting pattern in combination with considerably deficit irrigation at jointing or/and heading stages could be worth extending the application in winter wheat production.
      Physiological Effects of High Temperature Stress on Grain-Setting for Guodao 6 during flowering and Filling stage
      TAO Long-Xing,TAN Hui-Juan,WANG Xi,CAO Li-Yong,SONG Jian,CHENG Shi-Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  110-117.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00110
      Abstract ( 2047 )   PDF (412KB) ( 1200 )   Save
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      For a better understanding of high temperature stress on flowering and grain setting of rice during anthesis, a new rice hybrids Guodao 6 and a leading rice hybrid Xieyou 46 were selected to study the physiological and morphological adaptability to 40–42 of high temperature stress. The treatment was conducted with high temperature for 6 h each day from initial heading to following 15 days, and plants under natural condition was studied as control. Guodao 6 was less sensitive to high temperature stress, showing a stable yield and spikelet fertility and lower heat injury index in the stress condition. Physiologically analyzed data showed that in Guodao 6 during maturation, there were (1) higher flag leaf photosynthetic rate and higher transform rate from light energy to chemical energy, abundant carbohydrates stored in stem and leaf-sheath as well; (2) relatively stronger physiological activity of roots, and higher leaf transpiration rate, this enhanced translocation of photo-synthate to panicle; (3) better adjustment on “Apical grain superiority”, enhancing the filling of inferior spikelets.

      Effects of Normal Urea and Release-Controlled Urea on Root and Shoot Growth and Yield of Maize in Different Water Conditions
      SHAO Guo-Qing,LI Zeng-Jia,NING Tang-Yuan,ZHANG Min,JIANG Xiao-Dong,WANG Yun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  118-123.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00118
      Abstract ( 1969 )   PDF (267KB) ( 1452 )   Save
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      As a prosperous fertilizer in crop production, release-controlled urea (CU) promotes the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) and nitrogen use efficiency with less environmental pollution than normal fertilizers. However, the interaction effects of CU and soil water content on the growth and development of maize have been rarely reported. In this study, the maize cultivar Zhengdan 958 was used to compare the differences of root activity, root and shoot growth, and yield between treatments with normal urea and CU under two water soil moisture conditions. The experiments were carried out in pools (10 m in length, 60 cm in width, and 1.2 m in depth) under a mobile water-proof shelter in 2006–2007. The normal urea was applied with basal (100% applied before sowing, NU) and split (40% applied before sowing and 60% applied at pretasselling stage, NS) dressing methods, whereas, the CU was totally applied before sowing. No urea applied was taken as the control. The results showed that the shoot dry weight and leaf area index of CU treatments were higher after anthesis and lower before anthesis than those of NU and NS treatments. As a result, the grain yield of CU treatment was significantly higher than those of NU and NS treatments, and the biomass of CU treatment was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of NU treatment and control. Under the condition of soil moisture at 50% of field capacity (W1), the grain yield of CU treatment was higher than those of NU and NS treatments by 27.3% and 12.1%, respectively. Under the condition of soil moisture at 75% of field capacity (W2), the grain yield of CU treatment was higher than those of NU and NS treatments by 17.4% and 8.1%, respectively. In the same urea treatment, the average values of grain yield and biomass were higher by 20.6% and 17.0% under W2 than those under W1, respectively. Root weight, root activity, and root/shoot ratio were lower before anthesis in CU treatment than in NU and NS treatments, but higher after anthesis in CU treatment than in NU treatment. The results suggest that the CU could have a remarkable early-decrease-and-late-increase effect on maize growth, and its coupling effect with soil moisture was higher than that of normal urea. The positive coupling effect of CU might be caused by the higher root activity and root/shoot ratio after anthesis, which could increase the accumulation and transportation of dry matters in the aboveground organs.

      Effects of Plant Density and Seeding Date on Accumulation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in winter Wheat Cultivar Lankao Aizao 8
      QU Hui-Juan,LI Jin-Cai,SHEN Xue-Shan,WEI Feng-Zhen,WANG Cheng-Yu,ZHI Sheng-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  124-131.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00124
      Abstract ( 1930 )   PDF (203KB) ( 1555 )   Save
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      Moderately late seeding has the advantage to alleviate damage by low temperature before overwintering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The disadvantage of tillering reduction caused by late seeding may be compensated by increasing plant density. The optimal combination of seeding date and density differs from cultivars or cultivar types. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of plant density and seeding date on the accumulation and transportation of dry matter and nitrogen of large-spike type winter wheat cultivar Lankao Aizao 8”, accordingly to provide a theoretical basis on appropriate density in production with late seeding. Three densities (150, 225, and 300´104 plants ha-1) and two seeding dates (normal and late) were designed for the field experiment in 2005–2007. The accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen per stem in different organs increased at anthesis and maturity with the decrease of plant density. Under the late seeding condition, medium and low densities positively influenced the accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen per stem, especially in spike. The translocation amount of dry matter stored in vegetative organs before anthesis was significantly higher in treatments of low density with normal seeding date and medium density with late seeding date compared with other treatments. Meanwhile, the two treatments showed significantly larger contributions of dry matter to grains. In regard to grain yield and quality, treatments of medium and low densities with normal seeding date and medium and high densities with late seeding date had significantly positive effects on the contents and yields of starch and protein as well as grain yields. In the areas with the condition similar to this experiment, when considering both yield and grain quality, Lankao Aizao 8 is suggested with the densities of 150–225×104 ha-1 for normal seeding and 225–300×104 ha-1 for moderatively late seeding, respectively.

      Differential Expression and Function Analysis of Proteins in Flag Leaves of Rice during Grain-Filling Period
      LI Zhao-Wei;XIONG Jun;QI Xiao-Hui;WANG Jin-Yuan;CHEN Hong-Fei;ZHANG Zhi-Xing;LIANG Yi-Yuan;LIN Wen-Xiong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  132-139.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00132
      Abstract ( 2986 )   PDF (554KB) ( 1675 )   Save
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      The experiment was conducted to study the protein expression pattern in flag leaves of rice cultivar Jinhui 809 with large panicles and high grain-setting percentage during grain-filling period using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The results showed that there were 17 protein spots with differential expression. Among them, three protein spots had the most expression amount from early to mid-stage, nine protein spots had the most expression amount from middle to late stages, four protein spots reached the most expression amount in late stage, and one protein spot had two top expression peaks in early and late stages of grain filling, respectively. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and database searching identified 12 differential proteins involved in biosynthesis and degradation, carbohydrate transportation, anti-oxidation reaction, hormone metabolism, cytoskeleton construction and tissue maturation, respectively. Ribose/galactose/methyl galactoside importing ATP-binding protein 1 was participated in photosynthates transportation from leaf to grain in early and mid-stages. Auxin-responsive protein IAA27 influenced photosynthates transportation by regulating the activity of ATPase. N-acetyl-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase delayed leaf senescence through regulating polyamine metabolism in late stage. In addition, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase played an important role in plant detoxification and fighting against oxygen species damage at late stage of grain filling. The current results provide the valuable evidences for us to reveal the metabolism mechanism at grain filling stage in super-rice.

      Differences in Characteristics of Source,Sink,and Flow between Ratooning Rice and Its Same-Term Heading Main-Crop Rice
      YI Zhen-Xie,ZHOU Wen-Xin,QIN Peng,TU Nai-Mei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  140-148.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00140
      Abstract ( 1807 )   PDF (239KB) ( 1263 )   Save
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      Many researches on characteristics of source and sink of ratooning rice (RR) and their differences with main-crop rice (MCR) have been conducted under natural growing conditions in different seasons. At the same time, while the difference in characteristics of flow between MCR and RR is seldom reported. To get rid of the effect of natural conditions, sowing on different dates was applied to make RR of earlier MCR and later MCR headed at the same time, and then differences in characteristics of source, sink and flow between RR and its same-term heading main-crop rice (SHMR) were studied with six rice cultivars. The results showed that LAI of RR was about one-eighth to one-fifth of that of SHMR, and grain number per panicle and yield of RR were about one-third of those of SHMR, while photosynthetic rate of RR was 20% to 70% higher than that of SHMR in 10 days after full heading and net assimilation rate of RR was 3.7 to 6 times of that of SHMR from booting to maturity. Difference in catalase activity of panicle branches between RR and SHMR was not clear. In photosynthate of flag leaves, the proportion distributed to panicles showed RR>SHMR, but the proportion remained in stems and sheathes showed the opposite trend. Appearance quality of RR was better than that of early rice and late rice, but its processing quality was between early rice and late rice. In the conditions of this study, SHMR belonged to the sink-limited while RR belonged to the source-sink interacted. The high-yielding strategies to RR were as follows: choose varieties with more grains, exert advantages of RR in higher photosynthetic rate and net assimilation rate, adopt positive cultivating measures to promote expanding of leaf area, at the same time, to increase grain number per panicle and boost up transporting capability of flow to a certain extent.

      Difference of Nitrogen Accumulation and Translocation in Conventional Indica Rice Cultivars with Different Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Grain Output
      DONG Gui-Chun,WANG Yu-Long,ZHOU Juan,ZHANG Biao,ZHANG Chuan-Sheng,ZHANG Yue-Fang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  149-155.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00149
      Abstract ( 1998 )   PDF (253KB) ( 1254 )   Save
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      Improving nitrogen use efficiency in crops is of great importance both in crop production and environmental protection. Genetically improving crop varieties has been considered as one of the most economical and effective ways to enhance nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops. Many studies have reported the genotypic differences in NUE for biomass and grain production in rice. Yet, little information in the characteristics of yield components, biomass production and allocation, nitrogen uptake and allocation and structure of root system in rice varieties with higher NUE has been known. In this study, 88 and 122 conventional indica rice cultivars were solution-cultured in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Dry matter weight (including root system, culm and sheath, leaves, panicle), nitrogen content of different organs, yield and its components were measured. The tested rice cultivars were classified into 6 types (i.e. A, B, C, D, E, and F, A was the lowest, and F was the highest) based on their nitrogen use efficiency for grain output (NUEg) level by the MinSSw method, to study their differences of nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen translocation. Results were as follows: (1) Difference of NUEg of the cultivars used in this study was very large, the averages of NUEg for A, B, C, D, E, and F were 20.51, 31.04, 35.64, 39.46, 43.55, and 50.92 g Grain g-1 N in 2001, and 24.33, 31.61, 35.83, 39.06, 43.51, 50.00 g Grain g-1 Nin 2002, respectively; (2) In the cultivars with high NUEg level, the nitrogen ratio of culm, sheath and leaf to whole plant was lower, while that of panicle to whole plant was higher at heading stage and especially at maturing stage; (3) The amount and rate of nitrogen translocation in culm, sheath and leaf in cultivars with high NUEg level were higher during grain-filling stage; (4) Enhancing the amount and rate of nitrogen translocation in culm, sheath and leaf during the grain-filling stage could improve dry matter translocation and harvest index.
      Effects of Ecological Factors on Raffinose Content in Soybean Seed
      LI Wei-Dong,LU Wei-Guo,LIANG Hui-Zhen,WANG Shu-Feng,LI Jin-Ying,YU Zhao-Cheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  156-161.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00156
      Abstract ( 1991 )   PDF (365KB) ( 920 )   Save
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      Raffinose is one of principal nutrients for both human beings and animals. To reveal the correlation between raffinose content in soybean seed and ecological factors, at the present experiment, soybean cultivar Yudou 25 was sown at three locations with 13 sowing dates in Henan province in 2001 and 2002, the raffinose contents in 78 soybean seed samples and 37 ecological factors including meteorological factors, soil nutrition and altitudes were investigated. The correlated factors were screened by stepwise regression, which showed significance on raffinose content. The results indicated that the raffinose content was substantially affected by the environmental conditions ranging from 0.220–0.869% among all samples, and positively correlated with eight ecological factors. The greatest difference in raffinose content caused by 8 ecological factors was 0.392%, and the smallest was 0.156%. The contribution to raffinose content in turn was the square of the diurnal temperature range at seed-filling and maturing stage, sunshine hour at branching stage, pH of soil, sunshine hour at blooming and podding stage, Mn content in soil, rainfall at blooming and podding stage, rainfall at branching stage, and rainfall at emergence stage. The results provided a reference for developing soybean cultivars with higher raffinose content.
      Effects of No-tillage Cast Transplanting on Rice Yield and Its Source-Sink Characteristics
      WU Jian-Fu,PAN Xiao-Hua,SHI Qing-Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  162-172.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00162
      Abstract ( 1876 )   PDF (495KB) ( 1277 )   Save
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      The experiments were conducted in double cropping rice field during 2005–2006 to study the effects of different tillage methods on rice yield and its source-sink characteristics. The results showed that the effect on panicle number was lower and on filled grain percentage was higher in no-tillage cast transplanting treatment than in conventional tillage cast transplanting treatment. With the time of no-tillage increased, rice yield in different treatments did not differ significantly. The leaf area index during growth stages, the population photosynthetic potential, photosynthetic potential-grain ratio, bleeding potential in neek of spike, ratio of source to sink in increment and mean grain filling rate in no-tillage treatment were higher than those in conventional tillage treatment, but the grain-leaf ratio in no-tillage treatment was lower than that in conventional tillage treatment. The content of chlorophyll was higher and the content of MDA was lower in flag leaf after heading in no-tillage treatment than in conventional tillage treatment. No-tillage treatment was delayed leaf senescence, facilitated the accumulation and transportation of carbohydrate, and improved grain setting rate.

      Genetic Analvsis of Sichuan Sun-Cured Tobacco Germplasm by SRAP
      LONG Teng,LIU Lei,HUANG Yu-Bi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  173-178.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00173
      Abstract ( 1887 )   PDF (485KB) ( 1307 )   Save
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      SRAP was used to analyze genetic relationships of 25 sun-cured tobacco varieties, one Nicotiana rustica variety, and one flue-cured tobacco variety collected from Sichuan province. PCR products were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 3 368 DNA fragments were obtained, of which 998 were specific bands (polymorphic ratio was 29.6%), the average number of amplified DNA bans was 40 per primerGenetic similarity ranged from 0.26 to 0.97 for all varieties, from 0.38 to 0.78 between Nicotiana rustica varieties, flue-cured tobacco varieties and sun-cured tobacco varieties, and from 0.75 to 0.97 among 25 Sun-cured tobacco varieties. Cluster analysis was carried out with unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA)The results showed that all 27 varieties could be clustered into three groups, which revealed the genetic diversity among three cultivar-type tobacco germplasms. Furthermore, 25 sun-cured tobacco varieties could be classified into three subgroups and two single varieties. Maoyan and Liuyan were two traditional famous groups of Sichuan sun-cured tobacco species. However, Maoyan and Liuyan varieties named by traditional method were not obviously grouped into two types. All results indicated that SRAP analysis may be used to reveal the genetic relationships among sun-cured tobacco varieties, providing a scientific basis for tobacco genetic research and breeding.
      Response of Photosynthetic Apparatus to different Irradiance in flag Leaves of High-Yielding Winter Wheat PH01-35 Grown under Low Light Conditions
      GUO Feng;QU Yan-Yan;XIN Chang-Peng;LIANG Yan;LIANG Xue;TIAN Ji-Chun;MENG Qing-We
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  179-184.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00179
      Abstract ( 2092 )   PDF (439KB) ( 1593 )   Save
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      To further explain the mechanism of photoinhibition and light damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves when it was suddenly transferred from low light to high light conditions, the responses of photosynthetic apparatus in shaded leaves of the high-yielding winter wheat line, PH01-35, were examined using chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange techniques. After 15-day shading, the chlorophyll content increased greatly, but the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), light compensation point (LCP), light saturation point (LSP), apparent quantum yield (AQY), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) all decreased. Compared with leaves grown in full sunlight, the initial slope (α), decline slope (β), maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax), and minimum saturating irradiance (Ek) of rapid light curves in leaves grown in low light were lower when the plant was transferred from low light intensity of 250 μmol m-2 s-1 to high light intensity of 1 200 μmol m-2 s-1. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) in leaves grown in low light was significantly lower than that in leaves grown in full sunlight, indicating that the ability of light use and thermal energy dissipation was limited in leaves grown in low light. The wheat leaves grown in low light were more susceptible to photoinhibition due to low CO2 assimilation and photoprotective ability, such as xanthophylls cycle-dependent dissipation of excessive energy, despite the better energy absorbability in low light conditions.
      Correlation Analysis between Sucrose Synthase Expression and Sucrose Accumulation in Sweet Sorghum(Sorghum bicolor L.Moench)
      YANG Ming,LIU Li-Juan,LI Li-Yun,WANG Bo,CHANG Jin-Hua,Liu Guo-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(1):  185-189.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00185
      Abstract ( 1942 )   PDF (288KB) ( 1558 )   Save
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      Alcohol production by using sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) might be a potential way to provide bio-energy in the future, so it is necessary to learn about the mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum for exploitation of bio-energy. The experiment was conducted using two sweet sorghum varieties, to detect expression of sucrose synthase (SS) in leaves and stems by using Western blotting, and analyse the correlation between SS expression and sucrose accumulation. The results indicated that the SS expression in sweet sorghum leaves and stems was lower at early growth stages (jointing and heading stage), increased dramatically at late growth stages (flowering, grain filling and dough stage), and reached the highest level at flowering stage. Compared with two common sorghum varieties, SS expression in leaves and stems in two sweet sorghum varieties increased significantly at late growth stages and correlated with sucrose content in stems. Expression of SS might play an important role in the difference of sucrose content between sweet and common sorghums. The results proposed a strategy for screening sweet sorghum cultivars and enhancing sucrose content of stems in breeding program.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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