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    12 November 2009, Volume 35 Issue 11
      Transformation of phaG and phaC Genesis into Tobacco Chloroplast Genome and Genetic Analysis
      WANG Yu-Hua,WU Zhong-Yi,ZHANG Xiu-Hai,WANG Yong-Qin,HUANG Cong-Lin,JIA JIng-Fen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  1949-1957.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01949
      Abstract ( 1878 )   PDF (487KB) ( 1808 )   Save
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      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) belong to the group of microbial polyesters, which are a class of polymers produced by various species of bacteria as source of carbon and energy reserve. Due to their properties of biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers, PHAs have been regarded as ideal alternatives to traditional petroleum-derived plastics in medical areas and many other areas of high technology and high-value. Compared with short-chain-length-PHAs (scl-PHAs), such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), medium-chain-length-PHAs (mcl-PHAs) copolymers are less crystalline, and are more flexible polymers with low melting points, and generally regarded as elastomers. PHAs were produced commercially by bacterial fermentation method, but the process was not economically competitive with petrochemical-based polymers. At present, novel efforts are focused on using the transgenic plants as bioreactors to produce PHAs.Both 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-ACP-transferase and type II PHA synthase are the key enzymes for mcl-PHAs biosynthesis. The gene phaG encoding 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-ACP-transferase was placed under the control of psbA-pro and psbA-ter of rice to construct phaG expression cassette, and the gene phaC encoding type II PHA synthase was placed under the control of prrn and rbcL-ter of rice to construct phaC expression cassette, which were ligated with the screening marker gene aadA expression cassette prrn-aadA-TpsbA-ter. These recombined fragments were cloned between the plastid rbcL and accD genes of tobacco for targeting to the large single copy region of chloroplast genome. Chloroplast expression vector of pTGC was constructed and then transformed into tobacco chloroplast genome through particle bombardment. Six transplastomic tobacco plants were obtained by spectinomycin screening. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed integration of phaG and phaC genesinto chloroplast genome of T0 and T1 transgenic plants, and T1 transgenic plants exhibited homogenization. The expression of phaC and phaG at transcription level was detected by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Recombinant transgenes in the tobacco chloroplast genome were maternally inherited and were not transmitted via pollen when out-crossed with untransformed female plants.

      Segregation Analysis for Inheritance of Protein Related Traits in Soybean[Glycine max(L.) Merr.]
      LIU Shun-Hu,ZHOU Rui-Bao,GAI Jun-Yi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  1958-1966.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01958
      Abstract ( 1893 )   PDF (305KB) ( 1052 )   Save
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      The quality and processing property of soy protein depend on its constitution of components and subunit groups, as well as their related traits. The recombinant inbred line population (RIKY) derived from Kefeng 1×Nannong 1138-2 and backcross inbred derived line population (BIEX) derived from (Essex×ZDD2315)×ZDD2315 were tested for their 16 traits related to protein components and their subunit groups, including protein content, protein plus fat content, 11S, 7S, 11S/7S ratio, four 11S subunit groups and six 7S subunit groups, by using Kjeltec, Soxtec and SDS-PAGE analysis. The data obtained were analyzed for the inheritance of the 16 traits by using segregation analysis based on mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The results showed that there existed transgressive segregations in all the traits, which indicated the mutual complement among loci between the parents. One major gene plus polygene mixed model was detected for protein content in both populations with major gene heritability (MGH) 31.3%–40.9% and polygene heritability (PGH) 37.2%–53.7%; three major genes plus polygene model for protein plus fat content with MGH 59.9%–66.6% and PGH 23.2%–27.9%; two to three major genes plus polygene model for oil content with MGH 48.6%–71.7% and PGH 4.2%–29.7%. Three major genes plus polygene inheritance model was detected for 11S protein content with MGH 14.3%–60.7% and PGH 17.0%–50.7%; three major genes plus polygene model for 7S protein content with MGH 34.5%–44.1% and PGH 21.5%–45.1%; two major genes plus polygene model for 11S/7S ratio with MGH 56.6%–74.8% and PGH 10.1%–20.1%. Two to three major gene plus polygene, two major genes plus polygene, two major genes plus polygene and two to three major genes plus polygene inheritance models were detected for 11S-1 through 11S-4, respectively; one to two major genes plus polygene, two major genes plus polygene, two to three major genes plus polygene, three major genes plus polygene, one to two major genes plus polygene and two major genes plus polygene inheritance models were detected for 7S-1 through 7S-6, respectively. All of 16 traits are controlled by both major genes and minor genes. Among them, ten traits are controlled by same numbers of major genes in both populations and for the other six traits there is one major gene difference between the two populations. Thus, between the two populations, for each trait, the inheritance model is mainly similar in number of major genes while somewhat different in gene effect for those with same major gene numbers. Therefore, plant breeders have to pyramid both major genes and polygenes in breeding for protein content and related quality traits.
      Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Novel Rolled Leaf Mutant rl12(t) in Rice
      LUO Yuan-Zhang,ZHAO Fang-Ming,SANG Xian-Chun,LING Ying-Hua,YANG Zheng-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  1967-1972.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01967
      Abstract ( 2125 )   PDF (200KB) ( 2171 )   Save
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      Leaf is an important organ in photosynthesis, its moderate rolling could facilitate the improvement of plant population’s structure and enhancelight-use efficiency, which is significant in ideotype breeding. Recently, more attention has been paid to the identification of rice rolled leaf mutants and related gene cloning by breeders and geneticists. This paper reported a rolled leaf mutant, temporarily named rl12(t), from the restorer line Jinhui10 treated by EMS. In the mutant, the initializing leaves didn’t roll, the mature leaves curled the upper 1/3 section of them and the older mature leaves rolled completely, the pigment contents increased significantly.To date, such phenotype has never been reported. One CMS line Xinong 1A with normal leaves was crossed with the rl12(t) mutant, the F1/F2 populations were used for genetic analysis, suggesting that the mutant trait were controlled completely by one single dominant nuclear gene. rl12(t) was finally located on the chromosome 10 between SWU-1 and SWU-2 with genetic distances of 1.5 and 0.2 cM, respectively. There has been no rolled leaf gene reported on this chromosome. So the RL12(t) should be novel, and also the unique dominant rolled leaf gene mapped by molecular markers up to now. The results provide a basis for RL12(t) gene cloning and functional analysis, as well as mechanism studies of rolled leaf and the application in plant-type breeding.

      Isolation and Identification of pndreb1-A New DREB Transcription Factor from Peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.)
      ZHANG Mei,LIU Wei,BI Yu-Ping,WANG Zi-Zhang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  1973-1980.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01973
      Abstract ( 1966 )   PDF (330KB) ( 1550 )   Save
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      The dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREB) are important and specific plant transcription factors responding to stress conditions including drought, salt and low temperature.It has been generally accepted that DREB can regulates the expression of a number of abiotic stress-related genes in down stream of the stress signal transduction pathways. In this paper, a DREB-like gene, named PNDREB1 (Accession No. FM955398), was cloned by screening a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) full-length cDNA library of immature seeds. The structure analysis showed that PNDREB1 contained a 687 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 229 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 24.7 kD and a isoelectric point of 5.97. The predicted protein sequence contained one conserved AP2 domain, which is the typical characteristic of DREB transcription factors. Based on the sequences similarity, PNDREB1 is classified into A-1 subgroup of DREB subfamily. Furthermore, the yeast hybrid system was carried out, and the results confirmed that the AP2 domain of PNDREB1 could specifically interact with DRE cis-acting element. The activation activity of the C-terminal end as a transcriptional activator was also been proved experimentally. The expression pattern analysis carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that PNDREB1 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of peanut, and was strongly upregulate by treatments with low temperature, also respond to dehydration. However, the expression of PNDREB1 was not affected by high salinity and exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel peanut DREB-like transcription factor which was regulated by low temperature and osmotic stresses.

      Analysis of Crop Variety Regional Trials Based on Selection of Covariance Structures
      HU Xi-Yuan,YOU Hai-Lei,REN Chang-Hong,WU Dong,LI Jian-Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  1981-1989.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01981
      Abstract ( 2036 )   PDF (225KB) ( 1788 )   Save
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      The method mainly used for analyzing crop variety regional trials is based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), which requires a homogenous variance-covariance of data. Now, other models different from the ANOVA model are available. However, the problems that how the models should be assessed and that which model is more suitable for given trial data are not solved and hence restrict the applicability of the models in practices. This paper tried to solve these problems on the basis of liner mixed models. Relations between various variance-covariance structures of linear mixed model and models available for analyzing crop regional trials were discussed. Then on the basis of analyses of the corn regional trials in northeast and north China, using the information criterion and likelihood-ratio-test, the characteristics of variance-covariance structures of regional trial data and the performance difference between the ANOVA model and the linear mixed model with optimal variance-covariance structure were assessed. The results showed that the variance-covariance of variety effect over environments was not homogeneous as defined in the ANOVA model, but heterogeneous in all the considered trials. The ratio of the same variety contrast with significant difference between the ANOVA model and the optimal linear mixed model averagely reached 86%. Also, there was obvious difference in the yield ranking of varieties between the two models. The error of variety effect estimation in the optimal linear mixed model was smaller than that in the ANOVA model.

      Quantitative Inheritance of Yield and Its Components in Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)Cultivars with Varied Lint Percentages
      LI Cheng-Qi,GUO Wang-Zhen,ZHANG Tian-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  1990-1999.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01990
      Abstract ( 1684 )   PDF (209KB) ( 1205 )   Save
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      Improving cotton yield is still the main goal of present cotton breeding; it is meaningful for studying the genetics of cotton yield traits for yield breeding. Lint percentage is one of the important yield components, and plenty of data show that the raising of cotton yield has close relation with lint percentage improvement. At the same time, the different levels of correlation is exist between lint percentage and other yield traits, yield components and fiber quality characters. Therefore, the inheritance research of lint percentage and its related traits is very important. In this paper, major-polygene jointing generations analyses were first combined with diallel cross experiment analyses to investigate the genetics of yield and its components in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at single and whole gene levels, respectively, by making crosses using cultivars with different lint percentage. Joint analyses of six generations were performed in the genetics of yield traits in two high × low lint percentage crosses, by using the method of major gene-polygene mixed inheritance model. We found from the results that major genes controlling each of yield traits were always detected at least in one cross, indicating that the major genes controlling yield traits existed generally. The comparison of major gene and polygene heritability for all traits between two crosses showed major gene heritability had more stable tendency than polygene heritability. Heritability proportion of each trait was different between two crosses. Lint percentage, boll weight and seed index were mainly controlled by major gene and polygene in two crosses, respectively; seed yield and lint yield were mainly controlled by major gene in two crosses; lint index was mainly controlled by polygene in cross I and belonged to typical polygene inheritance in cross II; bolls per plant belonged to typical major gene inheritance in cross I and was mainly controlled by polygene in cross II. The diallel cross results indicated that yield and its components of upland cotton had always higher variance of genetic major effects, and yield traits were controlled by additive effects and dominant effects altogether. In which, lint percentage and lint index were mainly controlled by additive effects; seed yield, Boll weight and seed index were mainly controlled by dominant effects; lint yield and bolls per plant were mainly controlled by additive effects and dominant effects. Both common broad heredity and common narrow heredity of lint percentage and lint index were always the highest, which had also the highest average value of total heritability in joint generations analyses. Among yield components, bolls per plant had the most contribution to lint yield, the second contribution from lint percentage, and the least contribution from boll weight. Our studies might provide some theoretical foundation for further elucidating the heredity rule and inheritance mode of major gene-polygene of yield and its components in upland cotton, as well as for adopting appropriate breeding strategy to improve cotton yield.
      Development and Application of a Functional Marker for Wide Compatibility Gene S5-n of Rice
      YANG Jie,WANG Jun,CAO Qing,CHEN Zhi-De,ZHONG Wei-Gong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2000-2007.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02000
      Abstract ( 2108 )   PDF (674KB) ( 2245 )   Save
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      Wide compatibility varieties (WCVs) with S5-n are able to produce highly fertile hybrids when crossed to both indica and japonica varieties. The conventional breeding strategy of pyramiding S5-n is to test the fertility of F1 hybrid. However, this method is labour-consuming, time-consuming and. difficult in operation. The technically simplified approach of marker-assisted selection(MAS) has directly and practically used in rice breeding. Therefore, it is urgent to find a convenient and efficient way in WCV breeding with MAS. The wide compatibility gene (S5-n) has 136 bp deletion compared with the indica and japonica S-5 alleles. In order to improve the precision of marker-assisted selection for S5-n, we developed the functional marker S5136 based on the deletion in the DNA sequence of S5-n. The differentiation for S5-n, S5-i and S5-j in 24 accessions of weedy rice from the district of Yangtze and Huaihe Rivers, 27 accessions of common wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.) from China, 554 cultivars and genetic resources (O. sativa L.) and 20 breeding lines was investigated by S5136The results indicated that this marker was low-cost, robust technique that can be utilized to identify the S5-n in WCVs like 02428, Dular and CPSLO17. The S5136 could distinguish the homozygous S5-n/S5-n, homozygous S5-i/S5-i, and heterozygous S5-n/S5-i individuals in F2 population derived from 3037 and 02428. From the tested materials, 13 germplasms with S5-n were identified and conformed by sequencing the S5136 PCR products, and 2 restore lines with S5-n developed from the offspring of 02428 were identified. Also, the compatibility of Kasalath was tested with some indica-japonica hybrids. Therefore, S5136 is a powerful molecular marker in S5-n germplasm screening, perfect marker-assisted selection breeding and seed purity testing for the two line hybrids with Pei’ai 64S as maternal parent.
      Cloning and Expression Profile Analysis of Ghpg2 Gene Associated with Fertility in Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)
      HOU Si-Yu,ZHANG Rui,GUO San-Dui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2008-2014.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02008
      Abstract ( 1718 )   PDF (607KB) ( 1406 )   Save
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      Polygalacturonase (PGs) gene family is a kind of proteolytic enzyme in cell wall. A number of higher plants have a higher level of the excision activity at pollen. Polygalacturonase plays an important role on the processes of pollen mature and pollen tube growth. Through BAC library screening, a BAC clone Z55E7 was obtained and congregated with molecular marker STS679 by using PCR strategy. Sequencing analysis results showed that there were six genes in the clone. One of them was a Polygalacturonase gene in cotton, named GhPG2. The expression profiles analysis of this gene would help to know the relationshipof GhPG2 gene with the molecular mechanism of cotton cytoplasm male sterile. GhPG2 gene was isolated from BAC clone. The amino acids and nucleotide sequence of the gene were analyzed by bioinformation software. GhPG2 gene expression levels of different tissues in CMS line, maintainer and restorer line were analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR method. The gene with the sequence of 1518 bp and an open reading frame of 1239bp coded 412 amino acids and included four conserved domains. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences showed that GhPG2 was categorized as a gene expressed in pollen. GhPG2 gene expression level in anther, petal and the sixth grade flower bud was higher in the maintainer and restorer lines and lower obviously in the CMS line. And its relative transcript levels were 1.73, 1.45; 3.7, 3.4; 1.63, and 1.39 folds compared with petal, anther and VI flower bud of sterile line, respectively.The gene expression level in anther, petal and the sixth grade flower bud was no significance between the maintainer and restorer line with relative transcript levels were 4.33, 4.08; 13.29, 12.12; 3.25 and 3.10 folds, respectively. It is speculated that GhPG2 gene is of significance in floral organ development in cotton.

      Development of Soybean Gene-Driven Functional CAPS Markers from the Genes'Re-Sequencing Information
      SHU Yong-Jun,LI Yong,BAI Xi,CAI Hua,JI Wei,ZHU Yan-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2015-2021.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02015
      Abstract ( 2071 )   PDF (316KB) ( 1684 )   Save
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      Soybean (Glycine max) is an important global crop and main source of oil and protein, so the research on economic traits of soybean is valuable. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has become important genetic markers according to its high density, co-dominance and so on. Gene-driven SNPs affecting traits relevant to host gene’s function are important type of molecular marker. Large numbers of re-sequencing data in database make it possible to easily develop SNP markers by bioinformatics technology. Cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) are also known as PCR-RFLP markers, provides a way to utilize the DNA sequences of mapped RFLP markers to develop PCR based markers thereby eliminating the tedious DNA blotting. The CAPS markers are co-dominant, locus specific, easily to use, lower cost and have been used to distinguish between plants that are homozygous or heterozygous for alleles. Thus, CAPS proves useful for genotyping, positional or map based cloning and molecular identification studies where sequence-based identification is not feasible. Many SNPs localize in restrict enzyme sites, so they could be identified with CAPS. A software was compiled and implemented, and the soybean genes’ re-sequencing data were analyzed by the bioinformatics method, and SNP sites which alter the restrict enzyme recognition sites were identified to develop the gene-deriven functional markers of soybean. Then 163 pair primers were designed to detect SNPs. 139 pair primersamplified single bands (400–1 200 bp) from genomic DNA of Suinong 14, which was widely planted in the Northeast China. To verify the SNP polymorphisms, we used these primer pairs for PCR amplification from genomic DNA of the nine soybean genotypes Suinong 14, Hefeng 25, Acher, Evans, Peking, PI209332, Guxin wild soybean, Kefeng 1 and Nannong 1138-2. The PCR amplicons were digested with different restriction endonucleases, 73 amplicons had polymorphism among the nine genotypes after digested, and 73 gene specific CAPS markers were developed. And then the functions of these genes, which these markers were driven by, were annotated by blast against the Arabidopsis proteins, and the soybean genes’ functions were grouped and analyzed. Result indicated that these genes participate in subcellular localization, protein binding or catalyzing, metabolic process and cell rescue, defense and disease resistance, etc. Most of these functions are relevant to important agronomic characters of soybean, so they have more possibility to be the ideal tools for marker-assisted breeding of soybean, and to be valuable for soybean genetic diversity analysis and molecular phylogeny analysis..The result means that these SNPs have more potential to be used in soybean breeding.

      Isolation and Characterization of Disease Resistance Gene Analogs from Erianthus arundinaceus cDNA
      QUE You-Xiong,XU Li-Ping,LIN Jian-Wei,XU Jing-Sheng,ZHANG Mu-Qing*,CHEN Ru-Kai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2022-2028.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02022
      Abstract ( 1617 )   PDF (583KB) ( 1122 )   Save
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      Plant disease resistance genes (R-genes) encode some conserved motifs. According to the conserved motifs present in the known NBS-LRR R-gene sequences and R gene analogs (RGAs), several degenerate primers were designed and applied in the RGA isolation from Erianthus arundinaceus using PCR approach. In total, 6 RGAs were successfully obtained, with GenBank Accession numbers of EU685835, EU685836, EU685837, EU685838, EU685839, and EU685840. Multiple alignments showed that the encoding sequences of the six clones were highly conserved and strikingly similar to the eleven most typical NBS-LRR type R-gene peptide sequences, especially at the four NBS motifs of P-loop, kinase-2, kinase-3a, and HD. The identity percentage at the amino-acid level ranged from 8.3% to 93.0% among all 17 sequences tested and from 30.5% to 45.6% among the six cloned RGAs in this study.The results of cluster analysis and the existence of an aspartic acid residue (D) at the final residue position of the kinase-2 motif also indicated that all of E. arundinaceus RGAs might belong to non-TIR group. Finally, Real-time PCR results showed that all of the RGAs were constitutively expressed in roots, stalks and leaves of E. arundinaceus, and their expression could be up-regulated in leaves by the exogenous signal molecules SA and H2O2. Therefore, it suggested that E. arundinaceus RGAs might play important roles in disease resistance in an SA- and H2O2-dependent defense response pathway. Further studies should aim to clone full-length R-genes in E. arundinaceus and characterize their functions in defense responses.
      Cloning and Expression of Wheat Transcription Factor Gene TaWRKY72b-1 and Its Effect on Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Transgenic Tobacco Plants
      MIAO Hong-Ying,ZHAO Jin-Feng,LI Xiao-Juan,SUN Zhao-Hua,LU Wen-Jing,GU Jun-Tao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2029-2036.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02029
      Abstract ( 1865 )   PDF (743KB) ( 1398 )   Save
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      Phosphorus is one of the indispensable elements in plant growth and development, which is the main component for ATP, nucleic acid, and lecithin. Since phosphorus usually exists in the hard-absorption compounds in soil to cause plant suffering from phosphorus deficiency during growing stage. So plant morphological and physiologically develops the adaptation to low phosphorus stress. Transcription regulation plays an important role in responding to deficient-P cue in plants. Several transcription factors mediating the deficient-P signal transduction have been reported in Arabidopsis and rice. But no similar studieshave been conducted in wheat by now. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homologous to Arabidopsis WRKY75 was identified based on sequencing of clones from a subtractive root cDNA library, in which the differential expressed genes responding to low-P were enriched. The EST gene with high similarity to wheat WRKY72b (GenBank accession No. EF368383), was cloned and referred to TaWRKY72b-1. TaWRKY72b-1 had two base differences with WRKY72b at the cDNA sequence, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 621 bp and encoding a polypeptide of 206 amino acids. TaWRKY72b-1 contained one of conserved WRKY motif and one of C2H2 zinc finger motif. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that TaWRKY72b-1, wheat WRKY72a and barley WRKY12  werepossibly derived from one ancestor. Compared with those in sufficient-P (2 mmol L-1 P) condition, the transcripts of TaWRKY72b-1 in roots and leaves under the deficient-P (20 µmol L-1 P) condition were all dramatically increased, suggesting that TaWRKY72b-1 gene was involved in the response to low P stress in the plants. Under deficient-P condition, the expression of TaWRKY72b-1 in transgenic tobacco plants obviously increased plant dry weights, plant accumulative phosphorus amount, and phosphorus utilization efficiency compared with that in CK (empty vector transformed plants). Therefore, the TaWRKY72b-1 gene has possibly a potential use in improving the crop phosphorus use efficiency under low-Pi stress condition.

      Changes in Grain Quality during the Evolution of Mid-Season Indica Rice Cultivars in Jiangsu Province
      ZHANG Hao,TAN Gui-Lu,SUN Xiao-Lin,LIU Li-Jun,YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2037-2044.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02037
      Abstract ( 1909 )   PDF (416KB) ( 1167 )   Save
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      Improvement in rice quality is very important in rice production. However, little is known about changes in rice quality during the evolution of cultivars. In this study, 13 typical mid-season indica rice cultivars (including hybrid combinations) applied in the production in Jiangsu Province during the last 60 years were used, and classified into five types of early tall cultivars, dwarf cultivars, semi-dwarf cultivars, semi-dwarf hybrids, and super rice according to their application times, plant types and genotypes. All the tested cultivars were grown in the field and the evolution characteristics of the quality and yield of rice were investigated. Results showed that the milling quality (brown rice rate, milled rice rate, and head milled rice rate) differed within the same type of cultivars, but showed no significant differences between the types. Compared with those of old cultivars (early tall and dwarf cultivars), the chalkiness, setback values and prolamin protein content in grains were significantly decreased, whereas the breakdown values and the contents of albumin and glutelin proteins, lysine, glycine and arginine were significantly increased in grains of modern cultivars (semi-dwarf hybrids, and super rice). Grain yield was progressively increased with the evolution of the cultivars. Increase in grain yield was attributed mainly to the increase in total number of spikelets, which resulted mainly from large panicles. The results suggest that both quality and yield are improved during the evolution for mid-season indica rice cultivars.
      Utilization of Water and Nitrogen and Yield Formation Under Three ALimited Irrigation Schedules in Winter Wheat
      ZHANG Sheng-Quan,FANG Bao-Ting,ZHANG Ying-Hua,ZHOU Shun-Li,WANG Zhi-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2045-2054.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02045
      Abstract ( 1904 )   PDF (273KB) ( 1294 )   Save
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      Water shortage is a great challenge in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. Studies on wheat physiology and ecology have been carried out aiming at yielding more grains with less consumptions of water and nitrogen fertilizer. Cultivation techniques based on limited irrigation and nitrogen application are highly emphasized in North China Plain, where water stress is the most major problem in regular years. In Wuqiao area, Hebei province, China, a series cultivation systems have been established with distinct effects of high yield and small water consumption. The principle measure in the technique system was controlling the irrigation frequency and water amount. The purpose of this study was to disclose the mechanism of high-yielding and high resource use efficiency in the cultivation system established in Wuqiao. In the consecutive growing seasons from 2004 to 2008, field experiments were conducted at the Wuqiao Experimental Station of China Agriculture University under three limited irrigation schedules, i.e., no irrigation in spring (I0), 750 m3 ha-1 of water at jointing (I1) and each 750 m3ha-1 of water at jointing and anthesis (I2). Fertilizers were only applied before sowing, including urea 225 kg ha-1, (NH4)2HPO4 300 kg ha-1 (thus, the total nitrogen was 157.5 kg ha-1),K2SO4225 kg ha-1, and ZnSO422.5 kg ha-1. The characteristics of water and nitrogen use and the formation of grain yield were investigated at jointing, booting, anthesis, and maturity stages. The results showed that the average yield was 6134 kg ha-1 for I0, 7 515 kg ha-1 for I1, and 8 134 for I2 treatment, and the average total evapotranspiration was in the order of 3 334, 3 829, and
      4 270
      m3 ha-1. The ratio of soil water consumption to total evapotranspiration was 67%, 49%, and 38% in I0, I1, and I2 treatments, respectively. The water use efficiency ranged from 1.9 to 2.0 kg m-3 with no significant differences among treatments. This indicated that approximately 52.6 m3 of water was required for yielding 100 kg of grains. Under the nitrogen application level of 157.5 kg ha-1, the average total nitrogen accumulation was 163, 198, and 212 kg ha-1 in I0, I1, and I2 treatments, respectively. Consistent results with slight variations were observed in the total nitrogen accumulation across years. The average nitrogen use efficacy of the three irrigation treatments was 38 kg kg-1and there were no significant differences among treatments. In terms of the characteristics of plant population, the leaf area index (LAI) at booting and anthesis, as well as the LAI for the top three leaves were not significantly different between I1 and I2 treatments, but they were significantly higher than those in I0 treatment. The LAI for the top three leaves and non-leaf organs green area index (NAI) above flag leaf ranged from 2.6 to 3.8 and from 2.7 to 3.6, respectively. The ratios of non-leaf organs green area above flag leaf to the uppermost three leaf area and total leaf area were more than 1.0 and 0.7, respectively. Three limited irrigation schedulesshowed steady grain yield and high resource use efficiency for consecutive four years.

      Relationship of Activities of Key Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Metabolism with Nitrogen Utilization in Rice under Water-Nitrogen Interaction
      SUN Yong-Jian,SUN Yuan-Yuan,LI Xu-Yi,GUO Xiang,MA Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2055-2063.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02055
      Abstract ( 1894 )   PDF (299KB) ( 1932 )   Save
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      Hybrid rice Gangyou 527 was used to investigate the effects of three irrigation regimes (submerged irrigation, W1; dry cultivation, W3; and damp irrigation before booting stage plus shallow irrigation at booting stage plus wetting-drying alternation irrigation from heading stage to mature stage, W2) and different amounts ofN application onactivities of N metabolism enzymes and N absorption and utilization in rice, and the correlation of the N metabolism enzymes activities in functional leaves with N absorption and utilization and yield at different growth stages. The results showed that there was an obvious interaction between irrigation regime and amounts ofN application. Compared with other irrigation treatments, the treatment W2 promoted the N uptake from tillering to heading, N dry matter production efficiency (NMPE) and N production efficiency (NPE). W2 and suitable N application amount (180 kg ha-1) enhanced activities of N metabolism enzymes, yield, and nitrogen use efficiency, being the best model in this paper referred as the water-nitrogen coupling management model. Applying nitrogen 270 kg ha-1 resultedin negative effect of water-nitrogen interaction, slowing down the increase of activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT), decreasing N agronomy efficiency (NAE), N recovery efficiency (NRE), and yield. Correlation analysis indicated that there existed significantly or highly significantly positive correlations of activities of N metabolism enzymes with indices of N uptake and utilization and yield, with different correlation coefficients of different growth stages. According to the conditions above, GS activity in function leaves might be a candidate indicator for N uptake and accumulation at different growth stages, and activities of NR, GS, GOGAT, and endopeptidase (EP) in flag leaves at heading stage for rice yield and NMPE, NPE, NAE, NRE.
      Proteome Changes in Wheat Varieties Brock and Jing 411 after Inoculating Blumenia graminis
      YU Zhen,LI Qian,ZHAO Jian-Ye,JIANG Fan,WANG Zhen-Ying,PENG Yong-Kang,XIE Chao-Ji
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2064-2072.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02064
      Abstract ( 2049 )   PDF (1590KB) ( 1192 )   Save
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      The protein of resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Brock and susceptible variety Jing 411 was extracted from leaves and separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (2-DE) at 12 h, 3 d, and 5 d after inoculating prevalent race No. 15 of B. graminis f.sp. tritici. In Brock, compared with contral with no pathogen inoculation, at least six protein spots of 43 kD/pI 6.7, 43 kD/pI 6.9, 43 kD/pI 7.2, 28 kD/pI 5.8, 26 kD/pI 5.5 and 26 kD/pI 6.5 obviously increased in content at 12 h time point; and five protein spots of 48 kD/pI 5.6, 43 kD/pI 6.9, 43 kD/pI 7.2, 28 kD/pI 5.8 and 26 kD/pI 5.5 increased in content at 3 d time point. At 5d after inoculation, 12 novel proteins were induced, viz. 16 kD/pI 7.6, 42 kD/pI 6.5, 40 kD/pI 4.8, 40 kD/pI 4.6, 31 kD/pI 5.7, 16 kD/pI 4.6, 20 kD/pI 8.3, 50 kD/pI 6.7, 48 kD/pI 6.6, 28 kD/pI 5.7, 23 kD/pI 4.8 and 25 kD/pI 4.7; simultaneously, two protein spots that were observed earlier disappeared. In Jing 411, three protein spots of 21 kD/pI 6.4, 18 kD/pI 5.4, and 14 kD/pI 7.0 increased in content at 12 h after inoculation. At the 3 d time point, two protein spots of 80 kD/pI 5.4 and 14 kD/pI 7.0 increased in content, however, one protein spot (16 kD/pI 5.4) showed decrease in protein abundance. At the 5 d time point, three protein spots of 50 kD/pI 7.3, 40 kD/pI 7.3, and 24 kD/pI 7.2 and two protein spots of 40 kD/pI 4.8 and 14 kD/pI 7.2 showed increase and decrease in protein abundance, respectively, but there were no novel protein spots induced. Among the 12 novel protein spots induced in Brock, six spots were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS and NCBI database searching, which were F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein, heavy metal transport/detoxification protein, endo-beta-1,3-glucanase (two isozymes), beta-1,3-glucanase precursor and zinc finger protein. These proteins are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, such as cell cycle control, development, phytohormone response, and resistance to fungal disease. Thus, the proteome changes in Brock and Jing 411 leaves are probably associated with the resistance and susceptibility to powder mildew, respectively.
      Comparative Analysis of Carotenoid and Tocopherol Compositions in High-Oil and Normal Maize(Zea mays L.) Inbreds
      ZHOU Yi,FU Zhi-Yuan,LI Qing,XU Shu-Tu,CHANDER Subhash,YANG Xiao-Hong,LI Jian-She
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2073-2084.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02073
      Abstract ( 1816 )   PDF (240KB) ( 1114 )   Save
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      Among staple crops, maize has a high amount of carotenoids and tocopherols, which have a number of beneficial effects on human health. The former is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. The latter is an essential macronutrient which acts as antioxidant shows the benefit in the prevention of certain types of diseases for human. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and used for simultaneously measuring the contents of carotenoids and tocopherols in maize grain for 112 yellow-endosperm inbred lines, including 32 high-oil lines and 80 normal lines widely used in Chinese breeding programs. Broad phenotypic diversity was observed for all measured traits. Among the eight components analyzed, α-tocopherol showed the largest variation with 162 times content difference while δ-tocopherol showed the smallest variation with four times content difference. The tocopherol content in high-oil maize lines was significantly higher than that in normal lines. However, the carotenoids content in high-oil lines showed no significant differences from that in normal lines, which had wider phenotypic variations. The mean values of γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and total tocopherol contents in high-oil lines were 2.4, 2.5, and 2.4 times higher than those in normal lines. Compared with normal lines, the high-oil lines contained broader genetic variations for some tocopherols though the number of high-oil lines (32) was far smaller than that of normal lines (80). All the present results provided some beneficial informations for future breeding at the target of three-high nutritional maize: high-oil, high provitamin A and high vitamin E.

      Reaction of Pollen Fertility to High or Low Temperature Stresses in CMS-Based Hybrid Cotton
      NI Mi,WANG Xue-De,ZHANG Zhao-Wei,ZHU Yun-Guo,ZHANG Hai-Ping,SHAO Ming-Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2085-2090.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02085
      Abstract ( 1764 )   PDF (303KB) ( 940 )   Save
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      Planting CMS-based hybrid cotton is an important way to use cotton heterosis. Fertility of hybrid cotton pollens is influenced by cultivar, climatic conditions, management practices and pests. Among all the factors, temperature is the primary one affecting cotton growth, the following is air humidity. Stability of pollen fertility under high and low temperature stresses, associated with the heterosis expression of CMS-based hybrids, is the main point to elucidate in this study. The fertility differences between hybrids and the maintainer were compared by testing the percentage of fertile pollens in the greenhouse experiment with temperature controlled and the field experiment with natural temperature. In addition, percentage of setting bolls and percentage of aborted seeds were tested in the field experiment.Pollen fertility was checked by benzidine-Naphthol fluorescence microscopic method, while cross-pollination experiments were performed by dusting pollen obtained from corresponding restorers, then percentage of setting bolls and percentage of aborted seeds were determined by calculating the number of bolls or seeds, respectively. The critical temperatures for upper limit and lower limit were searched from different given consistent temperatures, which each temperature was kept for eight days in the greenhouse when cotton pollens turned from fertility to sterility. The results showed that the response of CMS-based hybrids to the extreme temperature stress was more sensitive than that of the maintainer, while the former usually had lower stability in pollen vitality under the stress. However, different CMS-based hybrids had various tolerances to temperature stress, for example, hybrids (F1) restored by Zheda strong restorer showed higher pollen viability, more setting bolls and less aborted seeds under the stress than others. The response of pollen fertility to air temperature had a 5-day’s delay in the field. Furthermore, the changes of maximum air temperature were more consistent with the curve of the percentage of pollen viability than those of average air temperature. It showed that the maximum air temperature for several days before anthesis affected the viability of pollen more salient. The Quadratic model [Y = a (TTopt)2+b], applied to analysis the relationship between pollen viability (Y) and temperature (T), was best described as the temperature response functions of pollen fertility. According to actual observation,combined with the predicted value from the model above, the upper and lower critical temperatures for shift of fertility were 38.0℃ and 13.0℃ for hybrids restored by Zheda strong restorer, 36.0℃ and 14.0℃ for hybrids restored by DES-HMF277, and 38.5℃ and 10.0℃ for their maintainer. Compared with the low temperature stress, in the major cotton-growing areas of China, high temperature stress was more widespread, with longer duration and greater impact on yield. Improving the pollen fertility stability of CMS-based hybrid cotton under extreme temperature stress is an important goal in recent breeding program.

      General Characteristics of Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Conventional Indica Rice Cultivars with Different Panicle Weight Types
      DONG Gui-Chun,YU Xiao-Feng,ZHAO Jiang-Nin,JU Jing,TIAN Hao,LI Jin-Qian,ZHANG Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2091-2100.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02091
      Abstract ( 1813 )   PDF (254KB) ( 1116 )   Save
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      A total of 88 and 122 conventional indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars with different types of panicle weight (PW) were solution-cultured in 2001 and 2002, respectively. On the basis of PW, these cultivars were classified into 6 types from low to high (i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, A was the lowest, F was the highest). Dry matter weight and nitrogen content of roots, culm and sheath, leaf, and panicle were measured at heading and maturity stages, and the grain yield and its components were tested after harvest. No significant difference in nitrogen content of the plant was detected between various PW types of conventional indica rice. The population nitrogen accumulation (NA) and individual NA at heading, grain filling and maturity stages were higher in cultivars with large PW than in cultivars with small PW. The effects of individual NA and panicles per area on population NA were both significant, especially the individual NA at heading stage. In cultivars with medium to large PW, nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen use efficiency for grain yield (NUEg) were higher than those in other rice types. And rice cultivars with large PW showed longer growth duration especially days from sowing to heading. The effects of NA and NUEg on PW were both significant, while the NA was more effective. The N uptake intensity of population especially N uptake intensity of individual was the main factor influencing N accumulationlevels of population and individual in conventional indica rice cultivars.

      Morphogenesis Model with Relation to Light and Temperature Condition for Above-Ground Organs in Cotton
      GUO Yin-Qiao,ZHAO Chuan-De,ZHU Yan,LI Cun-Dong,SUN Hong-Chun,CAO Wei-Xing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2101-2106.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02101
      Abstract ( 1751 )   PDF (277KB) ( 1139 )   Save
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      Due to their complexity in the morphological character of multi-branch cotton, it is hard to simulate the morphogenesis of cotton. The objective of the study was to construct a simulation model with morphological characters based on GDD (growing degree day) and Logistic equation. An experiment for model establishment was conducted using two cultivars (Meimian 33B and Jifeng 908) with three repetitions. The length and width of leaf, the length of petiole, the length and diameter of internode, the height and diameter of boll were determined from three-leaf stage to the stationary length of leaf on main stem. The result was as follows: (1) GDD and IGDD were quantitied through integrating the quantitative connection of every organ of cotton and the relationship of morphological indices to the effective cumulative temperature, the growing degree day and initial growing degree day of every organ in cotton were quantitied. (2) The major influencing factors of temperature and sunlight were quantitied. The temperature and sunshine hours effect factor model was constructed using mathematical modeling method, which can be explained and reflected better by effect factor in practice. (3) According to the pot experiment data in the field of Hebei Agriculture University in 2006, through analyzing the effects of temperature and sunshine hours on morphogenesis formation in cotton, potential length and width of different cotton organs were quantitied. (4) By quantifying relationship of morphogenesis formation to temperature and sunshine hours, an ecological model of cotton morphogenesis was constructed with the rule of “the same similar”. The model is based on GDD and Logistic equation, which can predict the morphologic indices such as the length and width of leaf, the length of petiole, the length and diameter of internode, the height and diameter of boll. The model was validated with independent dataset from experiment in Nanjing in 2006, the results showed that the RMSEs between simulated and observed value for length and width of leaf on main stem, length of petiole on main stem, length and width of internode on main stem, length and width of leaf on sympodial stem, length of petiole on sympodial stem, length and width of internodes on sympodial stem, boll height and diameter was 0.48, 0.65, 0.53, 0.09 0.02, 0.55, 0.28, 0.23, 0.14, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.11 cm, respectively, which indicated that the present model has a good performance in predicting the dynamics of each organ size in cotton growth process.

      Evaluation of Molecular Markers Specific for 1BL·1RS Translocation and Characterization of 1RS Chromosome in Wheat Varieties from Different Origins
      TANG Huai-Jun,YIN Gui-Hong,XIA Xian-Chun,FENG Jian-Jun,QU Yan-Ying,HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2107-2115.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02107
      Abstract ( 1884 )   PDF (638KB) ( 1585 )   Save
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      For the purpose of discriminating the 1BL?1RS translocation for wheat quality improvement, a total of ten STS, one SCAR and four RAPD markers specific to 1BL?1RS translocations as well as 22 SSR markers located on 1RS were employed to detect 78 accessions of 1BL?1RS translocations, 10 non-1BL?1RS translocations, and three rye materials. The 1BL?1RS translocations included Zhou 8425B and its 36 derivatives, Lankao 906 and its five derivatives, Aimengniu and its eight derivatives, and Lovrin series with 1BL?1RS translocation (29 accessions). With the help of seven STS, one SCAR, three RAPD, and three SSR markers, the 1BL?1RS translocations were identified effectively. Markers ω-sec-p1/ω-sec-p2, ω-sec-p3/ω-sec-p4, H20, and SECA2/SECA3 were the best with stable amplification, clear bands on electrophoresis gel, good repeatability, and simple operation. In the 78 1BL?1RS translocations, no diversities were observed according to the markers located on 1RS.

      Effects of Nitrogen Application Rates on Nitrogen Uptake and Use,Protein Accumulation,and Grain Yield in Malting Barkey
      CAI Jian,JIANG Dong,DAI Ting-Bo,CAO Wei-Xing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2116-2121.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02116
      Abstract ( 1754 )   PDF (274KB) ( 1153 )   Save
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      In purpose of improving application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production, the experiments were conducted using two cultivars, Supi 3 and Dan 2, in sequential growing seasons from 2004 to 2006. Within the range of N application rate from 0 to 225 kg ha-1, the N accumulation before anthesis and its translocation to grains were in positive responses to the increase of N rate, but there was a slight difference between the N rate treatments of 225 kg ha-1 and 300 kg ha-1. The translocation efficiency of N accumulated before anthesis, and its contribution to grains showed single-peak curve changes with the increase of N rate. The activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in grains increased with the augment of N rate, indicating that more proteins were accumulated in grains at higher N rates. When N rate was lower than 197 kg ha-1, the protein content in grains met the malting requirement (lower than 12%). According to the regression analysis, the highest grain yield was observed at N application level of 241 kg ha-1. In addition, the N recovery efficiency was the largest in N rate treatment of 225 kg ha-1, and the N physiological use efficiency and N harvest index decreased when more N fertilizer applied. The results suggest that 150–197 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer should be favorable for malting barley production under environments similar to that of the present experiment.
      Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Adh2 of Oryza rufipogon Griff. from Hainan Island
      DONG Yi-Bo,PEI Xin-Wu,Yuan Qin-Hua,PENG Yu-Fa
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2122-2126.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02122
      Abstract ( 1720 )   PDF (224KB) ( 1222 )   Save
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      The sequence polymorphism of Adh2 in six populations of Oryza rufipogon (WN, WA, WC, DZ, QH, and LD) from Hainan and two Oryza sativa (Nipponbare, 9311) was analyzed. The result showed that there were nine singleton variable sites, four parsimony informative sites, eight synonymous sites and five replacement sites at coding region. There were 21 singleton variable sites, 29 parsimony informative sites and 161 indels sites at intron region. Adh2 polymorphism (pR, qR) at entire region was 0.011. The polymorphism at intron was higher than that at coding region. At coding region, the polymorphism of synonymous sites was higher than that at replacement sites. Neutrality tests showed that there was more purified selection at coding region than at intron region, although no significant difference was found. Cluster analysis showed O. rufipogon from Hainan could be divided into two groups. One group (QH, LD) was clustered with O. rufipogon from China mainland and O. sativa. The other group was clustered with some O. rufipogon from southeast Asia.

      Effect of Seed Soaking with Uniconazole on Growth and Development of foxtail Millet Plant
      ZHANG Yong-Qing,PEI Hong-Bin,LIU Liang-Quan,WANG Lu,MIAO Guo-Yuan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2127-2132.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02127
      Abstract ( 2129 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1136 )   Save
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      The objective of this study was to investigate the influence and regulation effect of seed soaking with different uniconazole concentrations (15, 30, 60 and 120 mg L-1) on the growth of roots and relation between roots and shoots in foxtail millet cultivar Jingu21 cultured in pot and soil column on the experimental farm of Shanxi Agricultural University. The main results were as follows: (1) Uniconazole treatment inhibited the growth of shoots and promoted the growth of roots simultaneously. The number, activity, dry weight and total length of roots increased obviously, so did the stem thickness and tillers, but the plant height decreased. (2) Uniconazole treatment decreased the leaf area at seedling stage, but promoted its leaf growth at booting stage. (3) Uniconazole treatment adjusted the senescent process of plant through prolonging the declining phase of root activity, improving the activities of SOD and POD, and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in root and flag leaf after anthesis to some extent. Through treating seed in 30 mg L-1 uniconazole, the activities roots in lower layer increased 34.95%, 43.64% and 44.74% respectively at 10, 20, and 30 days after anthesis compared with control. (4) Uniconazole treatment increased the ears per pot, 1000-grain weight, and so the yield obviously. In a conclusion , the seed soaking in uniconazole solution of 15-120 mg L-1 concentrations could increase the foxtail millet yield obviously, and the treatment of 30 mg L-1 uniconazole had the best effect under the condition of this study.

      Genetics of Lodging in Tolerance to Maize Stem Puncture
      FENG Guang,LIU Zhi-Fang,LI Yan-Yan,XING Jin-Feng,HUANG Chang-Ling
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(11):  2133-2138.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02133
      Abstract ( 2130 )   PDF (300KB) ( 1389 )   Save
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      Six generations of maize hybrids from Shendan 16 and Zhengdan 958 were used in the study, the third internode of maize stem above ground was punctured at the middle part along with the direction of elliptical and short diameter by self-designed maize stem puncture equipment. F1, F2, BC1, BC2, P1, and P2 were used to study the inheritance of maize stem lodging with joint analysis of multiple generations. The results were as follows: maize stem puncture tolerance trait presented a two peak distribution in the F2 population of two hybrids, and a multi-peak distribution in the BC1 and BC2 populations, indicating that the trait was quantitative in nature and controlled by polygene; the inheritance of maize stem puncture tolerance trait fitted the model of a pair of additive-dominance-epitasis major gene plus additive-dominance-epitasis polygene (D Model); the major gene heritability was between 34.5% and 45.7%; the polygene heritability was between 41.6% and 56.3%. The effects of major gene and polygene heritability were important on maize stem lodging inheritance, and should be paid more attention in maize breeding.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
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Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
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