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    12 August 2011, Volume 37 Issue 08
      Introduction of betA Gene Enhancing Tolerance to Hot-Dry Windy Tolerance in Wheat
      ZHANG Wei-Wei, HE Chun-Mei, ZHANG Ju-Ren
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1315-1323.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01315
      Abstract ( 1922 )   PDF (429KB) ( 1022 )   Save
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      Hot-dry windy climate is the weather phenomenon of low humidity, high temperature, and wind stress occurring simultaneously, which causes great reduction of wheat yield in northern China during grain filling. As a compatible solute in cells, glycinebetaine plays an important role in tolerance to environmental stresses of plants. In this study, we used three betA transgenic wheat lines and their wild type (WT) to disclose the effects of glycinebetaine accumulation on the growth and yield components of wheat plants suffering from hot-dry windy stress for three days. After the hot-dry windy treatment, the transgenic plants maintained more vigorous growth compared with the WT and showed slower dehydration rates of flag leaf with significantly larger green blade area than that of WT. Under the hot-dry windy stress, the photosynthetic ability and the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in flag leaf were reduced in both transgenic lines and the WT. However, the reductions were smaller in the transgenic lines than in the WT. After 3-day of stress, the net photosynthetic rates of the transgenic lines fell to 2.3–3.7 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, while that of the WT plant was 1.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. After the 3-day stress, the activities of SPS and SS were decreased to 62.3–69.8% of the levels before stress treatment in the transgenic lines of those before stress, whereas those were decreased to 56.5–64.5% of the levels before treatment in the WT plant. The glycinebetaine contents in flag leaf were increased in all lines, especially in the transgenic lines (18–87% higher than that of WT). Based on these results, we concluded that under the protection of glycinebetaine, the transgenic plants could maintain higher net photosynthetic rate than that of the WT plant, resulting in more accumulation of carbohydrate and higher grain yield per plant and 100-grain weight after the stress of hot-dry windy stress. Therefore, the betA transgenic wheat might be practical in improving tolerance to the hot-dry windy climate in winter wheat.
      Genetic Diversity and Origin of Weedy Rice in Jiangsu Province, China
      SHAO Jing, DAI Wei-Min, ZHANG Lian-Ju, SONG Xiao-Ling, QIANG Qing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1324-1332.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01324
      Abstract ( 2245 )   PDF (303KB) ( 1190 )   Save
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      The previous investigations on occurrence and harmfulness of weedy rice in Jiangsu province showed the province is one of the most serious infestations in China, especially in the central region of Jiangsu province. Hence, in the paper, 33 pairs of co-dominant SSR makers were used to analyse 11 weedy rice populations in central region and other samples in northern and southern regions of this province. Our main objectives were to reveal genetic diversity and analyse the origin of weedy rice. The result showed that the genetic diversity of the 11 populations in central regions of Jiangsu province is He=0.1661, I =0.2872, percentage of polymorphic loci P=87.88%; average number of alleles Na=2.1515; effective number of alleles Ne=1.2887. Among all of 11 populations, the populations collected from Taizhou city had the maximum value of genetic diversity while that from Nantong had the minimum one. Genetic differentiation among regions (1%) was significantly less than among populations (39%) and within populations (60%). Nei’s genetic distance and UPGMA cluster analysis and principle component analysis(PCA) showed that most weedy rice was indica in central and southern regions of Jiangsu Province and a few of japonica in northern regions in the province. All of weedy rice biotypes in central and southern regions did not related with cultivated rice while related with cultivated hybrid indica rice which was ever planted before. Hence, our research results relatively supported the atavistic hypothesis that weedy rice in Jiangsu probably originated from cultivated rice and varieties (accessions) through gene recombination or reverse mutation which produce wild characters. However, the japonica weedy rice in northern regions might be the offspring of the hybrid between cultivated rice and wild rice Ludao.
      Genetic Difference of Siblines Derived from Winter Wheat Germplasm “Aimengniu”
      ZHAO Chun-Hua, CUI Fa, LI Jun, DING An-Meng, LI Xin-Feng, GAO Ji-Rong, WANG Hong-Gang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1333-1341.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01333
      Abstract ( 2214 )   PDF (587KB) ( 1172 )   Save
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       “Aimengniu” (Aifeng 3//Mengxian 201/Neuzucht) is a backbone parent for cultivar improvement of winter wheat in China. Up to 2007, 26 wheat cultivars have been developed from crosses with Aimengniu. To disclose the genetic basis of this backbone parent in breeding process, we compared the genetic and phenotypic differences among seven Aimengniu-derived siblines (types) based on the results from 656 molecular markers and 16 agronomic traits including plant height, panicle length, grain number per panicle, kernel length, kernel width, panicle number per plant. There were obvious variations among the seven Aimengniu-derived types in the traits surveyed. The Aimengniu-derive type V showed better performance on yield components than other types. A graphical genotype integrated map was constructed by GGT2.0 using the molecular marker data, which showed the inheritance of fragments from the three parents to Aimengniu. Two F2 populations (Aifeng 3/Neuzucht and Mengxian 201/Neuzucht) were also developed to detect yield-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in the Aimengniu-derived type V. Eight Aimengniu V-specific loci were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2D, 3A, 4D, and 7A, which were associated with QTLs for yield components. These specific loci might discriminate the type V from other types at genomic level.
      QTL Analysis of 18-C Unsaturated Fatty Acid Contents in Zero-Erucic Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
      YANG Yan-Yu, YANG Cheng-Jiang, CHEN Zhe-Gong, GUAN Chun-Yun, CHEN She-Yuan, LIU Zhong-Song
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1342-1350.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01342
      Abstract ( 2274 )   PDF (339KB) ( 1204 )   Save
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      Rapeseed oil is a major edible oil source for human consumption. Its quality depends on its fatty acid composition. Among fatty acids, 18-C unsaturated fatty acids are most crucial. QTL mapping will pave a way for molecular breeding and cloning genes for fatty acid biosynthesis in rapeseed. In this study, the zero-erucic rapeseed parents HOP (high oleic) and Xiangyou 15 (low oleic) were used to construct a F2 population consisting of 189 individual plants. The construction of a genetic map containing 342 SSR markers and the mapping of QTLs for the 18-C unsaturated fatty acid contents were carried out. Two sampling methods, i.e., half-seed sampling from F2 single seeds and bulk-seed sampling from F2 individual plants (F3 seeds), were used to determine the fatty acid contents by gas chromatography. The correlations of the fatty acid contents between the two sampling methods as well as most of the correlations between these fatty acids were significant. Totally two major QTLs for oleic acid content were detected in the linkage groups (LG) of A5 and C5, which could explain 60-70% of the variance for oleic acid content. The superior one of the two QTLs was mapped in LG A5 and tightly linked to the FAD2 gene. The other one which located in LG C5 was a major QTL newly found for oleic acid content. The marker closest to this QTL was found to be homologous to the marker on the LG A5, implying the QTL on C5 was also associated with the FAD2 gene. Consistent effect of the two QTLs was confirmed using oleic acid contents determined by the two sampling methods. The QTLs for oleic acid content was found to be the ones for the linoleic acid content, which was consistent with the high significant correlation between the two fatty acids. Nevertheless, one more minor QTL for linoleic acid content with a low LOD value was shown on LG A4 using the bulk-seed method. For linolenic acid content, three major QTLs on LG A4, A5, and C4, respectively, were detected consistently using the determinations of the two sampling methods, totally explaining 72-80% of the variance for linolenic acid content. Furthermore, another QTL with a low LOD value, only accounting for 12.42% of variance was detected on LG A4 using the half-seed method.
      Isolation and Tolerance Analysis of GsNAC20 Gene Linked to Response to Stress in Glycine soja
      CAI Hua, ZHU Yan-Meng, LI Yong, BAI Ti, JI Wei, WANG Dong-Dong, SUN Xiao-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1351-1359.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01351
      Abstract ( 2304 )   PDF (666KB) ( 1606 )   Save
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      Abiotic stresses, such as salt and drought, affect plant growth, development and reduce crop yield. Isolationof a key regulatory gene linked to response to abiotic-stress and identification of thegenes function areurgently needed. Glycine soja is an excellent material to isolate abiotic stress-related genes because of its high stress tolerance. Plant-specific transcription factor NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) proteins play essential roles in many biological processes such as development, senescence, morphogenesis, and stress signal transduction pathways. It has become a new research focus in the abiotic-stress field. Based on that, we screened a new NAC gene from Glycine soja by yeast one hybrid, which has 99% similarity with NAC20 of Glycine max (EU440353.1), named as GsNAC20. GsNAC20 had typical NAC DNA-binding domain at the N-terminal and transcription activation region at the C-terminal. It can bind to MYB1AT element (the core sequence: AAACCA) in vitro, but no transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assay system, which was consistent with GmNAC20. Localization of GsNAC20 protein was analyzed by transient expression in tobacco epidermis cells and the result showed that GsNAC20 waslocalized in nucleus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed the expression level of GsNAC20 was induced by drought, low temperature and salt stresses, but there existed difference between leaf and root in G. soja. Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsNAC20 showed higher sensitivity under salt stress. All results showed that GsNAC20 perhaps is a new member of NAC family in G. soja, and is closely related to salt and drought stresses, so it can either be used as a new resource in gene engineering on stress tolerance or be further studied to provide more information for the researches on the mechanism of stress tolerance in plant.
      Postulation of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes and Analysis of Adult Resistance in 50 Wheat Varieties (Lines) in Gansu Province
      CAO Shi-Qi, ZHANG Bo, LI Meng-Ju, XU Shi-Chang, JIA Hui-Sheng, JIN She-Lin, GU Qiu-Zhen, HUANG Jin, JIN Meng-An, CHANG Xun-Wu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1360-1371.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01360
      Abstract ( 2436 )   PDF (217KB) ( 1128 )   Save
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      By means of artificial inoculation of 26 Puccinia striiformis isolates with different spectra of pathogenicity at seedling stage, the resistance to strip rust was identified in 50 wheat varieties (lines) from Gansu province, China. In combination with pedigree analysis and resistance reactions of 30 standard varieties with known resistant genes, the resistance genes in the 50 varieties (lines) were postulated. The resistant genes Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr26, and Yr9 (1B/1R) were validated using molecular markers in 43 varieties (lines). The results of resistance gene postulation showed that Zhongliang 25 was carrying Yr3 and unknown genes. The vareity Lantian 20 was postulated to possess Yr3a, Yr4a, Yr16, and unknown genes. The line Y9220-12 was postulated to possess Yr9, YrCle, and unknown genes. The varieties (lines) Lantian 14, Longyuan 932, Longyu 216, and Longyuan 992 were postulated to possess Yr9 and unknown genes. Genes Yr10 and YrMor were postulated in Longjian 9343, 93-Bao 4-4, Tianxuan 43, and Guinong 22. The variety Lantian 19 was postulated to possess Yr12 and unknown resistant genes. Gene Yr26 was postulated in Lantian 17, 95-111-3, 98-178-3-2-4, and 92R137. Fourteen varieties (lines) were detected to be Yr9 (1B/1R) wheat–rye translocation, which accounted for 32.6% of the total varieties. Yr26 was detected in 92R178 and Lantian 17. Other varieties (lines) were controlled by unknown genes. Although most varieties (lines) tested were highly susceptible at seedling stage, some of them showed adult resistance in the observation pool in Longnan, Gansu, China. Ten varieties (lines) including Lantian 10 might possess adult resistance and another 10 varieties (lines) including Lantian 14 might be varieties with slow rusting characters.
      Effect of Abscisic Acid Treatment on psbA Gene Expression in Two Wheat Cultivars during Grain Filling Stage under Drought Stress
      WAONG Yue-Xia, SUO Biao, ZHAO Teng-Fei, QU Xiao-Fei, YUAN Li-Gang, ZHAO Xue-Juan, ZHAO Hui-Jie
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1372-1377.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01372
      Abstract ( 2249 )   PDF (215KB) ( 1535 )   Save
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      Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone and may be involved in drought resistance in crops. The effects of exogenous ABA application on wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress were investigated. When two wheat cultivars, Yumai 949 and Shanmai 5 in grain filling stage were drought stressed by PEG for 72 h, the results showed a marked decrease in relative water contents (RWC), chlorophyll contents and yield, along with a significant increase in MDA content. Meanwhile, an obvious transcriptional inhibition in psbA gene of photosystem II (PSII) system after PEG exposure was also determined by reverse transcriptional semiquantitative polymerase chain amplification assay. The exogenous ABA treatment could significantly alleviate the stress injury. Moreover, compared to Yumai 949, Shanmai 5 had less destroyed plasma membranes, less reduces in RWC, chlorophyll contents, yield and psbA transcriptional level, and all parameters could be restored to the level of control by exogenous ABA treatment, suggesting a correlationship between cultivar dependent drought stress resistance and psbA gene expression. The present results firstly provide some evidences to the important regulatory function of exogenous ABA on psbA expression, and proposed that the application of exogenous ABA could enhance the stress resistance of wheat plant in grain filling stage by protecting important gene transcription in PSII system.
      Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Pod and Leaf of Two Major Peanut Cultivars in Southern China
      CHEN Xiao-Beng, ZHU Fang-He, HONG Yan-Ban, LIU Hai-Yan, ZHANG Er-Hua, ZHOU Gui-Yuan, LI Shao-Xiong, ZHONG Ni, WEN Shi-Jie, LI Xing-Yu, LIANG Xuan-Jiang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1378-1388.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01378
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      Great improvements have been achieved in peanut yield, quality and resistance through traditional breeding methods. However, variations in gene expression profiles in major cultivars are yet unclear. Here, we utilized a high-density peanut oligonucleotide microarray to analyze gene expression profiles in pod and leaf of Shanyou 523 and Yueyou 7, which are widely grown in southern China. The results indicated that 1 383 differentially expressed genes were detected in pod, 662 and 721 of which were up- and down-regulated, respectively, while 647 differentially expressed genes were detected in leaf, 234 and 413 of which were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Among the pod differentially expressed genes, 52 and 105 genes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated at least 10-fold, whereas only two and five were found in leaf. To further characterize these differentially expressed genes, we used Gene Ontology (GO) for annotation of them. The results showed that a large proportion of differentially expressed genes from both pod and leaf were distributed in cell and membrane, possessed binding and catalytic activities and were involved in metabolic and cellular processes. Additionally, the expression of four differentially expressed genes was validated by real time qRT-PCR, further confirming the microarray results.
      TaCRF2 Gene Isolation from Triticum aestivum and Primary Function Validation in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)
      GUO Li-Xiang, GAO Shi-Qiang, TANG Yi-Miao, WANG Yong-Bei, LIU Mei-Yang, ZHANG Chao, XU Bei, LIAN Wei-Wei, ZHAO Chang-Beng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1389-1397.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01389
      Abstract ( 2316 )   PDF (530KB) ( 1517 )   Save
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      Wheat, like other crops, suffers from drought, salt, low-temperature and other abiotic stresses, seriously resulting in yield decline. It is an effective way for crop breeding to improve resistance via molecular biology techniques. Zinc finger protein, an important transcription factor commonly found in plant, can regulate the expression of multiple stress-inducible genes and enhance comprehensive resistances effectively. In this study, a RING-H2 zinc ?nger protein gene, designated as TaCRF2, was isolated from Triticum aestivum by RT-PCR. Its cDNA was 847 bp and encoded a putative protein of 280 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 30.97 kD and an isoelectric point (PI) of 7.03. A typical RING-H2 finger domain was found at the C-terminal region of TaCRF2 protein, and two transmembrane domains were found at the N-terminal region. Alignment of amino acid sequence showed that TaCRF2 was 82% identical to Oryza sativa putative RING zinc finger protein ABF95226. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the TaCRF2 was expressed in both nuclear and cytoplasm membrane. Real-time PCR showed that the transcript of TaCRF2 was strongly induced by drought, salinity and cold to some extent. The TaCRF2 gene was transformed into tobacco cultivar Wisconsin 38 (W38) by Agrobacterium mediated under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Under drought, salt and low-temperature stresses, transgenic tobacco lines carrying TaCRF2 gene developed the strong primary root, more lateral root and smaller yellow leaves, and performed higher tolerance to these stresses than the wide-type tobaccos, The primary function verification showed that overexpression of TaCRF2 gene in tobaccos enhanced their tolerance to drought and salinity stresses. This study will help further research of wheat RING-H2 type zinc finger protein reactions in the role of stress resistance, and bring wheat resistance breeding excellent candidate genes.
      Identification of QTLs for Lignin Content of Seed Coat in Brassica napus L. in Different Environments
      QU Cun-Min, FU Fu-You, LEI Kun, XIE Jing-Mei, LIU Xiao-Lan, HUANG Jie-Heng, LI Bei, WANG Rui, CHEN Li, TANG Zhang-Lin, LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1398-1405.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01398
      Abstract ( 2167 )   PDF (442KB) ( 1006 )   Save
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      The objective of this study was to identify QTLs for lignin content of seed coat in Brassica napus using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method. The recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population derived from a cross between black-seeded male parent cultivar Zhongyou 821 and yellow-seeded female parent line GH06 was established by selfing for seven successive generations with single seed propagating from F2. The population was grown at Beibei and Wanzhou in Chongqing in 2007. The QTLs of seed coat lignin content in two environments were detected using the genetic map constructed in 2007. A total of 12 QTLs for seed coat lignin content were located on the four linkage groups, each of them explained 4.50–8.79% of phenotypic variation. One QTL located on linkage group (LG) 3 was linked with the same marker EM19ME23/130 in two environments, other QTLs had different locations between two environments. The QTLs found in Beibei were mainly distributed on LG 20, and the QTLs detected in Wanzhou mainly distributed on LG 3. The QTLs for flavoid contents in embryo and seed color were located in the nearly region with some QTLs for seed coat lignin content. The correlation analysis showed the lignin content of seed coat had significantly and positively correlated with flavoid content of embryo in different environments. In conclution, (1) the seed coat lignin content is controlled by many minor-effect genes, with a genetic pattern of quantitative trait, and the expression of the QTL is affected by environmental factors greatly; (2) the syntheses of lignin in seed coat and flavoid of embryo are probably controlled by the same genes or have the same pathway partially.
      Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Nitrite Reductase Gene from Sugarbeet
      DAN Xiao-Yan, CENG Pan-Da, LI Shi-Long, WANG Yu-Bei, MA Feng-Ming, DIAO Zhi-Wei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1406-1414.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01406
      Abstract ( 2047 )   PDF (554KB) ( 1413 )   Save
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      The NiR gene was cloned using RT-PCR and 3′/5′RACE techniques. The cDNA of NiR gene isolated from sugarbeet was 2 014 bp containing a 1 830 bp opening-reading frame (ORF), encoding 599 amino acids. Further comparison showed that NiR gene had high homology to both of Spinacia oleracea NiR gene and Arabidopsis thaliana NiR gene, which was 93%. The predicted NiR protein found to have a hemoprotein beta-component (ferrodoxin-like), and 4Fe-4S region, its 3D structure was predicted by analysis software. Real time PCR analysis showed that when using 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80, and 160 mmol L–1 NO3-N treated for 72 hours, the expression of NiR gene was the highest at 50 mmol L–1; when using 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 mmol L–1 NH4+-N treated for 48 hours, the expression of NiR gene showed two peaks at 8 mmol L–1 and 64 mmol L–1, respectively. Furthermore, in experiments treated with different ratios of NO3-N to NH4+-N for 48h, the expression of NiR gene was the highest when the ratio was 80:20. Cycloheximide 9h treatment experiments showed that NiR gene expression decreased with increasing the treating concentration. NO2treatments indicated that the maximum expression of NiR gene was induced by 40 mmol L–1 NO2.
      Relationships of Maize Kernel Setting with Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Supply under Controlling Pollination
      FENG Han-Yu, WANG Zhi-Min, KONG Fan-Na, ZHANG Min-Ji, ZHOU Shun-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1415-1422.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01415
      Abstract ( 2013 )   PDF (385KB) ( 1054 )   Save
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      Two different types of maize cultivar Zhengdan958 and Chaoshi1 were used, the apical kernel was stimulated to be set by decreasing the pollination of ear basal filaments, and a comparative study was conducted in the change of carbohydrate and nitrogen in early kernel and its relationships with kernel abortion. The results showed that nutrient supply of the apical region of maize ear was significantly improved in the treatment of no-pollination of basal ear region, so that concentration of soluble sugars in cob and kernel and kernel sucrose content increased significantly, starch of the apical kernel accumulated fast, kernel nitrogen content increased also, C/N value was higher, and the apical kernel weight increased fast and developed normally; on the contrary, nutrient supply of the apical region of maize ear was lower in the treatment of complete pollination at the same time, the concentration of soluble sugars in cob and kernel and kernel sucrose content were lower, the starch of the apical kernel accumulated slowly, the kernel nitrogen content and the C/N value were lower also, and the apical kernel weight increased slowly and aborted finally. Similar changes between the two maize cultivars in carbohydrate and nitrogen, and kernel growth were observed. These data indicated that the normal growth and development of the apical kernels are accompanied by an adequate carbohydrate and nitrogen supply, the shortage of nutrient supply may be the fundamental cause of kernel abortion.
      Effects of Interaction between Phosphorus Nutrition and Cultivation Methods on Grain Yield and Phosphorus Utilization of Upland Rice and Paddy Rice
      ZHANG Ya-Ji, HUA Jing-Jing, LI E-Chao, CHEN Ying-Ying, YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1423-1431.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01423
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      The objective of this study was to investigate the grain yield and the phosphorus utilization efficiency in responses to phosphorous (P) fertilizer and the interaction between cultivation methods and P levels in upland rice and paddy rice. One japonica upland rice cultivar Zhonghan 3 and one japonica paddy rice cultivar Yangfujing 8 were grown under the moist cultivation (MC, contro1) or bare dry-cultivation(DC) with low amount of P (LP, 45 kg ha-1), norma1 amount of P (NP, 90 kg ha-1), and high amount of P (HP, 135 kg ha-1). Under DC, with the increase of P level, both upland rice and paddy rice significantly increased grain yield and P accumulation, andupland rice showeda significant decrease and paddy rice had no difference in P use efficiency of matter production and P use efficiency of grain yield production. Under MC, there was no significant difference in grain yield, P accumulation amount, and P use efficiency of grain yield production. There was a significant decrease in P use efficiency of matter production between HP and NP for the upland rice, but the grain yield and P accumulation at HP were lower than at NP, there was no significant difference in P use efficiency of matter production and P use efficiency of grain yield production between HP and NP for paddy rice. When compared with MC, DC showed less number of adventitious roots, lower P accumulation amount, higher P use efficiency of matter production, lower P use efficiency of grain yield production, and lower grain yield for both upland and paddy rice with more reduction in grain yield for upland rice than for paddy rice. Compared with paddy rice, upland rice showed less number of adventitious roots, lower P accumulation amount, fewer panicles, higher seed setting rate and higher 1000-grain weight, lower grain yield,higher P use efficiency of matter production and higher P use efficiency of grain yield production. Upland rice showed a faster declining inchlorophyll content (SPAD value) of the flag leaf after anthesis. The cultivation methods and phosphorus nutritionhad significant or very significant effects on the P accumulation amount after anthesis, P use efficiency of grain yield production, and adventitious roots for both upland rice and paddy rice. The P accumulation amount after anthesis was very significantly and positively correlated with grain yield and adventitious roots, and very significantly and negatively correlated with P use efficiency. Increase in P levels could increase grain yield for both upland and paddy rice under DC, and the response of the two types of rice cultivars to P levels is different under either DC or MC.
      Effects of Soil Tillage Practice on Dry Matter Production and Water Use Efficiency in Wheat
      ZHENG Cheng-Yan, CUI Shi-Meng, WANG Dong, XU Zhen-Wen, ZHANG Yong-Li, SHI Yu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1432-1440.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01432
      Abstract ( 2394 )   PDF (331KB) ( 1340 )   Save
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      Simultaneous increase of grain yield and water use efficiency is an ideal aim and a hot focus in crop production and research, especially in Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers Plain of China where wheat (Triticum aestivum) production is frequently threatened by drought stress. The objective of this study was to disclose the effects of tillage practice on water consumption characteristics and dry matter accumulation and distribution in wheat plant under high-yielding and flexible irrigation conditions. In a continuous experiment across three growing seasons from 2007 to 2010, we planted wheat cultivar Jimai 22 with five tillage treatments including strip rotary tillage (SR), strip rotary tillage after subsoiling (SRS), rotary tillage (R), rotary tillage after subsoiling (RS), and plowing tillage (P). All tillage treatments were irrigated at sowing, jointing, and anthesis stages to a designed soil water content based on testing soil moisture before watering. The total water consumption amount was higher in SRS and RS treatments than in SR and R treatments. Comparing with other treatments, SRS treatment increased the soil water consumption amount in 0–200 cm soil layers, but decreased the soil evaporation. SRS and RS treatments gained the highest amount of dry matter accumulation, the grain dry matter partitioning at maturity, and contribution of dry matter assimilation amount after anthesis to grain, followed by P treatment, and R and SR treatments showed the lowest levels in the above parameters, particularly SR treatment. SRS treatments had the highest grain yield of 9 409.01, 9 613.86, and 9 698.42 kg ha-1 in 2007–2010 growing seasons respectively, with no significant difference from RS treatment. P and R treatments ranked the second and third places. Grain yield in SR treatment was the lowest among treatments. In the 2008–2009 and 2009–2010 growing seasons, the water use efficiencies of SRS treatment were the highest among treatments, which were 21.39 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 22.09 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. RS treatment also had higher water use efficiency than SR, R, and P treatments. Therefore, we recommend that SRS is the most appropriate tillage practice in high-yielding and water-saving production of wheat in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers Plain.
      Correlation between Mixolab Parameter and Mixograph and RVA Parameters and Its Effect on Noodle Quality
      ZHANG Yan, TANG Jian-Wei, Geoffroy D’HUMIERES, HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1441-1448.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01441
      Abstract ( 2254 )   PDF (145KB) ( 1295 )   Save
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      It is critical to clarify the associations between the newly available Mixolab parameters and flour protein characteristics and starch pasting properties determined by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA), and noodle quality. Sixty wheat lines derived from Zhou 8425B were used to measure parameters of Mixolab, Mixograph, RVA and noodle quality, and to determine the associations of parameters of Mixolab with these of Mixograph and RVA, and the reliability of predicting noodle quality using these parameters. The Mixograph midline peak integral, peak time, and widthat 8 min could be predicted by Mixolab stability, which accounted for 75.7%, 74.6%, and 56.5% of their variations, respectively. Mixolab parameters C3, C4, C5, and water absorption were important for predicting starch pasting properties. The correlation coefficients between C3, C4, and C5 of Mixolab and RVA peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity ranged from 0.57 to 0.62. Water absorption of Mixolab was negatively correlated with peak viscosity (r = -0.62, P < 0.01) and final viscosity (r = -0.55, P < 0.01). Mixolab parameters explained 75.7% of the variation of noodle color, however, accounted for low percentages (13.2–30.5%) of the variations of noodle firmness, viscoelasicity, and smoothness. Thus, sensory evaluation method rather than various equipments should be adopted for determining noodle quality.
      Effect of Symbiosis Period and Seeding Amount on Growth and Yield of Rapeseed Undersowing Rice
      LEI Hai-Xia, CHEN Ai-Wu, ZHANG Chang-Sheng, LUO Kai-Shi, CHEN Xin-Guo, JIA Qi-Cuan, ZHOU An-Sheng, TUN Jiang-Sheng, TIAN Xin-Chu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1449-1456.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01449
      Abstract ( 1838 )   PDF (136KB) ( 979 )   Save
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      The rapeseed undersowing rice cultivation model is effective for double cropping rice in winter fallow field in southern area of China. The symbiosis time of rice and rapeseed as well as seeding amount are key factors to affect the yield of rapeseed undersowing rice. To explore the growth and yield affected by different symbiosis times and various seeding amounts, we designed a split-plot experiment with two factors. The results showed that: (1) the rapeseed density decreased with the delay of growth period, and the rapeseed undersowing rice was favorable for improving the density at the seedling stage, but the density at the other growth stages decreased with extension of symbiosis; (2) symbiosis time and seeding amount had a significant effect on rapeseed density at each growth period, moreover, there was significant positive interaction effect at emergence stage, the density at maturity period in two experiment at locations reached the maximum when symbiosis time was 10 days and the seeding at 9.0 kg ha–1; (3) the symbiosis time and seeding amount influenced the growth and development at each period, leaf area index increased when symbiosis time delayed, which led to weak and thin seedlings, therefore, resulting in the changes of yield component, yield per plant as well as plot yield. In conclusion, the rapeseed undersowing rice cultivation model can significantly increase the rapeseed yield, and suggest a favorable condition of 10 days symbiosis and seeding at 9.0 kg ha–1 for getting higher yield.
      Impacts of Winter Planting Patterns on Soil Heavy Metal Content and Grain Quality in Late Rice in Double Cropping Rice Area
      TANG Wen-Guang, TANG Hai-Ming, LUO Zun-Chang, HONG Ke, YANG Guang-Li, XIAO Xiao-Peng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1457-1464.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01457
      Abstract ( 1942 )   PDF (184KB) ( 1187 )   Save
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      On the basis of six-year fixed-location experiments in paddy fields, analysis was made on the impacts of different winter cropping patterns on soil heavy metal content, heavy metal content in different parts of late rice and late rice grain quality in double rice cropping area. The winter cropping patterns were ryegrass and double cropping rice (T1), Chinese milk vetch and double cropping rice (T2), rape and double cropping rice (T3), potato and double cropping rice (T4), fallow and double cropping rice (CK). The results showed that compared with the CK, the soil heavy metal content was affected by T1, T2, T3, T4 to some extent, the soil As content was decreased by T1, the soil Cd, Hg, As contents were decreased by T2, the soil Cd and Hg contents were decreased by T3, soil Pb and Hg contents were decreased by T4, but soil Hg content was increased by T1, soil As content was increased by T3, and the soil Cd, As contents were increased by T4, respectively. The distribution of heavy metal content in different parts of late rice was root>stem and leaves>brown rice. Meanwhile, the Cd, Pb, Hg, As contents in late rice root with different winter cropping patterns were significantly lower than those in CK. But the Cd contents in stem and leaves were increased. The Pb, Hg, As contents of stem and leaves were instability. And the Cd, Pb contents in brown rice were decreased by T1, T2, T3. The brown rice rate, head milled ratio,gel consistency and amylose content of late rice were increased by different winter cropping patterns, but the percentage of chalky rice and chalkiness were decreased. Meanwhile, the grain yield of late rice were increased under four winter cropping patterns conditions, and the yield of T4 increased by 17.52% compared with the CK. The experiments indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution were decreased to some extent by four winter cropping patterns, the Cd and Pb contents in brown rice were decreased, and the grain quality and grain yield of later rice were ultimately improved.
      Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration and Nitrogen Application on Translocation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen Restored before Anthesis in Winter Wheat
      XU Yo-Ban, CHEN Yu-Fang, LI Shi-Qing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1465-1474.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01465
      Abstract ( 1870 )   PDF (315KB) ( 1005 )   Save
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      Either CO2 enrichment or nitrogen (N) application has effects to increase grain yield, as well as dry matter and N accumulation in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To understand the effects and interaction of both factors on dry matter and N restored before anthesis and translocated from vegetative organs into grains, we carried out a pot experiment across two cropping seasons using wheat cultivars Xiaoyan 22 (2007–2008) and Xiaoyan 22 and Xiaoyan 6 (2008–2009). Wheat plants were grown in open top chambers (OTCs) under conditions of ambient CO2 concentration (AT, 375 μL L-1) and elevated CO2 concentration (ET, 680 μL L-1 in 2007–2008 and 750 μL L-1 in 2008–2009). N fertilizer was applied at levels of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 g kg-1 soil in 2007–2008 and 0, 0.15, and 0.30 g kg-1 soil in 2008–2009. Accumulation and translation of dry matter and N in pre-anthesis vegetative organs (stem + sheath, leaf blade, and spike) and shoot in all treatments were measured. CO2 concentration enrichment and N nutrition improvement increased dry matter and N accumulation in grain and pre-anthesis vegetative organs, and translocation amounts of dry matter and N from vegetative organs and shoot into grains. The reasonable N application promoted the positive effects of CO2 concentration on dry matter and N accumulation and translocation. Compared to AT, ET advanced the contribution and translocation rates of dry matter from vegetative organs and shoot into grains. The effects of CO2 enrichment on the N contribution and translocation rates in vegetative organs and shoot were different among years and cultivars. Elevated CO2 increased the N contribution and translocation rates in every vegetative organ and shoot in the 2007–2008 cropping season and those in stem + sheath and spike in the 2008–2009 cropping season. However, in the 2008–2009 cropping season, elevated CO2 reduced the N contribution rate in leaf blade and shoot of both cultivars under N levels of 0.15 and 0.30 g kg-1. The N translocation rates of leaf blade and shoot were increased in Xiaoyan 22 under all N levels and only the N translocation rate of shoot was increased in Xiaoyan 6 under N level of 0.3 g kg-1. The interaction between CO2 concentration and N nutrition positively affected the contribution and translocation rates of dry matter and N in vegetative organs and pre-anthesis shoot in most cases. This result suggested that elevated CO2 enhanced grain yield and N accumulation through promoting accumulation before anthesis and translocation after anthesis of dry matter and nitrogen in vegetative organs and shoot in some way.
      Effect of Short-Day Photoperiod on Adzuki Bean (Phase-out angularis) Seedlings at Different Leaf Ages
      YIN Bao-Chong, TAO Bu, ZHANG Ru-Chen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1475-1484.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01475
      Abstract ( 1940 )   PDF (364KB) ( 889 )   Save
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      The experiment was carried out at sample nursery of Hebei Agricultural University in 2006–2008. Adzuki bean Jihong 4, a medium and late maturing variety, was treated with two photoperiods [natural light (control)] and 12-hour light) at the zero leaf age (LF)–four leaf age. When the first two leaves appeared, we started to determine the physiological indicators at five-leaf age. At the maturity stage, we investigated agronomic traits, dry matter accumulation, yield components, and plots yield. The result showed that the short-day photoperiod can deccrease plant height, stem diameter, node number, and promote branch formation, and the effect on plants at younger leaf age was significant; short-day photoperiod also evidently decreased dry matter accumulation in different organs of plant from the first two leaves appearing to the first compound leaf bully expanded, especially for biomass and grain yield; short-day photoperiod shortened significantly the growth process before the two-leaf age, resulting in yield reduction but significantly increasing 100-seeds weight at three-leaf age; short day photoperiod raised contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase dismutase (POD) activiting, free amino acid (SAA), soluble protein (SPRO), gibberellin (GA), cytokinin (CTK), abscisic acid (ABA), and GA / ABA as well as dismutase significantly. There was significant difference in growth, physiological and yield for adzukibean at different leaf ages between different development periods, showing that the effect is more significant in the early development period, and at younger leaf age.
      Preliminary Study on the Carbon Efficiency of Main Crops Production in North China Plain
      SHI Lei-Gang, FAN Shi-Chao, KONG Fan-Lei, CHEN Fu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1485-1490.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01485
      Abstract ( 2036 )   PDF (326KB) ( 1198 )   Save
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      Improving the carbon efficiency of crop production is one of the important ways to realize the low-carbon agriculture. In order to get a clear understanding of carbon efficiency in agricultural production, this paper, based on the investigation data of the farmer’s production, applying input and output calculation method, evaluated the carbon input, carbon output and carbon efficiency in production of the three major crops, winter wheat, summer maize and cotton, in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province in North China Plain. The results were as follows:the carbon input of winter wheat, summer maize and cotton was 943.47±225.14, 525.74±134.73, and 513.60±138.94 kg CE ha-1, of which fertilizers and electricity accounted for a majority, about 60% and 25% respectively. The carbon output of the three major crops was 8 430.70±774.45, 7 194.50±754.58, and 5 486.00±547.69 kg CE ha-1 respectively, of which straw accounted for 50%, economic yield accounted for 34%, and root accounted for 17%. The carbon production efficiency of winter wheat, summer maize and cotton was 7.95±2.55, 15.90±4.34, and 7.60±2.92 kg kg-1 CE, respectively. The carbon economic efficiency of the three crops was 13.28±4.56, 21.47±5.86, and 76.70±29.45 CHY kg-1 CE, respectively.The carbon ecological efficiency of the three crops was 9.59±3.07, 14.57±3.98, and 11.69±4.49 kg C kg-1 CE, respectively. There were significant differences in the carbon efficiency of the three major crops. Preliminary results showed that the carbon integrated efficiency of summer maize was the highest, followed by cotton, which in turn had higher the efficiency than winter wheat in North China Plain.
      Microsatellite Variation in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat
      WANG Bian-Yin, ZHAI Jun, HAO Yuan-Feng, LI An-Fei, KONG Lian-Rang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1491-1496.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01491
      Abstract ( 1805 )   PDF (492KB) ( 1118 )   Save
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      Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are ubiquitous in organism genomes. Investigation on the SSR variations induced by allopolyploidization is useful to understand the evolution of allopolyploid.In this study, we compared SSR loci using primers specific to A, B, and D genomes in five synthesized hexaploid wheat between tetraploid wheat Langdon and five accessions of Aegilops tauschii. The results showed that 4.0% (5 out of 125) and 4.8% (6 of 125) genomic SSRs on A and B genomes exhibited variations, respectively. A low frequency (2.6%) of variations was observed in the expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSRs located on A/B genomes. This indicated that lower variation existed in functional genes than in non-coding regions, i.e. genomic SSR. In addition, 2.9% (3 of 103) genomic SSRs on D genome showed variations. Sequence analyses indicated that the length of SSRs was mainly due to the variation of the number of repeated units. The microsatellitesequences with disappearance may be more likely to be changed than the ordinary microsatellite sequences.The ubiquitous microsatellites may play an important buffering role to achieve genome stability and plasticity inpolyploidy evolution.
      Cloning and Sequence Analysis of α/β-gliadin Genes from Common Wheat Variety Xiaoyan 54
      ZHANG Xiao-Xia, JIAO Cheng, DONG Zhen-Ying, LI Shi-Meng, WANG Ran, LING Hong-Qing, QIN An-Yong, WANG Dao-Wen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2011, 37(08):  1497-1502.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.01497
      Abstract ( 2270 )   PDF (636KB) ( 1116 )   Save
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      We developed a method for identifying the genomic BAC clones containing the α/β-gliadin gene sequences of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Using this method, nine unique positive clones harboring α/β-gliadin genes were obtained from the BAC library of the elite wheat variety Xiaoyan 54. From these BAC clones, 17 distinct α/β-gliadin gene sequences were isolated, 12 of which were pseudogenes because of the presence of one or more premature stop codons in their open reading frame (ORF). The remaining five genes (tentatively designated Gli-Xy54-1, Gli-Xy54-2, Gli-Xy54-3, Gli-Xy54-7, and Gli-Xy54-13) possessed intact ORF. Their deduced protein sequences contained 291, 310, 311, 287, and 317 amino acid residues, respectively, and resembled highly the primary structure of previously reported α/β-gliadins. The presence of celiac disease inducing epitopes and the length of the polyglutamine repeats in the five deduced α/β-gliadins were analyzed. Based on these data, it was suggested that Gli-Xy54-1 might be located on chromosome 6A, Gli-Xy54-2, Gli-Xy54-3, and Gli-Xy54-13 on chromosome 6B, and Gli-Xy54-7 on chromosome 6D. This proposition was supported by phylogenetic analysis of the gliadin gene sequences isolated here and previously. As far as we know, this work represents the first report on the identification of BAC clones containing the α/β-gliadin genes from common wheat. The genes isolated here may facilitate further investigations on the composition, expression and function of α/β-gliadin genes in common wheat.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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