Replacing chemical fertilizer with straw incorporation is an important way to reduce fertilizer application and improve fertilizer efficiency. The objective of six year field location experiments under the same N, P, and K inputs, was to systematically explore the effects of straw incorporation and reducing chemical fertilizers on plant nutrient absorption and utilization under mechanical harvest, so as to provide a basic support for the reasonable utilization of straw resource, rice high yield and its nutrient management measure in the southern rice zone. The experiments were conducted being in the cultivated land quality monitoring station of Wenzhen town, Jiangxi province, Wufengyou T025, super hybrid late rice cultivar. Four treatments were included: total straw incorporation and reducing chemical fertilizers (SI+NPK), straw burning and reducing chemical fertilizers (SB+NPK), chemical fertilizers (NPK), and no chemical fertilizers (CK). The three fertilization treatments were with equal quantity of fertilizers (N 195 kg ha-1, P2O5 87.8 kg ha-1, and K2O 175.5 kg ha-1) whatever chemical and organic ones. The variation of rice yield and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium uptake and their utilization efficiency were determined. SI+NPK of early rice in continuous six years was avail able to balance the panicle and spikelet, and hold steady grain yield of late rice, with the same level compared with SB+NPK and NPK. Compared with NPK treatment, SI+NPK treatment had lower N, P, K contents and accumulation at the vegetative growth stage including tillering stage and panicle initiation, but higher those at the reproductive stage such as heading stage and maturity stage. Moreover, the P, K accumulation was significantly increased in SI+NPK treatment. Compared with NPK treatment, SI+NPK treatment enhanced N, P, K fertilizer harvest index, agronomy efficiency (AE), recovery efficiency (RE) and partial factor productivity (PFP) significantly, but SB+NPK treatment only enhanced K fertilizer harvest index, AE, RE, and PFP significantly. Meanwhile, compared with SB+NPK treatment, SI+NPK treatment increased N, P, K fertilizer harvest index, AE, RE and PFP. Overall, straw incorporation replacing partial chemical fertilizer of early rice, in contrast to straw burning and chemical fertilizers application, is proved to be a feasible way to stabilize grain yield of late rice, enhance nutrient utilization efficiency, and realize the efficient utilization of soil nutrient resource in the southern rice zone.