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    12 February 2020, Volume 46 Issue 02
      Mapping and genetic analysis of QTLs for Fusarium head blight resistance to disease spread in Yangmai 16
      HU Wen-Jing,ZHANG Yong,LU Cheng-Bin,WANG Feng-Ju,LIU Jin-Dong,JIANG Zheng-Ning,WANG Jin-Ping,ZHU Zhan-Wang,XU Xiao-Ting,HAO Yuan-Feng,HE Zhong-Hu,GAO De-Rong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  157-165.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91048
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      Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of Yangmai wheat cultivars has been paid much attention, but the underlying genetic mechanism is unclear. In recent years, Yangmai 16 is a predominant wheat cultivar durably resistant to FHB in production. A population of 174 double haploid lines (DH) produced by crossing Yangmai 16 (YM16) with the susceptible cultivar Zhongmai 895 (ZM895) was evaluated for FHB response using point inoculation from 2017 to 2019. The DH population was genotyped with wheat 660K SNP array and a high-density genetic map was constructed. Six resistance QTLs were detected, and among them, five were from the resistant parent Yangmai 16 and one from Zhongmai 895. QFhb.yaas-4DS and QFhb.yaas-6AS were detected at least in two years, explaining 8.8% to 15.0% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. QFhb.yaas-2DL and QFhb.yaas-3BL were detected only in one year, accounting for 10.5% and 14.7% of the phenotypic variances. QFhb.yaas-5BL and QFhb.yaas-4BS were detected in one year, too, accounting for 6.4% and 8.3% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. Pyramiding of multiple resistant loci with large effects (>10%) is an effective approach to increase FHB resistance. The QTLs identified from Yangmai 16 in the present study will provide a starting point for genetic studies of other Yangmai cultivars, and the QTLs closely linked to markers will be useful for marker-assisted selection in wheat FHB improvement.

      Cloning and expression analysis of metallothionein family genes in response to heavy metal stress in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)
      GAO Shi-Wu,FU Zhi-Wei,CHEN Yun,LIN Zhao-Li,XU Li-Ping,GUO Jin-Long
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  166-178.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.84086
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      Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight proteins. Plant MTs play important roles in detoxi?cation and cellular redox regulation. In this study, hydroponic experiments of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Badila) were carried out to study the effects of CdCl2, ZnSO4, and CuCl2 treatments on plantlet growth. And then three kinds of heavy metal content in both shoots and roots of sugarcane were detected, showing an enrichment and tolerance ability to Cd 2+, Zn 2+, and Cu 2+ in Badila seedlings. Three metallothionein genes, termed as ScMT1 (accession number: KJ504373), ScMT2-1-5 (accession number: MH191346), and ScMT3 (accession number: KJ5043704), were isolated from Badila. ScMT1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 228 bp encoding 75 amino acids residues. The first (52 bp) and second (176 bp) extrons of ScMT1 were separated by an intron (283 bp). ScMT2-1-5 contained an ORF of 246 bp encoding 81 amino acids residues. The first (64 bp), second (87 bp), and third (101 bp) extrons of ScMT2-1-5 were separated by two introns (483 bp and 853 bp). ScMT3 contained an ORF of 198 bp encoding 65 amino acids residues. The first (50 bp) and second (148 bp) extrons of ScMT3 were separated by an intron (259 bp). The deduce protein ScMT1, ScMT2-1-5, and ScMT3 were categorized into the subfamily of plant type1, type2, and type3 MTs, respectively. The expression profiles of the three genes under different heavy-metal stresses were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. When treated with Cd 2+, the expression of ScMT2-1-5 was continuously and significantly up-regulated in both shoots and roots, while that of ScMT1 showed a delayed up-regulation pattern. The expression of ScMT3 showed a delayed up-regulation pattern in shoots and a trend of first raising and then suppressing in roots. The results suggested that ScMT2-1-5 might play a more active role in response to Cd 2+in sugarcane while ScMT3 might not, and ScMT1 is involved in the molecular responses of Cd 2+ stress at the later stage. When treated with Cu 2+, the expression of ScMT1 was continuously and significantly up-regulated, and that of ScMT2-1-5 and ScMT3 general up-regulated in shoots. As in the roots, the expression of both ScMT1 and ScMT2-1-5 showed a delayed up-regulation pattern which was significantly up-regulated at the later stage, while that of ScMT3 significantly up-regulated at the early stage. It revealed that ScMT1 cooperated with ScMT2-1-5 and ScMT3 is involved in the positive response to Cu 2+ stress in roots, and might play a more positive role than ScMT2-1-5 and ScMT3, and the three genes are successively involved in the molecular responses of Cu 2+ stress in roots. When treated with Zn 2+, the expression of ScMT1 and ScMT3 increased only in shoots and roots, respectively. The expression of ScMT2-1-5 was up-regulated at the early stage and then suppressed in both shoots and roots. It suggests that ScMT1 and ScMT3 mainly function in shoots and roots, respectively, when exposed to Zn 2+ stress. ScMT2-1-5 was involved in the molecular responses of Cd 2+ stress at the early stage. ScMT1, ScMT2-1-5, and ScMT3 showed similar or complementary expression patterns in different tissues of sugarcane when exposed to heavy metals, which revealed the functional diversity of sugarcane MTs in detoxi?cation and cellular redox regulation, and their spatiotemporal coordination in mitigating or even preventing tissue injury caused by excessive heavy metals. The results provide a basic information for further research on mechanisms in the synergistic enhancement of tolerance to heavy metals for MTs family genes in the highly polyploid sugarcane.

      Development and validation of markers linked to genes resistant to Sitodiplosis mosellana in wheat
      HAO Zhi-Ming,GENG Miao-Miao,WEN Shu-Min,YAN Gui-Jun,WANG Rui-Hui,LIU Gui-Ru
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  179-193.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91029
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      Orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM) (Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin) has seriously reduced wheat production and processing quality. Breeding midge-resistant wheat has been considered the most effective way to reduce kernel losses caused by OWBM, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy in crop breeding using linked or functional markers of target trait of interest is of great importance in improving breeding efficiency. Based on the InDels and SNPs within the sequences of six midge resistance-related genes discovered from transcriptome data in the previously mapped major QTL (QSm.hbau-4A) region, we developed and validated two EST and six KASP markers in a panel of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and a panel of wheat cultivars with different OWBM resistance levels. These markers were polymorphic between the resistant and susceptible wheat parents, and approximately 90% of RIL lines showed the corresponding marker-based genotypes with their phenotypes. Except for E10-10, the other seven markers had higher detection efficiency in highly resistant (56.3%-86.7%) and in highly susceptible (85.7%-100.0%) wheat cultivars, thus making them applicable for screening midge-resistant wheat germplasm with locus QSm.hbau-4A. Among the eleven midge-resistant wheat cultivars with all resistance alleles for the seven markers developed, most were historical wheat cultivars, and rarely used in the present production, which suggests how to use old cultivars in wheat germplasm identification and enhancement on midge-resistance through MAS is urgent.

      Microspore culture and observations on meiotic chromosome pairing of the haploid in Orychophragmus violaceus
      YIN Jia-Ming,ZHONG Rong-Qi,LIN Na,TANG Zhang-Lin,LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  194-203.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94065
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      Orychophragmus violaceus is extremely valuable as the ornamental, vegetable, forage and oil germplasm resource. In order to develop the technique of microspore-derived embryoid induction and plant regeneration, and provide dada for the origin and evolution of the genome, the effects of the heat-shock incubation duration and the content of additional activated charcoal on embryoid yield were studied through microspore culture, and the meiotic chromosome pairing behavior of the haploid was observed by conventional squashing method in O. violaceus. The activated charcoal addition and heat shock culture were required for embryoid induction. When 4 mL microspore suspension with 1 bud per mL was incubated in a Φ6 cm petri dish at 32℃ of heat shock for three days and supplemented with 1 mg activated charcoal in each dish, the cotyledon-shaped embryoid yield and total embryoid yield were highest, which were 0.92 ± 0.18 and 1.32 ± 0.25 embryoids per bud, respectively. The germination rate of the cotyledon-shaped embryoids in 1/2MS medium was 27.73%. The natural chromosome doubling rate was 25% among the survival microspore-derived plantlets. The chromosome number of the double haploid plants and the haploid plants was 24 and 12, respectively. The meiotic chromosome pairing configuration of the haploid in O. violaceus was averaged as n = 12 = 6.352I + 2.008II + 0.384III + 0.12IV. The percentage of the pollen mother cells with bivalent, trivalent and tetravalent was up to 96%. The 12 chromosomes in 0.8% of pollen mother cells synapsed into three tetravalents. The chromosome pairing behavior strongly suggested that O. violaceus originated from a homologous octoploid with the basic chromosome number of x = 3. The above results provide a reference for breeding new materials and cultivars and for basic research in O. violaceus.

      Phenotype characterization and gene mapping of the semi-outcurved leaf mutant sol1 in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      XIE Yuan-Hua,LI Feng-Fei,MA Xiao-Hui,TAN Jia,XIA Sai-Sai,SANG Xian-Chun,YANG Zheng-Lin,LING Ying-Hua
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  204-213.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92020
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      Moderate curling of leaves helps to improve the photosynthetic efficiency, and increase the overall effective accumulation of photosynthate. We identified a stable mutant from the library constructed by treating indica maintainer line Xinong 1B with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Leaves of the mutant gradually curled outwards into a semi-coiled shape, accompanied by semi-dwarfing of the culm and leaf drooping from the 10-leaf stage, the mutant was temporarily named as semi-outcurved leaf 1 (sol1). The calculated leaf curl index of sol1 was 30%, statistically higher than that of wild type (WT, P < 0.01). Panicle length and internode length of Top 1 (the 1st leaf from top), Top 2 (the 2nd leaf from top), Top 3 (the 3rd leaf from top), and Top 4 (the 4th leaf from top) were very significantly decreased. The leaf angles of Top 1, Top 2, and Top 3 were significantly or very significantly increased. The number of effective panicles, 1000-grain weight, filled grain number per panicle, and seed setting rate of the mutant sol1 were significantly or very significantly decreased, while primary branch number increased by 11.3%, statistically higher than that of WT (P < 0.05). The transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal conductance of sol1 were significantly higher than those of wild type. The results of paraffin section showed that the bulliform cells of the Top1 of sol1 exhibited smaller, but their number increased significantly, and the volume of epidermal cells increased slightly. Genetic analysis indicated that sol1 was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. SOL1 was precisely located in the physical distance of 165 kb between the markers of JY6-3 and JY6-10 on the short arm of chromosome 6, with 15 annotated genes. The results of qRT-PCR showed that RL14, Roc5, and REL1 related to bulliform cells were up- regulated in mutant sol1, while NRL, BRD1, OsHox32, ADL1, LC2 down-regulated. The results of the present study provide a basis for SOL1 cloning, and functional dissection as well.

      Candidate genes screening for plant height and the first branch height based on QTL mapping and genome-wide association study in rapessed (Brassica napus L.)
      HUO Qiang,YANG Hong,CHEN Zhi-You,JIAN Hong-Ju,QU Cun-Min,LU Kun,LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  214-227.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94067
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      Plant height (PH) and the first branch height (BH) are important agronomic traits closely related to thickness of pod canopy and harvest index of Brassica napus. There are many reports on quantitative trait locus (QTL) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) for PH, but few reports on QTL and GWAS localization and candidate gene screening for BH. In this study, QTLs for PH and BH using the 186 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) in the two environments of 2016 and 2017 were detected based on the high-density genetic linkage map. A total of eight PH QTLs located on chromosomes A03, A04, and A09 were detected in the two environments of 2016 and 2019, with the explained phenotypic variation of individual QTL range from 4.60% to 13.29%, among which overlapped QTLs (q-2017PH-A04-2 and q-BLUP-PH-A04-2) were detected both in 2017 and based on Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Nine BH QTLs located on chromosomes A01, A02, A05, A09, C01, and C05 were detected, in which a single QTL explained 5.12% to 19.10% of phenotypic variation. Among them, q-2017BH-A09-1, q-BLUP-BH-A09-2, and q-BLUP-BH-A09-3 were overlapped. GWAS for PH and BH was performed using 588 resequencing natural populations established by our previous study. A total of 50 SNPs associated with PH and 12 SNPs associated with BH were detected in two years. Thirteen PH candidate genes involved in cell proliferation, cell multiplication, cell cycle and cell wall activity and eleven BH candidate genes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of gibberellin and spermidine, ribosome composition, photosynthesis and germination were screened based on the physical locations of SNPs, and their expressions in extreme phenotypes by qRT-PCR. This result will provide a theoretical basis for improving plant architecture and subsequent functional studies of genes.

      Influence of phosphorus on rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain zinc bioavailability and its relation to inositol phosphate profiles concentration
      SU Da,WU Liang-Quan,K. Rasmussen Søren,ZHOU Lu-Jian,PAN Gang,CHENG Fang-Min
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  228-237.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92032
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      The hidden hunger caused by grain zinc (Zn) deficiency in crop poses a potential threat to the health of nearly two billion people worldwide, especially in developing countries. In this study, the long-term phosphorus fertilizer experiment and in vitro detached rice panicle culture systems with varied phosphorus levels were conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus on rice grain Zn bioavailability and its relation of grain inositol phosphates profiles (phytic acid related metabolic derivatives) concentration. In our results, compared with low phosphorus level, high phosphorus supply increased grain phytic acid phosphorus and total phosphorus concentration (mg g -1). Moreover, high phosphorus supply also increased different grain inositol phosphate profile concentrations (InsP1-6), especially for InsP4-6. On the contrary, grain Zn concentration decreased with phosphorus supply. Both the decrement of Zn and increment of phytic acid phosphorus induced by the higher phosphorus supply in rice grain led to the significant decrement of grain Zn bioavailability. In in vitro detached panicle culture system, the Zn bioavailability in P12 treatment decreased by 81.3% relative to P0 treatment. In conclusion, higher phosphorus input could significantly decrease grain Zn bioavailability through increased grain phytic acid phosphorus and inositol phosphates derivatives concentration, in addition to the decrement of grain Zn concentration.

      The root-layer regulation based on the depth of phosphate fertilizer application of summer maize improves soil nitrogen absorption and utilization
      CHEN Xiao-Ying,LIU Peng,CHENG Yi,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHANG Ji-Wang,ZHAO Bin,REN Bai-Zhao,HAN Kun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  238-248.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93029
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      Favorable root phenotypes can promote crops to obtain soil nutrients efficiently. The root-layer regulation technology based on the depth of phosphate fertilizer application can optimize the spatial and temporal distribution of summer maize root system and promote its spatial matching with soil water and nutrients to supply, providing a theoretical and technical support for realizing fertilizer saving and efficiency improvement by tapping potential of maize root system. In the present study, there were five treatments including CK (no P applied), P5 (phosphorus placement depth of 5 cm), P10 (phosphorus placement depth of 10 cm), P15 (phosphorus placement depth of 15 cm), and P20 (phosphorus placement depth of 20 cm). The effect of phosphorus application depth on root distribution, plant growth and yield formation, as well as nitrogen uptake, accumulation and transport in summer maize was analyzed. The suitable application depths of phosphate fertilizer promoted the growth of summer maize roots and increased root dry weight, root length density, root surface area and root volume significantly totally showing a trend of P15 > P10 > P20 > P5 > CK. With the increase of phosphate fertilizer application depth, the deep corn roots increased significantly. The proportion of root dry weight in P15 and P20 treatments was 12.3% and 12.1% in the 20-40 cm soil layer, and 6.7% and 6.9% in the 40-60 cm soil layer, respectively. The increase of root distribution depth promoted the absorption of nitrogen in the soil, and the nitrogen content in each soil layer, especially below 20 cm, was reduced significantly by the deep application of phosphate fertilizer. The optimization of root distribution promoted the accumulation and transportation of nitrogen in plants. Compared with P5 treatment, the averaged nitrogen fertilizer absorption efficiency, accumulation amount, accumulation rate, partial factor productivity and the grain yield in two years of P15 treatment increased by 14.5 kg kg -1, 19.2%, 48.9%, 6.4 kg kg -1, and 16.4% respectively, showing that under the conditions of the present study, concentrated application of phosphate fertilizer in -15 cm treatment can significantly promote the growth of deep soil roots, expand the space of nutrient utilization for root system, increase the absorption of nitrogen in deep soil, promote the accumulation and transportation of plant nitrogen, improve the productivity and ultimately yield in summer maize.

      Increasing phosphate fertilizer application to improve photosynthetic capacity and yield of summer soybean in weak light environment
      ZHAO Wei,ZHEN Tian-Yue,ZHANG Zi-Shan,XU Zheng,GAO Da-Peng,DING Cong,LIU Peng,LI Geng,NING Tang-Yuan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  249-258.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94078
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      In order to study the effect of phosphate fertilizer application on the photosynthetic characteristics of summer soybean in weak light environment, two light treatments [normal light (L1) and weak light (L2)] with three phosphate fertilizer treatments including non-phosphate fertilizer application (P0), conventional phosphate fertilizer application (P1), and excessive-phosphate fertilizer application (P2) in each light treatment were set up to measure the gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence differences of photosynthetic performance as well as the yield and its components in Qihuang 34. The yield reduced significantly in weak light treatment, with an average of 61.4% in two years lower than that under the normal light. The 2-year average yield of P2 was 8.4% and 3.2% higher than that of P0 and P1 respectively under the normal light, but 21.7% and 12.2% higher than P0 and P1 in weak light treatment respectively, indicating the effect of excessive-phosphate fertilizer on yield was more pronounced under weak light. The weak light environment significantly increased the leaf area, specific leaf area, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, which was enhanced by increasing phosphate fertilizer application. The net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of the leaf decreased significantly in the weak light environment, while the intercellular CO2 concentration increased, indicating the reduction of carbon assimilation in weak light environment was not limited by stomata. Increasing the application of phosphate fertilizer increased photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, which was more obvious under weak light. Excessive-phosphate fertilizer application reduced the relative fluorescence at the K and J points of the OJIP curve, and improved the electron transfer performance of photosystem II, was more significant which in weak light than in normal light environment. Therefore, the increase of photosynthetic electron transport activity effectively alleviates the decrease of leaf photosynthetic rate under weak light treatment, which may be the reason for the significant increase of dry matter accumulation and yield by applying more phosphate fertilizer in weak light environment.

      Effect of straw returning combined with NPK fertilization on soil carbon sequestration and economic benefits under rice-wheat rotation in Hanzhong basin
      WU Yu-Hong,HAO Xing-Shun,TIAN Xiao-Hong,CHEN Hao,ZHANG Chun-Hui,CUI Yue-Zhen,QIN Yu-Hang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  259-268.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92013
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      A two-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the response of soil carbon sequestration, crop yield and economic benefit to rates of NPK application and straw returning under rice-wheat rotation from 2015 to 2017. The experiment included five treatments: application of NPK without straw returning (SN+NPK), application of NPK with straw returning (S+NPK), application of NPK with decayed straw returning (SD+NPK), application of NPK with 15% reduction plus decayed straw returning (SD+85%NPK) and application of NPK with 15% reduction plus decayed straw returning (SD+70%NPK). Compared with SN+NPK, total organic carbon (TOC) and active organic carbon (LOC) in 0-15 cm depth increased by 3.62%-25.07% and 23.01%-46.79% in the treatments of straw returning plus different returned NPK application, respectively. Both S+NPK and SD+NPK treatments increased organic carbon storage (SCS) in 0-30 cm soil layer by 4.67% and 18.20%, but SD+85%NPK and SD+70%NPK decreased the SCS by 8.31% and 9.83%, respectively. Compared with SN+NPK, both S+NPK and SD+NPK increased grain yields for wheat and rice. However, SD+85%NPK and SD+70%NPK treatments significantly reduced grain yields for wheat and rice. Compared with SN+NPK treatment, the increase in annual average yield was 3.47% for S+NPK, 8.70% for SD+NPK, -3.65% for SD+85%NPK, and -8.12% for SD+70%NPK, while the increase of annual net profit in two years was 16.91%, 23.56%, 6.02%, and 1.06%, respectively. Soil organic carbon, crop yield and efficiency were the highest in the SD+NPK treatment, but lowest in SD+70%NPK. Compared with SD+70%NPK treatment, SD+85%NPK did not affect the annual average yield, but slightly increased the annual net profit due to a cost reduction caused by less fertilizer application with a total reduction of 80 kg ha -1. In conclusion, the combination of straw returning with NPK fertilization is an effective farming practice to improve soil carbon sequestration, crop yield and economic benefits in Hanzhong basin. Considering the environment and economic effects, decayed straw returning with 15% reduction in NPK application is more suitable to achieve the fertilizer reduction and green production.

      Effect of different film-forming agents on the persistence and safety of thiacloprid suspension concentrate for seed coating for maize
      YAO Chen-Tao,QIAO Zhi-Hua,SONG Xue-Hui,ZHANG Feng-Wen,SUN Xiao,LI Gang,LI Xiang-Dong,ZHANG Ji-Wang,JIANG Xing-Yin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  269-279.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93015
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      To definite the persistence of thiacloprid seed coating with different film-forming agents in soil and plants and the efficacy in controling piercing-sucking insects, we tested the effects of the thiacloprid FS, with three different film-forming agents at a concentration of 400 g a.i. 100 kg -1, on the emergence rate, growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize at laboratory and in the field respectively, and evaluated controlling effect on piercing-sucking insects by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The ZY904-3 and ZY904-5 film-forming agent treatments had no influence on emergence rate of maize. The seedling growth and activities in physiology and biochemistry were promoted to various degrees by thiacloprid seed dressing with three different film-forming agents. Compared with no film-forming agent treatments, the persistent periods of ZY904-1, ZY904-3, and ZY904-5 treatments were extended by 20-40 days, 20-30 days, and 10-20 days in leaves of maize and in the soil respectively. The maize piercing-sucking insects were controlled significantly by three film-forming agent treatments. ZY904-1 and ZY904-3 treatments had good control effects on the amount of piercing-sucking insects in the growth stage of maize which coat still over 50% at 80 d (laboratory test) and 60 d (field test) after sowing, respectively. However, ZY904-1 treatment delayed the emergence of seeds. Taking all factors as a whole, ZY904-3 film-forming agent has the best seed dressing effect.

      Influence of long-term fertilizer application on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and grain yield of double cropping late rice
      HOU Hong-Qian,LIN Hong-Xin,LIU Xiu-Mei,JI Jian-Hua,LIU Yi-Ren,LAN Xian-Jin,LYU Zhen-Zhen,ZHOH Wei-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  280-289.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.82060
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      The regulating effect of different fertilization modes on the chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters of rice is of great significance for the improvement of light use efficiency and grain yield of rice. In this research, the characteristics of variation of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and yield in rice under long-term located fertilization with the treatments of phosphate and potash fertilizer (PK), nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizer (NPK), 70% NPK fertilizer mixed with 30% organic manure (70F+30M), 50% NPK fertilizer mixed with 50% organic manure (50F+50M) and 30% NPK fertilizer mixed with 70% organic manure (30F+70M) under the same nutrient conditions were studied. There was a downtrend in the chlorophyll content in flag leaves of rice from the full heading time to the maturation period; showing an order of 30F+70M > 50F+50M > 70F+30M > NPK > PK. In the proceeded of growth, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm decreased with the lowest in PK treatment; which was 2.85-4.18 higher in nitrogen fertilizer treatment than in the treatment without nitrogen fertilizer. Under NPK treatment, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters qL and ΦPSII were higher at the full heading stage and significantly lower after 20 d; under the treatments of 50F+50M and 30F+70M, however, they were lower at the full heading stage but increased significantly after 20 d; under PK treatment and 70F+30M treatment, they remained at a higher level. The variation tendency of NPQ was basically contrary to that of qL. According to fitting results of ETR-PAR light response curve, the values of ETRmax, α, and Ek peaked under 70F+30M treatment both at the full heading stage and after 20 d. In general, under the same nutrient conditions, mixed application with 30% organic manure achieved the best combination of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and highest grain yield; if the proportion of organic manure exceeded 50%, on the other hand, the light energy for photosynthesis would be reduced due to increased early-stage heat dissipation. In addition, the application of NPK fertilizer would lead to declining light use efficiency due to later aging.

      Critical nitrogen dilution curve and nitrogen nutrition diagnosis of maize with drip irrigation
      FU Jiang-Peng,HE Zheng,JIA Biao,LIU Hui-Fang,LI Zhen-Zhou,LIU Zhi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  290-299.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93027
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      The objective of this study was to establish the critical nitrogen dilution curve of maize in Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia province, China, and to study the feasibility of the nitrogen nutrition index model (NNI) for real-time diagnosing and evaluating nitrogen nutrition in maize, which would provide theoretical basis for rational nitrogen fertilization of drip-irrigated maize. The research was carried out with ‘Tianci 19’, using the integrated technology of drip irrigation and fertilizer with six nitrogen levels. The critical nitrogen dilution curve model was constructed and verified by a 2-year fixed position experiment. Within a certain range, the dry matter accumulation of drip-irrigated maize increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate. According to the variance analysis, the aboveground biomass in maize growth period was divided into two types: nitrogen limited and nitrogen non-limited. The nitrogen concentration of drip-irrigated maize plant increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate, while decreased with the extension of growth period and the increase of aboveground dry matter weight. The critical nitrogen concentration (Nc), maximum nitrogen concentration (Nmax) and minimum nitrogen concentration (Nmin) dilution models of drip irrigated maize showed a power function relationship with the aboveground dry matter accumulation, with the determination coefficient R 2 of 0.982, 0.907, and 0.918, respectively. The verification using root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized root mean square error (n-RMSE) showed that the model had good stability and small error range. NNI can be used to measure the nitrogen nutrition status of drip-irrigated maize. Under the integration condition with drip-irrigation and fertilizer, the optimal nitrogen application rate for maize grown in Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia should be 270 kg hm -2. According to the model calculations of, NNI with relative nitrogen uptake (RNupt), relative aboveground biomass (RGW) and relative yield (RY) reached extremely significant levels. The critical nitrogen dilution curve model and nitrogen nutrition index model established in this study can accurately predict the nitrogen nutrition status of maize from the bell stage to the maturity stage under the integrated condition with water and fertilizer, so as to provide guidance for optimizing the nitrogen management of maize.

      Relationship of stage development of cotton bolls with yield and quality in island cotton
      CAO Xin-Chuan,HU Shou-Lin,HAN Xiu-Feng,HE Liang-Rong,GUO Wei-Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  300-306.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94051
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      The ADM developmental genetic model containing environmental interaction was used to study the relationship of single boll weight at different developmental stages and developmental characteristics with yield and quality for island cotton parents and F1 generations in three years. Selecting single boll weight at different developmental stages had a better effect on the selection of final single boll weight and fiber quality traits in island cotton. When the single boll weed heavy, the number of invalid bolls were reduced and lint in the early stage (10, 20 d), while increased in the later stage (60, 70 d). In the medium term (30, 40, 50 d), the boll weight had a certain selection effect on the final yield per plant. At cotton boll volume expansion period (0-10 d, 10-20 d), the net increment was larger, single boll weight increased, other yield traits decreased, and quality traits such as fiber length, reflectivity and yellowness were improved. At cotton boll filling period (30-40, 40-50, 60-70 d), the boll dry weight increased, main fiber quality traits became worse. The yield per plant was increased by selecting materials with boll weight fast increasing in the growth period later. In the process of boll formation, assimilates entered cotton boll earlier and boll volume increased slowly, so that the fiber matured gradually, forming good quality. The fiber development was obviously affected by maternal effect; therefore, it is important to select suitable maternal parents for improving fiber quality traits.

      Revealing the genetic diversity of wheat varieties (lines) in China based on SNP markers
      LIU Yi-Ke,ZHU Zhan-Wang,CHEN Ling,ZOU Juan,TONG Han-Wen,ZHU Guang,HE Wei-Jie,ZHANG Yu-Qing,GAO Chun-Bao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(02):  307-314.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91039
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      In order to understand the genetic diversity of major wheat cultivars (lines) in China and provide a reference for parent selection, we selected 240 domestically dominated wheat cultivars (lines) for SNP genotyping using the Illumina 90K iSelect SNP chip. The SNP loci were the most in the B genome, and were the least in the D genome, especially in 4D. The mean value of the polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.26. The genetic similarity of the 240 cultivars (lines) ranged from 0.133 to 0.998 with an average value of 0.656. However, genetic similarity of 0.60 to 0.78 was found in 87.05% of the tested cultivars (lines). The genetic similarity was up to 0.718 between Southwest Wheat Region cultivars (lines), 0.712 between Middle and Low Yangtze Valleys Wheat Region, and 0.552 between foreign cultivars (lines). The 240 wheat cultivars (lines) were classified into seven groups by UPGMA analyses, most of them contained varieties (lines) bred from different regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cultivars (lines) bred in different regions intersected together. The exchange of germplasm resources among different regions in China was frequent, but the genetic basis of the cultivars (lines) bred by some units was not rich enough and the genetic similarity between some varieties (lines) was higher. It is urgent to introduce new germplasm and broaden the genetic basis in breeding.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
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