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作物学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (6): 924-936.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91060

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

节水减氮对土壤硝态氮分布和冬小麦水氮利用效率的影响

雒文鹤,师祖姣,王旭敏,李军(),王瑞   

  1. 西北农林科技大学农学院 / 农业部西北黄土高原作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室, 陕西杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-06 接受日期:2020-01-15 出版日期:2020-06-12 发布日期:2020-01-23
  • 通讯作者: 李军 E-mail:junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:E-mail: luowh09@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B02);国家自然科学基金项目(31801300)

Effects of water saving and nitrogen reduction on soil nitrate nitrogen distribution, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of winter wheat

LUO Wen-He,SHI Zu-Jiao,WANG Xu-Min,LI Jun(),WANG Rui   

  1. College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Tillage Science in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2019-10-06 Accepted:2020-01-15 Online:2020-06-12 Published:2020-01-23
  • Contact: Jun LI E-mail:junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Support Program of China(2015BAD22B02);the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31801300).(31801300)

摘要:

针对当前关中平原冬小麦生产中氮肥投入过量、灌溉水资源不足的问题, 研究节水减氮栽培模式下冬小麦籽粒产量、水氮利用及硝态氮淋失情况, 能为确定冬小麦节水减肥环保增效的生产模式提供理论依据。于2017—2019年在陕西杨凌开展冬小麦节水减氮田间栽培试验, 采用二因素裂区设计, 施氮量为主处理, 灌水量为副处理, 设施氮量处理N300 (300 kg hm -2)、N225 (225 kg hm -2)、N150 (150 kg hm -2)、N75 (75 kg hm -2)、N0 (不施氮)和灌水量处理W2 (1200 m 3 hm -2)、W1 (600 m 3 hm -2)、W0 (0), 分析小麦产量、水氮利用效率及土壤硝态氮淋失情况。结果表明, 2017—2018年和2018—2019年小麦季灌水处理较不灌水处理分别增产14.88%~15.01%和4.11~4.16倍, 但处理间差异不显著, 而越冬期灌水600 m 3 hm -2土壤硝态氮淋失风险显著降低。在越冬期灌水600 m 3 hm -2处理下, 2017—2018年施氮量150 kg hm -2处理产量最高, 2018—2019年则是施氮量225 kg hm -2处理产量最高, 但2018—2019年施氮量150 kg hm -2处理在较高产量基础上获得较高的氮肥利用效率, 土壤硝态氮淋失量也较施氮量225 kg hm -2处理2个年度分别降低了15.87%和10.20%。因此, 施氮量150 kg hm -2配合越冬期灌水600 m 3 hm -2, 能够在保障产量的基础上, 提高水氮利用效率, 降低硝态氮淋失风险, 实现关中平原冬小麦生产节水减肥环保增效的目标。

关键词: 冬小麦, 节水减氮, 产量, 水分利用效率, 氮肥利用效率, 硝态氮淋失量

Abstract:

In order to solve the problems of excessive nitrogen input and irrigation water resources scarcity in current winter wheat production in Guanzhong Plain, winter wheat grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, and nitrate nitrogen leaching were investigated to hopefully provide a theoretical basis for determining water-saving and nitrogen-reducing cultivation model. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2017-2019) was conducted in Yangling, Shaanxi province, China, where the nitrogen application rates of N300 (300 kg hm -2), N225 (225 kg hm -2), N150 (150 kg hm -2), N75 (75 kg hm -2), N0 (0 kg hm -2, no nitrogen application) were assigned to the main plots, and the irrigation amount of W2 (1200 m 3 hm -2), W1 (600 m 3 hm -2), W0 (0, no irrigation) were assigned to the subplots. The amount of irrigation and nitrogen application had significant effects on wheat yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, soil nitrate nitrogen content as well as its leaching loss. In the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 wheat seasons, the irrigation treatments (W1 and W2) significantly increased the wheat yield by 14.88%-15.01% and 4.11-4.16 times, respectively, but the difference between them was not significant, while the risk of soil nitrate nitrogen leaching under irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2 in overwintering period was significantly reduced. Under the irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period, the yield was the highest in N150 treatment in 2017-2018, and in N225 treatment in 2018-2019, the N150 treatment had higher nitrogen use efficiency, and soil nitrate nitrogen leaching was also reduced by 15.87% and 10.20% compared with that of N225 treatment in 2017-2019. Therefore, N150 treatment (with nitrogen application rate of 150 kg hm -2) combined with W1 treatment (irrigated 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period) can improve the water and nitrogen utilization efficiencies and reduce the risk of nitrate nitrogen leaching, realizing the water-saving and nitrogen reduction production of winter wheat in Guanzhong Plain.

Key words: winter wheat, water saving and nitrogen reduction, grain yield, water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrate nitrogen leaching

表1

试验地0~60 cm土层基础理化性状"

土层
Depth
(cm)
有机质
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
全氮
Total N
(g kg-1)
硝态氮
Nitrate N
(mg kg-1)
全磷
Total P
(g kg-1)
速效磷
Available P
(mg kg-1)
全钾
Total K
(g kg-1)
速效钾
Available K
(mg kg-1)
0-20 19.06 1.24 12.46 0.99 27.59 10.85 243.87
20-40 15.03 1.00 14.53 0.86 15.06 10.59 222.31
40-60 10.95 0.79 23.08 0.62 3.54 9.90 193.96

图1

近10年月均降雨量"

图2

2017?2019年小麦生长季日降雨量"

表2

施氮和灌水处理对冬小麦产量及其构成因素的影响"

处理
Treatment
2017?2018 2018?2019
穗数
SN
(×103 spikes hm-2)
穗粒数
GNS
千粒重
TGW
(g)
产量
GY
(kg hm-2)
穗数
SN
(×103 spikes hm-2)
穗粒数
GNS
千粒重
TGW
(g)
产量
GY
(kg hm-2)
N0 558.07 c 37 a 37.51 a 6819 c 327.80 c 33 a 45.62 a 4860 d
N75 565.77 bc 39 a 37.64 a 7580 b 460.17 ab 29 b 42.11 bc 5959 c
N150 599.13 ab 37 a 37.73 a 8092 a 482.90 a 29 b 42.24 bc 6599 b
N225 596.57 ab 38 a 38.46 a 7578 b 467.50 ab 30 b 41.65 c 7172 a
N300 607.20 a 37 a 36.89 a 7467 b 434.87 b 30 b 43.44 b 6910 ab
W0 529.76 c 38 a 39.84 a 6827 b 392.70 b 21 b 37.72 c 1676 b
W1 589.38 b 38 a 37.29 b 7843 a 415.36 b 36 a 48.83 a 8656 a
W2 636.90 a 37 a 35.81 c 7852 a 495.88 a 34 a 42.94 b 8569 a
F-value
N 3.91* 1.21NS 1.13NS 15.17*** 17.66*** 3.79** 137.26*** 29.43***
W 39.11*** 1.52NS 24.69*** 42.43*** 22.37*** 150.77*** 110.84*** 922.80***
N×W 1.71NS 8.04*** 4.40** 5.94*** 7.56*** 9.96*** 2.196NS 2.14NS

图3

相同灌水条件下施氮量与小麦产量的关系 W0: 不灌水; W1: 越冬期灌水600 m3 hm-2; W2: 越冬期和拔节期共灌水1200 m3 hm-2。"

图4

2017?2019年小麦季土壤含水量 W0: 不灌水; W1: 越冬期灌水600 m3 hm-2; W2: 越冬期和拔节期共灌水1200 m3 hm-2。"

表3

不同水氮处理下冬小麦百千克籽粒吸氮量"

2017?2018 2018?2019
W0 W1 W2 平均Mean W0 W1 W2 平均Mean
N0 1.65 d 2.13 b 2.40 b 2.06 c 6.26 a 1.57 d 3.59 a 3.81 ab
N75 2.06 cd 2.19 b 2.48 b 2.24 bc 5.48 a 1.76 cd 3.25 a 3.50 b
N150 2.48 bc 2.26 b 2.55 b 2.43 b 5.89 a 2.02 bc 3.12 a 3.67 ab
N225 2.82 ab 2.48 ab 3.10 ab 2.80 a 5.69 a 2.24 b 3.13 a 3.68 ab
N300 3.01 a 2.75 a 3.38 a 3.05 a 6.37 a 2.68 a 3.49 a 4.18 a
平均Mean 2.41 b 2.36 b 2.78 a 5.94 a 2.05 c 3.31 b
F-value
N 16.87*** 2.11NS
W 9.31** 212.65***
N×W 1.26NS 0.97NS

表4

不同水氮处理对小麦水氮利用效率的影响"

处理
Treatment
2017?2018 2018?2019
氮肥农学
效率
NAE
(kg kg-1)
氮素利用效率
NUE
(kg kg-1)
水分利用效率
WUE
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
氮肥农学效率
NAE
(kg kg-1)
氮素利用效率
NUE
(kg kg-1)
水分利用效率
WUE
(g hm-2 mm-1)
W0N0 59.20 a 18.67 cd 15.98 f 4.91 h
W0N75 2.89 ef 48.62 b 20.11 bc 7.97 fg 18.28 f 6.04 gh
W0N150 0.99 f 40.43 de 22.65 a 5.36 gh 17.03 f 7.58 fg
W0N225 -1.76 g 35.69 fg 18.66 cd 5.31 gh 17.59 f 9.02 f
W0N300 -0.85 g 33.31 gh 20.41 bc 3.92 gh 15.90 f 8.02 f
W1N0 46.93 b 18.11 d 63.65 a 18.03 cd
W1N75 15.45 a 45.82 bc 20.13 bc 13.65 cd 56.87 b 18.33 cd
W1N150 14.29 a 44.91 bc 21.16 ab 11.44 de 49.52 c 20.01 bc
W1N225 8.42 c 40.53 de 20.38 bc 10.78 e 45.09 c 22.35 a
W1N300 5.66 d 36.50 efg 21.07 ab 6.93 fg 37.42 d 21.89 a
W2N0 41.90 cd 16.85 d 27.95 e 14.06 e
W2N75 12.32 b 40.73 de 17.59 d 22.36 a 30.82 e 17.04 d
W2N150 10.19 c 39.22 def 21.15 ab 17.98 b 32.98 de 19.89 bc
W2N225 3.47 e 32.54 gh 18.47 cd 14.72 c 32.85 de 21.21 ab
W2N300 1.67 ef 29.90 h 17.82 d 9.65 ef 28.83 e 19.88 bc
F-value
N 121.95*** 63.92*** 16.07*** 38.48*** 9.94*** 35.38***
W 310.08*** 33.89*** 14.42 *** 135.53*** 408.77*** 657.46***
N×W 8.83*** 8.07*** 1.90NS 4.81** 10.83*** 1.84NS

图5

2017?2019年小麦收获后0~200 cm土层土壤硝态氮含量剖面图 W0: 不灌水; W1: 越冬期灌水600 m3 hm-2; W2: 越冬期和拔节期共灌水1200 m3 hm-2。*表示0.05水平显著; **表示0.01水平显著; ***表示0.001水平显著。"

图6

不同水氮处理下麦田土壤硝态氮淋失量 N0: 不施氮; N75: 施氮量为75 kg hm-2; N150: 施氮量为150 kg hm-2; N225: 施氮量为225 kg hm-2; N300: 施氮量为300 kg hm-2; W0: 不灌水; W1: 越冬期灌水600 m3 hm-2; W2: 越冬期和拔节期共灌水1200 m3 hm-2。柱上不同小写字母表示在同一水分条件下在0.05水平上有显著性差异(P < 0.05)。"

图7

不同施氮量处理下小麦产量与氮肥利用和硝态氮淋失的关系 NAE: 氮肥农学效率; NUE: 氮肥利用效率。"

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