作物学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (05): 919-927.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2013.00919

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. 中国农业大学农学与生物技术学院, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-25 修回日期:2013-01-15 出版日期:2013-05-12 网络出版日期:2013-02-19
  • 通讯作者: 王璞, E-mail: wangpu@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:


Effects of Meteorological Factors at Different Growth Stages on Yield Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Heilonggang Basin

MING Bo,ZHU Jin-Cheng,TAO Hong-Bin,XU Li-Na,GUO Bu-Qing,WANG Pu*   

  1. College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2012-07-25 Revised:2013-01-15 Published:2013-05-12 Published online:2013-02-19
  • Contact: 王璞, E-mail: wangpu@cau.edu.cn


明确玉米生长发育不同阶段气象因子与产量的关系,有助于确定区域最适播期。通过调整播期来改变玉米生育期内气候条件,对于抵御阶段性不良气象因子的胁迫并最终实现高产目标有重要意义。本研究以郑单958为试验材料,于2009年至2010年在黑龙港地区中国农业大学吴桥试验站进行分期播种试验,分析产量及产量构成因素与不同阶段气象因子的关系。结果显示: (1)由于年际间气象条件的差异,产量及其构成因素并非简单地随播期变化而变化。(2)在试验设定的高密度条件下,产量提升主要受千粒重的制约,穗粒数次之。(3)产量性状与不同生育阶段的多个气象因子显著相关。穗期、抽雄吐丝阶段的光照条件对穗粒数以及产量有影响;苗期、营养生长阶段气温日较差与产量显著正相关;抽雄吐丝前后的温度条件影响穗粒数;生育期总降水量影响穗粒数和千粒重的提升。该地区在调整播种时间、改进栽培措施时,上述关系应是考虑的重点。生产中可适当早播晚收,选用适宜的中晚熟品种,既可避开生育前期及籽粒形成阶段不利气象因子的影响,又可延长籽粒灌浆时间,充分利用该地区生育后期丰富的光热资源。

关键词: 黑龙港流域, 玉米, 播期, 产量性状, 气象因子


Sowing date affects the phenology of crop through adjusting meteorological factors at different growth stages, which plays an important role on development and yield in maize. A two-year field study was conducted to assess the effects of meteorological factors on summer maize yield and its components under various sowing dates in Heilonggang basin in 2009 and 2010.Zhengdan 958 (ZD958), a popular cultivar in the region, was sown at five sowing dates (20 April, 5 May, 20 May, 4 June, and 18 June) in 2009 and three sowing dates (30 April, 21 May, and 11 June) in 2010, respectively, and harvested atphysiological maturity (R6) stage. Meteorological factors, including maximum temperature, minimum temperature, temperature range, growing-degree day, precipitation, wind speed, maximum wind speed,relative humidity and sunshine duration, maize yield and yield components including ear number (EN), kernel number per ear (KNE) and 1000-kernel weight (KW), as well as the relationship between meteorological factors and yield components were analyzed. Partial correlation analysis was used to estimate the effect of agro-meteorological variables on maize yield. The results showed that due to the annual difference of meteorological conditions, yield traits were not changed with sowing date. At the density of 8.25 plants ha-1, multiple linear regressions between yield and its components suggested that a high KW combined with a stable KNE was important to increase yield. Yield traits were closely correlated with various meteorological factors at different growth stages. The light condition affected KNE and yield significantly during ear formation stage and anthesis stage. Daily temperature range was significantly correlated with yield at seedling and vegetative growth stage. Daily maximum temperature and daily minimum temperature significantly affected KNE from tasseling to silking. Effective precipitation of whole growth period influenced the increment of KW and KNE. The above factors are important in sowing period adjustment and choosing cultivation methods. Therefore, a technique could be applied in this area with earlier sowing date and delayed harvest, so that stress from adverse weather conditions could be avoided and kernel filling duration could be extended to achieve maximum yield.

Key words: Heilonggang basin, Maize (Zea mays L.), Sowing date, Yield traitsMeteorological factors

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