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作物学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 726-738.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13016

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北主推玉米品种种子形态及贮藏物质与萌发期耐冷性的关系

宋仕勤1,2(), 杨清龙1,2, 王丹1,2, 吕艳杰2, 徐文华2, 魏雯雯2, 刘小丹2, 姚凡云2, 曹玉军2, 王永军1,2,*(), 王立春1,2   

  1. 1吉林农业大学农学院, 吉林长春130118
    2吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/玉米国家工程实验室, 吉林长春 130033
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-25 接受日期:2021-04-26 出版日期:2021-06-03 网络出版日期:2021-06-03
  • 通讯作者: 王永军
  • 作者简介:E-mail: 1436199591@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    吉林省农业科技创新工程项目(CXGC2017JQ006);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0300303);国家自然科学基金项目(31701349)

Relationship between seed morphology, storage substance and chilling tolerance during germination of dominant maize hybrids in Northeast China

SONG Shi-Qin1,2(), YANG Qing-Long1,2, WANG Dan1,2, LYU Yan-Jie2, XU Wen-Hua2, WEI Wen-Wen2, LIU Xiao-Dan2, YAO Fan-Yun2, CAO Yu-Jun2, WANG Yong-Jun1,2,*(), WANG Li-Chun1,2   

  1. 1Agronomy College, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, Jilin, China
    2Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jilin Academy of Agriculture Sciences/State Engineering Laboratory of Maize, Changchun 130033, Jilin, China
  • Received:2021-02-25 Accepted:2021-04-26 Published:2021-06-03 Published online:2021-06-03
  • Contact: WANG Yong-Jun
  • Supported by:
    Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of Jilin Province(CXGC2017JQ006);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0300303);National Natural Science Foundation of China (31701349).(31701349)

摘要:

种子萌发是作物形态建成的起始阶段, 由其自身属性和环境因素共同决定。低温是影响种子萌发的重要因素之一, 探讨低温环境下种子自身属性与其萌发的关系对东北春播玉米生产具有重要意义。本研究选用东北主推的36个玉米品种以6℃为低温胁迫, 15℃适温为对照, 测定了其发芽势、发芽率、种子形态和内含物等指标。通过主成分分析、耐冷性综合评价值(CL值)、隶属函数值(R值), 对36个玉米品种进行耐冷性评价, 分析了种子形态(粒长、粒宽、粒厚度、长宽比、百粒体积和百粒重)、贮藏物质(淀粉、蛋白质和脂肪)与其耐冷性的关系。结果表明, 在低温胁迫下, 36个玉米品种的发芽势和发芽率均受到不同程度的抑制, 相对发芽势冷害率和相对发芽冷害率的变异最大。7个表征耐冷性的单项指标之间显著相关, 主成分分析可将7个单项指标转化为2个独立的综合指标, 其中相对发芽势和相对发芽率的正向贡献率最大, 可作为玉米品种耐冷性评价的关键指标。聚类分析将36个品种划为强耐冷型(19.4%)、耐冷型(30.6%)、一般型(33.3%)和敏感型(16.7%)4种类型, 其中, 吉单56、垦吉267、绥玉23、吉单953、垦吉268、吉单96和吉单95为强耐冷型品种。不同耐冷型品种的种子形态和贮藏物质含量存在明显差异, 相关分析显示种子形态与其耐冷性无显著相关, 淀粉含量与相对发芽势、相对发芽率、相对发芽势冷害率、相对发芽冷害率和相对发芽时间呈极显著相关(r = 0.396**r = 0.404**r= -0.401 **r = -0.391**r = 0.362**), 蛋白质含量与相对发芽势呈极显著负相关(r = -0.379**)。经回归分析发现, 淀粉含量高的类型具有较高的相对发芽势、相对发芽率和相对发芽时间, 以及较低的相对发芽势和相对发芽率冷害率。利用回归模型估测, 当种子淀粉含量72.0%~74.0%, 6°C处理后相对发芽势≥70.0%, 相对发芽率≥80.5%, 相对发芽势和相对发芽率的冷害率≤50.0%。在低温胁迫下, 种子淀粉含量较高有助于提高种子萌发、减轻冷害, 推荐选用种子淀粉含量72.0%~74.0%的品种可较好满足萌发的要求。

关键词: 玉米, 萌发, 低温胁迫, 种子形态, 贮藏物质, 东北

Abstract:

Seed germination is the initial stage of crop morphology, which is determined by its own properties and environmental factors. Low temperature is one of the most important factors affecting seed germination. It is crucial to explore the relationship between seed properties and germination under low temperature environmental conditions for maize production in Northeast China. In the present study, 36 maize hybrids released in Northeast China were selected and the germination culture experiment was conducted under 6℃ (low temperature stress) and 15℃ (the control). The seedling vigor, seed germination rate, seed morphology and storage substances content were determined. The germination potential and germination rate of 36 maize hybrids were evaluated by the principal component analysis (PCA), the comprehensive evaluation value of cold tolerance (CL-value), and the membership function value (R-value). The relationship between the seed morphology (kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, kernel length/kernel width ratio, 100-kernel volume, and 100-kernel weight) and the seed storage substances (starch, protein, and fat) of 36 maize varieties were investigated. The results showed that the seedling vigor and germination rate of 36 maize hybrids were inhibited to some content, and the variation of relative seedling vigor cold injury rate and relative germination cold injury rate was the largest under low temperature stress. There was a significant correlation among the seven individual indicators that characterized cold tolerance. Principal component analysis could transform seven individual indicators into two independent comprehensive indicators. Among them, relative seedling vigor and relative germination rate had the largest positive contribution rate, which could be used as the key indicators for cold resistance evaluation at germination stage in maize. We classified 36 hybrids into four types of strong cold tolerance (19.4%), cold tolerance (30.6%), medium cold tolerance (33.3%), and cold sensitive (16.7%) by cluster analysis. Among them, Jidan 56, Kenji 267, Suiyu 23, Jidan 953, Kenji 268, Jidan 96, and Jidan 95 were strong cold-tolerant hybrids. The correlation analysis revealed that there was no significant correlation between seed morphology and cold tolerance. Starch content was significantly correlated with relative seedling vigor, relative germination rate, relative seedling vigor chilling injury rate, relative germination chilling injury rate, and relative germination time (r = 0.396**, r = 0.404 **, r = -0.401 **, r = -0.391 **, and r = 0.362 **). There was a significant negative correlation between protein content and relative seedling vigor (r = -0.379**). Regression analysis indicated that the types with high starch content had higher relative seedling vigor, relative germination rate, relative germination time, and lower relative seedling vigor, relative germination rate, and chilling injury rate. The regression model demonstrated that the seed starch content was 72.0%-74.0%, the relative seedling vigor was ≥70.0%, the relative germination rate was ≥80.5%, and the chilling injury rate of relative seedling vigor and relative germination rate was ≤50.0% under 6℃ stress. Under low temperature stress, the higher seed starch content was helpful to improve seed germination and reduce chilling injury. The varieties with starch content of 72.0%-74.0% were recommended to meet the requirements of seed germination in Northeast China.

Key words: maize, germination, low temperature stress, seed morphology, storage substance, Northeast China

表1

供试玉米品种及育成单位"

序号
Number
品种
Hybrid name
育种单位
Breeding institutes
1 丹玉311 Danyu 311 丹东农业科学院DAAS
2 丹玉336 Danyu 336 丹玉种业科技股份有限公司DST
3 沈玉21 Shenyu 21 沈阳市农业科学院SAAS
4 先玉335 Xianyu 335 铁岭先锋种子研究有限公司TPSR
5 辽单575 Liaodan 575 辽宁省农业科学院LAAS
6 辽单586 Liaodan 586 辽宁省农业科学院LAAS
7 辽单1258 Liaodan 1258 辽宁省农业科学院LAAS
8 辽单1281 Liaodan 1281 辽宁省农业科学院LAAS
9 辽单352 Liaodan 352 辽宁省农业科学院LAAS
10 吉单27 Jidan 27 吉农高新北方农作物优良品种开发中心JHTNCC
11 吉单953 Jidan 953 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
12 吉单50 Jidan 50 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
13 吉单95 Jidan 95 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
14 吉单96 Jidan 96 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
15 吉单56 Jidan 56 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
16 吉单558 Jidan 558 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
17 吉单441 Jidan 441 吉林省农业科学院JAAS
18 原单68 Yuandan 68 吉林省省原种业有限公司JSSI
19 吉东60 Jidong 60 吉东种业有限责任公司JSI
20 吉东66 Jidong 66 吉东种业有限责任公司JSI
21 垦吉267 Kenji 267 吉东种业有限责任公司JSI
22 垦吉268 Kenji 268 吉东种业有限责任公司JSI
23 垦吉269 Kenji 269 吉东种业有限责任公司JSI
24 鑫鑫1号 Xinxin 1 黑龙江省鑫鑫种子有限公司HXS
25 绥玉23 Suiyu 23 黑龙江省农业科学院绥化分院SHAAS
26 绥玉29 Suiyu 29 黑龙江省农业科学院绥化分院SHAAS
序号
Number
品种
Hybrid name
育种单位
Breeding institutes
27 绥玉35 Suiyu 35 黑龙江省农业科学院绥化分院SHAAS
28 绥玉42 Suiyu 42 黑龙江省农业科学院绥化分院SHAAS
29 克玉19 Keyu 19 黑龙江省农业科学院克山分院KHAAS
30 龙单42 Longdan 42 黑龙江省农业科学院HAAS
31 龙单67 Longdan 67 黑龙江省农业科学院HAAS
32 龙育7号 Longyu 7 黑龙江省农业科学院HAAS
33 嫩单22 Nendan 22 黑龙江省农业科学院齐齐哈尔分院QHAAS
34 垦单15 Kendan 15 黑龙江省农垦科学院HAALRS
35 庆单3号 Qingdan 3 大庆市庆发种业有限责任公司DQS
36 郑单958 Zhengdan 958 河南省农业科学院HNAAS

表2

玉米种子萌发期的耐冷性"

指标
Index
处理
Treatment
最大值
Max. (%)
最小值
Min. (%)
平均值
Mean (%)
变异系数
CV (%)
发芽势SV 适温Ambient temperature 100.0 23.0 76.0 24.0
低温Low temperature 93.0 0 43.0 70.0
发芽率GR 适温Ambient temperature 100.0 62.0 89.0 10.0
低温Low temperature 98.0 1.0 60.0 44.0
相对发芽势RSV 99.0 0 54.0 60.0
相对发芽率RGR 100.0 2.0 67.0 41.0
相对发芽势冷害率RSCR 100.0 1.0 46.0 72.0
相对发芽冷害率RGCR 99.0 0 34.0 79.0
相对发芽时间RGT 77.0 1.0 52.0 41.0

表3

种子萌发期耐冷性指标的相关性"

指标Index X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7
X1 1
X2 0.696** 1
X3 0.911** 0.548** 1
X4 0.712** 0.958** 0.607** 1
X5 -0.945** -0.666** -0.956** -0.718** 1
X6 -0.705** -0.962** -0.585** -0.994** 0.715** 1
X7 0.673** 0.965** 0.522** 0.970** -0.644** -0.976** 1

表4

种子萌发期耐冷性指标的主成分分析"

主成分Principal component I II
特征值Eigen value 5.697 1.115
贡献率Variance contribution ratio 81.388 15.924
累积贡献率Accumulated variance contribution ratio 81.388 97.313
向量特征值Eigen vector X1 0.155 -0.369
向量特征值Eigen vector X2 0.162 0.296
向量特征值Eigen vector X3 0.141 -0.513
向量特征值Eigen vector X4 0.167 0.254
向量特征值Eigen vector X5 -0.156 0.393
向量特征值Eigen vector X6 -0.166 -0.270
向量特征值Eigen vector X7 0.160 0.343

表5

玉米种子萌发期耐冷性的综合得分值、隶属函数值和D值"

品种 Cultivar CL1 CL2 R1 R2 DD-value
吉单56 Jidan 56 0.708 -0.078 1.000 0.463 0.912
垦吉267 Kenji 267 0.690 0.002 0.983 0.508 0.905
绥玉23 Suiyu 23 0.682 0.064 0.974 0.542 0.904
吉单953 Jidan 953 0.660 0.148 0.953 0.589 0.894
垦吉268 Kenji 268 0.655 0.154 0.948 0.593 0.890
吉单96 Jidan 96 0.641 0.132 0.935 0.581 0.877
吉单95 Jidan 95 0.622 0.103 0.916 0.564 0.858
先玉335 Xianyu 335 0.590 -0.078 0.885 0.463 0.816
吉单441 Jidan 441 0.581 -0.076 0.876 0.464 0.808
吉单558 Jidan 558 0.546 0.221 0.841 0.631 0.807
郑单958 Zhengdan 958 0.555 0.026 0.850 0.521 0.796
鑫鑫1号 Xinxin 1 0.539 -0.183 0.834 0.403 0.764
吉东66 Jidong 66 0.450 0.388 0.748 0.724 0.744
丹玉311 Danyu 311 0.519 -0.286 0.815 0.346 0.738
垦吉269 Kenji 269 0.429 0.271 0.727 0.659 0.716
吉东60 Jidong 60 0.428 0.040 0.726 0.529 0.694
龙单42 Longdan 42 0.449 -0.486 0.746 0.233 0.663
绥玉42 Suiyu 42 0.316 0.495 0.616 0.784 0.644
龙育7号 Longyu 7 0.266 0.470 0.567 0.771 0.601
绥玉35 Suiyu 35 0.232 0.536 0.534 0.807 0.579
辽单586 Liaodan 586 0.235 0.383 0.536 0.721 0.567
吉单27 Jidan 27 0.176 0.879 0.479 1.000 0.564
龙单67 Longdan 67 0.373 -0.901 0.672 0.000 0.562
丹玉336 Danyu 336 0.270 -0.030 0.571 0.489 0.558
辽单575 Liaodan 575 0.230 0.310 0.532 0.680 0.557
辽单352 Liaodan 352 0.224 0.350 0.526 0.703 0.555
原单68 Yuandan 68 0.176 0.230 0.479 0.636 0.505
辽单1258 Liaodan 1258 0.205 -0.081 0.508 0.461 0.500
沈玉21 Shenyu 21 0.115 0.208 0.419 0.623 0.452
辽单1281 Liaodan 1281 0.089 0.319 0.394 0.686 0.442
吉单50 Jidan 50 -0.046 0.607 0.262 0.847 0.357
品种 Cultivar CL1 CL2 R1 R2 DD-value
克玉19 Keyu 19 -0.028 0.327 0.279 0.690 0.346
庆单3号 Qingdan 3 -0.069 0.507 0.239 0.791 0.329
绥玉29 Suiyu 29 -0.066 0.309 0.242 0.680 0.313
嫩单22 Nendan 22 -0.288 0.165 0.024 0.599 0.118
垦单15 Kendan 15 -0.313 0.139 0.000 0.585 0.096

图1

36个玉米品种种子萌发期的耐冷性聚类 I: 强耐冷型品种; II: 耐冷型品种; III: 一般型品种; IV: 敏感型品种。"

图2

不同耐冷型玉米品种的种子形态 I: 强耐冷型品种; II: 耐冷型品种; III: 一般型品种; IV: 敏感型品种。"

图3

不同耐冷型玉米品种的种子的贮藏物质 I: 强耐冷型品种; II: 耐冷型品种; III: 一般型品种; IV: 敏感型品种。"

图4

种子形态、贮藏物质与种子耐冷性的相关性 RSV: 相对发芽势; RGR: 相对发芽率; RSCR: 相对发芽势冷害率; RGCR: 相对发芽冷害率; RGT: 相对发芽时间; KL: 籽粒长; KW: 籽粒宽; KT: 籽粒厚; KL/KW: 长宽比; 100-W: 百粒重; 100-VOL: 百粒体积; St: 淀粉含量; Pr: 蛋白质含量; Fa: 脂肪含量。**表示P = 0.01水平, *表示P = 0.05水平。"

图5

种子淀粉含量与相对发芽势和相对发芽率(A)、相对发芽势冷害率和相对发芽冷害率(B)、相对发芽时间(C)、蛋白质含量和相对发芽势(D)的回归关系 RSV: 相对发芽势; RGR: 相对发芽率; RSCR: 相对发芽势冷害率; RGCR: 相对发芽冷害率; RGT: 相对发芽时间。"

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