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作物学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 704-715.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11007

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

小麦籽粒不同层次酚类物质与抗氧化活性差异及氮肥调控效应

冯健超1(), 许倍铭1, 江薛丽1, 胡海洲1, 马英1, 王晨阳1,2, 王永华1, 马冬云1,2,*()   

  1. 1河南农业大学农学院/国家小麦工程技术研究中心, 河南郑州 450046
    2河南农业大学/省部共建小麦玉米作物学国家重点实验室, 河南郑州 450046
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-13 接受日期:2021-06-16 出版日期:2021-07-22 网络出版日期:2021-07-22
  • 通讯作者: 马冬云
  • 作者简介:E-mail: fjc000@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300404);河南省科技攻关项目(152102110067)

Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in layered grinding wheat flour and the regulation effect of nitrogen fertilizer application

FENG Jian-Chao1(), XU Bei-Ming1, JIANG Xue-Li1, HU Hai-Zhou1, MA Ying1, WANG Chen-Yang1,2, WANG Yong-Hua1, MA Dong-Yun1,2,*()   

  1. 1National Engineering Research Center for Wheat/Agronomy College of Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan, China
    2National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science/Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan, China
  • Received:2021-01-13 Accepted:2021-06-16 Published:2021-07-22 Published online:2021-07-22
  • Contact: MA Dong-Yun
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300404);Science and Technology Project of Henan Province(152102110067)

摘要:

明确酚类物质在籽粒不同层次的分布规律及对氮肥调控的响应, 为小麦品质改良及优质栽培提供科学依据。本研究以紫麦(冀紫439)和白麦(鑫华麦818)为材料, 于2019—2020年分别在郑州和原阳设置高氮(HN, 210 kg N hm-2)和低氮(LN, 105 kg N hm-2)处理, 采用分层碾磨方法将籽粒从外向内依次分为5层(LY1, LY2, LY3, LY4, LY5), 测定不同层次籽粒中的总酚、总类黄酮、花青素含量及其抗氧化活性。结果表明, 游离酚和结合酚提取物中的总酚、总类黄酮、花青素含量以及抗氧化活性(TEAC、FRAP)从籽粒外层到内层呈下降趋势。紫麦籽粒不同层次抗氧化物含量及抗氧化活性均高于白麦, 但两品种之间的差异随着研磨程度的加深呈下降趋势。籽粒LY1~LY3中总酚、总类黄酮和花青素含量随着施氮量的增加而增加(原阳LY1总酚除外), 而内层LY4~LY5对増施氮肥的响应较弱, 且存在地点间差异。小麦籽粒酚酸组分中阿魏酸占全部组分93%以上, 且表现为在低氮条件下含量增高。综上所述, 紫麦具有较高的酚类等抗氧化物质, 但与白麦之间的差异随着研磨程度的加深而下降; 籽粒外层抗氧化物质含量和抗氧化活性对氮肥调控具有较强的响应, 且含量随着氮肥増施而增加。

关键词: 小麦, 分层碾磨, 抗氧化物质, 酚酸, 氮肥

Abstract:

Clarifying the distribution of phenolic compounds in layered grinding wheat flour and its response to nitrogen fertilizer application would provide useful information for wheat quality improvement and high-quality cultivation. Two wheat cultivars, purple wheat (Jizi 439) and white wheat (Xinhuamai 818), were planted with two nitrogen application rate (HN, N 210 kg hm-2; LN, N 105 kg hm-2) in Zhengzhou and Yuanyang experimental sites during growing period in 2019 and 2020. The mature grains were ground into five milling fractionations (LY1, LY2 LY3, LY4, and LY5) from the bran layer to the endospermic layer by layered grinding, and the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoids content (TFC), and the anthocyanin content (AC), and their antioxidant activity were determined. The results showed that the TPC, TFC, AC, and antioxidant activity (TEAC, FRAP) in free phenols and conjugated phenols extracts decreased from the outer layer flour fractionation to the inner layer flour fractionation. The purple wheat, named as Jizi 439, had a higher antioxidant content and antioxidant activity than white wheat (Xinhuamai 818), but the difference between the two cultivars displayed a decreasing trend from the bran layer flour fractionation to endosperm layer flour fractionation. The TPC, TFC, and AC of LY1 to LY3 flour fractionation increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application except for TPC of LY1 in Yuanyang. However, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids of LY4 to LY5 flour fractionation had a weak response to nitrogen fertilizer application. The content of ferulic acid accounted for more than 93% of the TPC in wheat grains and had a higher value under low nitrogen condition. In conclusion, purple wheat had higher antioxidant substances such as phenolics than white wheat, and the difference between purple wheat and white wheat decreased with the deepening of grinding degree. The content and activity of antioxidants in the outer layer flour fractionation were significantly responsive to nitrogen regulation, and the content increased with the increase of nitrogen.

Key words: wheat, layered grinding wheat flour, antioxidant substance, phenolic acid, nitrogen fertilizer

图1

2019-2020年降雨量与月平均温度变化"

图2

冀紫麦439逐层研磨后的籽粒形状"

图3

不同研磨程度下小麦籽粒中的总酚含量 XH-N105、XH-N210、JZ-N105、JZ-N210分别表示鑫华麦818的105 N hm-2处理、鑫华麦818的210 N hm-2处理、冀紫439的105 N hm-2处理和冀紫439的210 N hm-2处理。柱上不同小写字母表示同一层次面粉之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

图4

不同研磨程度下小麦籽粒中的总类黄酮含量 XH-N105、XH-N210、JZ-N105、JZ-N210分别表示鑫华麦818的105 N hm-2处理、鑫华麦818的210 N hm-2处理、冀紫439的105 N hm-2处理和冀紫439的210 N hm-2处理。柱上不同小写字母表示同一层次面粉之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。处理同图3。"

图5

不同研磨程度下小麦籽粒中的花青素含量 XH-N105、XH-N210、JZ-N105、JZ-N210分别表示鑫华麦818的105 N hm-2处理、鑫华麦818的210 N hm-2处理、冀紫439的105 N hm-2处理和冀紫439的210 N hm-2处理。柱上不同小写字母表示同一层次面粉之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。处理同图3。"

图6

不同研磨程度下面粉中TEAC的差异 XH-N105, XH-N210, JZ-N105, JZ-N210分别表示鑫华麦818的105 N hm-2处理、鑫华麦818的210 N hm-2处理、冀紫439的105 N hm-2处理和冀紫439的210 N hm-2处理。柱上不同小写字母表示同一层次面粉之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。处理同图3。"

图7

不同研磨程度下面粉中FRAP的差异 XH-N105、XH-N210、JZ-N105、JZ-N210分别表示鑫华麦818的105 N hm-2处理、鑫华麦818的210 N hm-2处理、冀紫439的105 N hm-2处理和冀紫439的210 N hm-2处理。柱上不同小写字母表示同一层次面粉之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。处理同图3。"

表1

氮肥对小麦籽粒中不同酚酸组分含量的影响"

地点
Site
酚类
Phenols
品种
Cultivar
处理
Treatment
香草酸
Vanilic
acid
咖啡酸
Caffeic
acid
丁香酸
Syringic
acid
对香豆酸
p-Coumaric
acid
阿魏酸
Ferulic
acid
总酚酸
Total phenolic
acid
郑州
Zhengzhou
游离酚
Free phenol
鑫华麦818
Xinhua 818
N105 1.81 f 0.18 d 0.16 f 2.37 e 0.48 d 4.99 e
N210 2.72 e 0.23 d 0.26 e 0.17 f 0.46 d 3.83 e
冀紫439
Jizi 439
N105 2.78 e 0.38 d 0.33 d 2.25 e 1.49 d 7.22 e
N210 2.65 e 0.64 cd 0.27 e 0.05 f 0.75 d 4.35 e
结合酚
Bound phenol
鑫华麦818
Xinhua 818
N105 8.81 c 2.44 a 1.34 c 14.61 a 440.45 bc 467.65 c
N210 5.58 d 1.07 bc 1.97 a 11.38 c 433.60 c 453.59 d
冀紫439
Jizi 439
N105 15.96 a 1.59 b 1.54 b 12.84 b 517.85 a 549.77 a
N210 10.30 b 2.31 a 1.92 a 10.13 d 455.89 b 480.54 b
原阳
Yuanyang
游离酚
Free phenol
鑫华麦818
Xinhua 818
N105 2.23 f 0.155 e 0.22 e 0.63 de 1.16 e 4.39 e
N210 2.35 f 0.20 e 0.31 d 0.43 de 1.16 e 4.45 e
冀紫439
Jizi 439
N105 3.05 e 0.82 d 0.39 d 1.11 d 0.94 e 6.30 e
N210 3.71 d 0.64 d 0.21 e 0.14 e 0.86 e 5.55 e
结合酚
Bound phenol
鑫华麦818
Xinhua 818
N105 6.18 b 2.42 b 1.74 c 9.57 b 383.27 c 403.18 c
N210 4.14 d 1.96 c 1.78 c 8.31 c 339.56 d 355.75 d
冀紫439
Jizi 439
N105 15.54 a 2.27 bc 1.81 b 11.85 a 533.25 a 564.73 a
N210 15.42 a 2.82 a 1.98 a 11.92 a 503.03 b 535.17 b

图8

不同研磨程度下面粉中DPPH的差异 XH-N105、XH-N210、JZ-N105、JZ-N210分别表示鑫华麦818的105N hm-2处理、鑫华麦818的210 N hm-2处理、冀紫439的105 N hm-2处理和冀紫439的210N hm-2处理。柱上不同小写字母表示同一层次面粉之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。处理同图3。"

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