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作物学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (10): 2505-2516.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14161

• 作物遗传育种·种质资源·分子遗传学 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国不同省(市、自治区)糯高粱籽粒酚类物质含量差异分析

王倩1,2(), 刘少雄1, 柴晓娇3, 李海4, 张芬1, 陆平1, 王瑞云2,*(), 刘敏轩1,*()   

  1. 1中国农业科学院作物科学研究所, 北京 100081
    2山西农业大学农学院, 山西太谷 030801
    3赤峰农牧科学研究所, 内蒙古赤峰 024031
    4山西农业大学高寒区作物研究所, 山西大同 037008
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-03 接受日期:2022-02-25 出版日期:2022-10-12 网络出版日期:2022-03-24
  • 通讯作者: 王瑞云,刘敏轩
  • 作者简介:第一作者联系方式: E-mail: 457836483@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD1000700);国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD1000701);农作物种质资源保护与利用专项(2019NWB036-06);财政部和农业农村部国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-06);中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目和山西省现代农业产业技术体系建设(杂粮)项目(2022-03)

Content diversity of phenolic compounds of waxy sorghum grains in different provinces, cities, and autonomous regions of China

WANG Qian1,2(), LIU Shao-Xiong1, CHAI Xiao-Jiao3, LI Hai4, ZHANG Fen1, LU Ping1, WANG Rui-Yun2,*(), LIU Min-Xuan1,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    2College of Agronomy, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, China
    3Chifeng Academy of Agricultural & Animal Husbandry Sciences, Chifeng 024031, Inner Mongolia, China
    4Institute of High Latitude Crops, Shanxi Agricultural University, Datong 037008, Shanxi, China
  • Received:2021-09-03 Accepted:2022-02-25 Published:2022-10-12 Published online:2022-03-24
  • Contact: WANG Rui-Yun,LIU Min-Xuan
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2019YFD1000700);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2019YFD1000701);Crop Germplasm Resources Protection(2019NWB036-06);China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA(CARS-06);Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP) in CAAS and the Shanxi Agriculture Research System (Minor Grain Crop)(2022-03)

摘要:

为全面评估我国高粱主产区糯性高粱籽粒中酚类化合物含量、籽粒颜色与来源地之间的关系, 本研究利用福林酚法、NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH法、GB/T15686法和香草醛盐酸法分别对来自我国15个省(市、自治区)的92份糯性高粱籽粒中的多酚、黄酮、单宁和缩合单宁进行含量测定。结果表明, 不同糯高粱籽粒中多酚、黄酮、单宁和缩合单宁含量存在显著差异, 变异系数范围为44.68% (单宁)~79.37% (缩合单宁), 平均值分别为1.25%、1.61%、1.41%和0.50%。4种酚类物质的含量与粒色的深浅一致, 均为: 橙黄色>黄色>褐色>红色>白色。不同省(市、自治区)的糯高粱籽粒中的4种酚类物质含量差异显著(P<0.05), 其中广西、贵州、江西和四川等南部和西南部省(自治区)糯高粱籽粒中多酚、黄酮、单宁及缩合单宁含量较高, 辽宁、内蒙古、北京、山东等东北部省(市、自治区)糯高粱籽粒中的4种酚类物质含量较低。主成分分析前3个主成分累计贡献率达91.60%, 其中广西品种糯高粱(00013082)综合性状表现优良。我国糯高粱核心种质中酚类物质含量较为丰富且具有明显的地域差异。

关键词: 糯高粱, 酚类物质, 籽粒, 核心种质

Abstract:

To comprehensively evaluate the relationship between the contents of phenolic compounds in waxy sorghum grains, the color of grains, and the source of origin in the main sorghum producing areas in China, in this study, the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin and condensed tannin in 92 waxy sorghum varieties from 15 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH method, GB/T 15686 method, and vanillin-hydrochloric acid method. The results showed that there were significant differences in the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin, and condensed tannin in different waxy sorghum varieties. The coefficient of variation ranged from 44.68% (tannin) to 79.37% (condensed tannin) and the average values were 1.25%, 1.61%, 1.41%, and 0.50%, respectively. The contents of the four phenols were consistent with the intensity of the grain color (orange-yellow > yellow > brown > red > white). There were significant differences in the contents of four phenols in waxy sorghum grains from different provinces at P < 0.05. Among them, the contents of four phenols in waxy sorghum grains in Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, and Sichuan located in southern and southwestern China were high, and the four phenols in the waxy sorghum varieties from the four areas of Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Beijing, and Shandong located in northeastern China were low. The cumulative variance contribution of the first 3 principal components of principal component analysis reached 91.60%, among which Guangxi waxy sorghum (00013082) performed well in comprehensive traits. The contents of phenolic compounds in the core collection of waxy sorghum in China were relatively rich and there were obvious regional differences.

Key words: waxy sorghum, phenolic compound grain, core collection

表1

参试92份糯高粱资源信息"

序号
Number
统一编号
Unicode
品种名称
Name of varieties
来源
Origin
颖壳色
Glume color
粒色
Grain color
1 00000128 白黏高粱 Bainiangaoliang 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 黑 Black 白 White
2 00002783 河黏 Henian 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 褐 Brown 白 White
3 00002945 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 褐 Brown 褐 Brown
4 00000184 红壳黏 Hongkenian 辽宁 Liaoning 红 Red 褐 Brown
5 00000253 黄壳白黏跷脚 Huangkebainianqiaojiao 辽宁 Liaoning 黄 Yellow 白 White
6 00000282 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 辽宁 Liaoning 黑 Black 褐 Brown
7 00000380 黏搭拉缨子 Niandalayingzi 辽宁 Liaoning 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
8 00003242 白色黏高粱 Baiseniangaoliang 辽宁 Liaoning 黄 Yellow 白 White
9 00003510 黄黏高粱 Huangniangaoliang 辽宁 Liaoning 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
10 00007444 马尾黏 Maweinian 辽宁 Liaoning 黄 Yellow 褐 Brown
11 00000492 小黏白高粱 Xiaonianbaigaoliang 河北 Hebei 黑 Black 白 White
12 00000845 黄黏高粱 Huangniangaoliang 河北 Hebei 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
13 00001211 小红黏高粱 Xiaohongniangaoliang 河北 Hebei 红 Red 红 Red
14 00001478 红矮种黏 Hongaizhongnian 河北 Hebei 红 Red 红 Red
15 00001593 黄壳黏 Huangkenian 河北 Hebei 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
16 00000562 白软高粱 Bairuangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 白 White
17 00000906 黑壳软高粱 Heikeruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黑 Black 黄 Yellow
18 00001929 丈八千软高粱 Zhangbaqianruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 橙黄 Orange
19 00001941 牛尾巴软高粱 Niuweibaruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
20 00001992 白软高粱 Bairuangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
21 00001993 白软高粱 Bairuangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 白 White
22 00002054 红软高粱 Hongruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
23 00002056 红软茭 Hongruanjiao 山西 Shanxi 黑 Black 红 Red
24 00002169 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 白 White
25 00002171 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
26 00002172 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 红 Red
27 00002174 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 白 White
28 00002175 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 白 White
29 00002211 蚂蚁黏茭 Mayinianjiao 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
30 00002330 黄米黏茭 Huangminianjiao 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
31 00002331 黄米黏茭 Huangminianjiao 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 橙黄 Orange
32 00002345 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 黄 Yellow
33 00002346 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
34 00002377 黑壳白黏高粱 Heikebainiangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 黄 Yellow
序号
Number
统一编号
Unicode
品种名称
Name of varieties
来源
Origin
颖壳色
Glume color
粒色
Grain color
35 00007815 二黏义 Ernianyi 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
36 00007913 白软高粱 Bairuangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 白 White
37 00007918 白软高粱 Bairuangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
38 00007919 白软茭 Bairuanjiao 山西 Shanxi 紫 Purple 白 White
39 00007965 红软高粱 Hongruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 红 Red 红 Red
40 00008047 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黄 Yellow 红 Red
41 00008052 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 紫 Purple 红 Red
42 00008181 黑软高粱 Heiruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黑 Black 红 Red
43 00008188 黑秆软高粱 Heiganruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 黑 Black 红 Red
44 00008204 糯米14 Nuomi 14 山西 Shanxi 紫 Purple 红 Red
45 00011952 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 四川 Sichuan 红 Red 黄 Yellow
46 00012991 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 四川 Sichuan 褐 Brown 褐 Brown
47 00013293 糯红高粱 Nuohonggaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 红 Red 橙黄 Orange
48 00013386 毫羊线 Haoyangxian 江西 Jiangxi 黄 Yellow 橙黄 Orange
49 00013418 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 黑 Black 橙黄 Orange
50 00013419 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 红 Red 黄 Yellow
51 00013425 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 红 Red 橙黄 Orange
52 00013429 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 红 Red 黄 Yellow
53 00013450 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 黄 Yellow 橙黄 Orange
54 00001010 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 黑 Black 黄 Yellow
55 00013130 黄糯高粱 Huangnuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 褐 Brown 橙黄 Orange
56 00014735 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 红 Red 褐 Brown
57 00014745 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 红 Red 褐 Brown
58 00014754 红壳糯 Hongkenuo 贵州 Guizhou 红 Red 褐 Brown
59 00001088 红黏高粱 Hongniangaoliang 北京 Beijing 红 Red 红 Red
60 00001107 黄壳黏 Huangkenian 北京 Beijing 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
61 00001109 黄黏 Huangnian 北京 Beijing 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
62 00001113 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 北京 Beijing 黄 Yellow 红 Red
63 00007041 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 湖北 Hubei 红 Red 红 Red
64 00009121 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 湖北 Hubei 紫 Purple 红 Red
65 00011614 黄糯高粱 Huangnuogaoliang 湖北 Hubei 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
66 00009819 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 紫 Purple 红 Red
67 00009871 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 红 Red 黄 Yellow
68 00009905 矮脚黄糯 Aijiaohuangnuo 陕西 Shaanxi 红 Red 红 Red
69 00009928 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 紫 Purple 红 Red
70 00010386 白软高粱 Bairuangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
71 00010389 红软高粱 Hongruangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 黄 Yellow 黄 Yellow
72 00010390 红糯高粱 Hongnuogaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 红 Red 黄 Yellow
73 00010401 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 红 Red 红 Red
74 00010000 白糯高粱 Bainuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 紫 Purple 褐 Brown
75 00010050 黑糯高粱 Heinuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 黑 Black 黄 Yellow
76 00010061 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 红 Red 褐 Brown
77 00010068 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 红 Red 黄 Yellow
78 00010070 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 云南Yunnan 紫 Purple 褐 Brown
79 00010072 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 紫 Purple 红 Red
序号
Number
统一编号
Unicode
品种名称
Name of varieties
来源
Origin
颖壳色
Glume color
粒色
Grain color
80 00010073 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 紫 Purple 褐 Brown
81 00012056 黄红糯高粱 Huanghongnuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 紫 Purple 褐 Brown
82 00012075 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 云南 Yunnan 黑 Black 褐 Brown
83 00013082 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 褐 Brown 红 Red
84 00013083 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 褐 Brown 褐 Brown
85 00005749 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 山东 Shandong 紫 Purple 褐 Brown
86 00008998 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 山东 Shandong 黑 Black 红 Red
87 00008664 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 红 Red 褐 Brown
88 00008665 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 红 Red 褐 Brown
89 00008667 黏矮高粱 Nianaigaoliang 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 红 Red 褐 Brown
90 00014272 黄壳黏 Huangkenian 吉林 Jilin 褐 Brown 橙黄 Orange
91 00014276 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 吉林 Jilin 红 Red 褐 Brown
92 00014328 红黏高粱 Hongniangaoliang 吉林 Jilin 紫 Purple 褐 Brown

表2

糯高粱籽粒中酚类物质含量的描述性统计分析"

功能成分
Functional component
极小值
Minimum
极大值
Maximum
变异范围
Range of variation
均值
Mean
标准差
SD
变异系数
CV
多酚Polyphenol 0.31 3.47 3.16 1.25 0.61 48.80
黄酮Flavone 0.06 3.87 3.81 1.61 0.87 54.04
单宁Tannin 0.09 3.25 3.16 1.41 0.63 44.68
缩合单宁Condensed tannin ND 2.05 2.05 0.63 0.50 79.37

图1

糯高粱籽粒中4种酚类物质含量分布情况"

表3

不同粒色糯高粱籽粒中酚类物质含量分布及变异情况"


Seed color
份数Number 多酚含量
Contents of polyphenols (%)
黄酮含量
Contents of flavones (%)
单宁含量
Contents of tannins (%)
缩合单宁含量
Contents of condensed tannins (%)
含量范围
Range of contents
平均值 Mean 变异系数CV(%) 含量范围
Range of contents
平均值 Mean 变异系数CV(%) 含量范围
Range of contents
平均值 Mean 变异系数CV(%) 含量范围
Range of contents
平均值 Mean 变异系数CV(%)
白色 White 12 0.31-0.60 0.43 19.30 0.09-2.13 0.79 94.79 0.60-1.77 1.03 36.19 ND-1.02 0.21 175.91
橙黄色 Orange 9 0.89-2.36 1.63 29.30 1.19-3.48 2.35 29.78 1.00-3.25 2.29 32.86 0.39-2.00 0.97 46.46
黄色 Yellow 22 0.55-3.47 1.39 52.68 0.07-3.87 1.81 44.04 0.09-2.85 1.48 47.19 0.01-2.05 0.81 76.57
红色 Red 28 0.59-2.74 1.29 35.43 0.07-3.19 1.48 53.69 0.20-2.41 1.28 39.61 ND-1.80 0.51 82.27
褐色 Brown 21 0.60-2.44 1.35 37.36 0.06-3.16 1.63 50.89 0.74-2.27 1.37 27.91 ND-1.22 0.67 53.41

表4

不同省(市、自治区)糯高粱籽粒中4种酚类物质含量分布情况"

来源
Origin
份数
Copies
多酚含量
Content of polyphenols (%)
黄酮含量
Content of flavonels (%)
单宁含量
Content of tanninls (%)
缩合单宁含量
Content of condensed tannins (%)
极小值Min. 极大值Max. 平均值
Mean
极小值Min. 极大值 Max. 平均值
Mean
极小值Min. 极大值 Max. 平均值
Mean
极小值Min. 极大值Max. 平均值
Mean
黑龙江Heilongjiang 3 1.02 1.94 1.44+0.47 ab 1.18 2.26 1.69+0.54 ab 1.04 1.95 1.41+0.48 ab 0.72 0.96 0.81+0.12 b
辽宁Liaoning 7 0.35 2.21 0.98+0.66 b 0.06 2.18 0.83+0.91 b 0.59 1.38 1.02+0.33 b ND 0.98 0.31+0.44 b
吉林Jilin 3 1.22 1.98 1.68+0.41 ab 2.04 3.16 2.52+0.57 ab 1.17 1.88 1.56+0.36 ab 0.86 1.22 1.04+0.18 ab
内蒙古Inner Mongolia 3 0.31 1.03 0.65+0.36 b 0.09 2.13 1.35+1.10 ab 0.77 1.39 1.14+0.33 b ND 1.02 0.39+0.55 b
北京Beijing 4 1.07 1.56 1.37+0.23 ab 0.31 2.70 1.47+0.98 ab 0.55 1.88 1.17+0.55 b ND 0.72 0.37+0.36 b
河北Hebei 5 0.50 1.65 1.16+0.49 b 0.44 2.47 1.85+0.81 ab 0.86 2.27 1.56+0.55 ab ND 1.18 0.61+0.44 b
山东Shandong 2 0.60 1.27 0.93+0.47 b 0.78 1.31 1.04+0.37 ab 1.14 1.33 1.24+0.14 b 0.18 0.52 0.35+0.24 b
山西Shanxi 29 0.33 2.74 0.92+0.53 b 0.07 2.48 1.10+0.68 ab 0.20 2.39 1.08+0.44 b ND 0.96 0.33+0.31 b
陕西Shaanxi 8 1.03 2.50 1.64+0.56 ab 1.51 2.45 2.06+0.33 ab 1.04 2.44 1.71+0.51 ab 0.19 1.95 0.88+0.62 b
湖北Hubei 3 1.61 2.09 1.83+0.24 ab 1.35 1.91 1.65+0.29 ab 1.54 2.09 1.77+0.28 ab 0.86 1.16 1.03+0.15 ab
江西Jiangxi 7 1.34 2.36 1.78+0.38 ab 2.19 3.87 2.71+0.61 a 1.54 3.25 2.25+0.58 ab 0.39 1.62 0.98+0.39 ab
贵州Guizhou 5 0.82 2.44 1.49+0.72 ab 1.34 3.48 2.34+0.86 ab 0.90 3.03 1.58+0.84 ab 0.66 2.00 1.03+0.15 ab
四川Sichuan 2 1.24 1.69 1.46+0.32 ab 1.44 2.11 1.78+0.47 ab 1.73 2.95 2.34+0.86 ab 0.90 1.35 1.12+0.32 ab
广西Guangxi 2 1.56 3.47 2.51+1.35 a 1.55 3.19 2.37+1.16 ab 2.34 2.85 2.60+0.36 a 1.80 2.05 1.93+0.18 a
云南Yunnan 9 0.71 1.72 1.21+0.61 ab 0.31 2.91 1.64+0.74 ab 0.09 2.41 1.32+0.64 ab 0.01 1.21 0.63+0.51 b

表5

4个指标的主成分加权系数、主成分特征值、方差贡献率及累积贡献率"

指标
Index
主成分Principal component
第1主成分
PC1
第2主成分 PC2 第3主成分 PC3 第4主成分 PC4
多酚含量 Content of polyphenols 0.499 0.239 0.824 0.124
黄酮含量 Content of flavones 0.489 0.716 -0.493 -0.067
单宁含量 Content of tannins 0.505 -0.469 -0.271 0.672
缩合单宁含量 Content of condensed tannins 0.507 -0.459 -0.065 -0.727
特征值 Eigenvalues 2.8374 0.4396 0.3886 0.3344
方差贡献率 Variance contribution (%) 70.90 11.00 9.70 8.40
累积方差贡献率 Cumulative variance contribution (%) 70.90 81.90 91.60 100.00

图2

92份糯高粱资源第1、2主成分二维排序图"

表6

富含不同酚类物质的糯高粱资源筛选清单"

酚类物质
Phenolic compound
排名
Ranking
统一编号
Unicode
编号
Number
品种名称
Varieties name
来源
Origin
含量
Content (%)
多酚
Polyphenol
1 00013082 83 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 3.47
2 00002175 28 软高粱 Ruangaoliang 山西 Shanxi 2.74
3 00010390 72 红糯高粱 Hongnuogaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 2.50
4 00014754 58 红壳糯 Hongkenuo 贵州 Guizhou 2.44
5 00010389 71 红软高粱 Hongruangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 2.39
酚类物质
Phenolic compound
排名
Ranking
统一编号
Unicode
编号
Number
品种名称
Varieties name
来源
Origin
含量
Content (%)
黄酮
Flavone
1 00013419 50 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 3.87
2 00013130 55 黄糯高粱 Huangnuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 3.48
3 00013429 52 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 3.21
4 00013083 84 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 3.19
5 00014272 90 黄壳黏 Huangkenian 吉林 Jilin 3.16
单宁
Tannin
1 00013418 49 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 3.25
2 00013130 55 黄糯高粱 Huangnuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 3.03
3 00012991 46 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 四川 Sichuan 2.95
4 00013082 83 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 2.85
5 00013450 53 黏高粱 Niangaoliang 江西 Jiangxi 2.50
缩合单宁
Condensed tannin
1 00013082 83 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 2.05
2 00013130 55 黄糯高粱 Huangnuogaoliang 贵州 Guizhou 2.00
3 00010390 72 红糯高粱 Hongnuogaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 1.95
4 00013083 84 糯高粱 Nuogaoliang 广西 Guangxi 1.80
5 00010389 71 红软高粱 Hongruangaoliang 陕西 Shaanxi 1.73
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