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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (5): 759-771.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93044


Effects of plough layer construction on soil three phase rate and root morphology of spring maize in northeast China

Wei BAI1,Zhan-Xiang SUN1,*(),Li-Zhen ZHANG2,*(),Jia-Ming ZHENG1,Liang-Shan FENG1,Qian CAI1,Wu-Yan XIANG1,Chen FENG1,Zhe ZHANG1   

  1. 1Tillage and Cultivation Research Institute, Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang 110161, Liaoning, China
    2College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2019-08-05 Accepted:2019-12-26 Online:2020-05-12 Published:2020-01-16
  • Contact: Zhan-Xiang SUN,Li-Zhen ZHANG E-mail:sunzx67@163.com;zhanglizhen@cau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Fund(2017M620103);the Liaoning Revitalization Talents Program(XLYC1807051);the Central Government Guides Local Science and Technology Development Projects(2019040005-JH6/104);the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300204);the Liaoning Natural Science Foundation Project Key Projects(20180540004);the “Liaoning Bai-Qian-Wan Talent” Program(201746);the Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences Discipline Construction Plan(2019DD062010);the Outstanding Talents in Agricultural Scientific Research and Their Team.


Establishing reasonable plough layer construction is regarded as one of important methods for solving some rainfed farmland problems, which is of great significance in the dryland of northern China. The experiment was conducted with four tillage treatment, including furrow loose and ridge compaction plough layer (FLRC), all loose plough layer (AL), all compaction plough layer (AC), up loose and down compaction plough layer (ULDC, CK), at Fuxin National Agricultural Environmental Science Observation Experimental Station, at which the long-term plough layer construction position fixed experiment began in 2009. The data in 2015 and 2016 showed that the FLRC treatment optimized (P < 0.05) the soil three phase rate, which in 0-10 cm soil layer was optimized by AC treatment before spring corn sowing, while in 10-30 cm soil layer was optimized by FLRC and AL treatments. After the spring corn was harvested, the soil three phase’s rate in 20-30 cm soil layer in FLRC and AL treatments was better than that in ULDC and AC treatments. Compared with the ULDC treatment, FLRC treatment increased (P < 0.05) the root weight density by 7.47%-97.09%, the root length density by 6.62%-112.04%, the root surface area density by 9.80%-125.07%, and the root bulk density by 40.11%-151.97% at silking period in spring corn. The FLRC treatment significantly increased the yield of spring maize by 18.19%-34.86% (P < 0.05) due to the significant increase in number of grains and the decrease of baldness, increased the population biomass by 5.18%-11.30% (P < 0.05), and improved the harvest index (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the furrow loose and ridge compaction plough layer is the optimal construction for improving soil three phase rate and root morphology of spring maize, with certain application value in the construction of reasonable plough layer of dry farmland in northern China.

Key words: tillage, layer construction, soil three phase rate, spring maize, root morphology

Fig. 1

Daily rainfall and mean temperature in growth period at experiment station in 2015-2016"

Table 1

Effect of plough layer constructions on maize yield and yield components"

Ear number
(Ear hm-2)
number per ear
Number of
kernels per row
Bare top
length (cm)
weight (g)
Yield (14% moisture
content) (kg hm-2)
CK 64939.18±7734.35 a 14.13±0.60 b 24.60±1.04 b 0.53±0.11 b 28.88±0.92 a 6436.52±412.46 b
FLRC 57854.14±8309.26 a 15.20±0.33 ab 31.07±1.49 a 0.40±0.11 b 32.40±1.36 a 8630.47±304.33 a
AL 57263.75±5567.11 a 15.20±0.43 ab 29.27±1.87 a 0.77±0.15 ab 30.32±1.50 a 7600.27±756.73 ab
AC 51158.35±3577.10 a 16.00±0.28 a 32.73±1.19 a 1.00±0.22 a 32.32±0.77 a 8601.47±388.18 a
CK 54256.85±11273.36 a 14.20±0.46 a 32.87±2.20 b 0.15±0.08 a 38.33±0.87 a 9140.73±267.83 b
FLRC 54744.88±2891.83 a 15.60±0.35 a 36.80±1.13 ab 0.00±0.00 a 38.05±1.94 a 11865.41±318.71 a
AL 49325.71±1472.34 a 15.87±0.24 a 37.20±0.73 a 0.13±0.08 a 37.21±1.96 a 10803.56±410.85 a
AC 50291.29±3305.79 a 14.53±0.50 a 33.13±1.53 ab 0.20±0.10 a 37.98±0.91 a 9150.67±457.96 b
处理 Treatment (T) 0.549 0.004 0.002 0.087 0.500 0.000
年份 Year (Y) 0.225 0.776 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
处理×年份 T×Y 0.861 0.051 0.031 0.009 0.480 0.022

Fig. 2

Effect of plough layer constructions on maize biomass and harvest index Bars labelled with different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05. Abbreviations are the same as those described in Table 1. "

Table 2

Effect of plough layer constructions on three-phase ratio of soil in maize seeding"

Soil layer (cm)
Solid phase (%)
Liquid phase (%)
Gas phase (%)
0-10 CK 45.41±0.25 b 12.29±0.16 b 42.30±0.16 b 83.14±0.24 b 9.43±0.29 a
FLRC 42.01±0.67 c 12.17±0.73 b 45.82±1.37 a 78.68±2.61 c 9.62±1.19 a
AL 41.64±0.33 c 11.75±0.14 b 46.62±0.21 a 77.30±0.19 c 10.34±0.06 a
AC 50.06±0.25 a 14.52±0.31 a 35.42±0.55 c 91.20±0.66 a 10.58±0.11 a
10-20 CK 50.44±0.25 ab 16.35±0.60 a 33.21±0.69 b 94.23±0.89 a 9.29±0.64 a
FLRC 49.69±0.33 b 17.03±0.56 a 33.29±0.81 b 94.80±0.85 a 7.52±0.46 a
AL 46.42±0.22 c 15.58±0.62 a 38.00±0.83 a 93.95±1.17 a 4.85±1.05 b
AC 51.32±0.44 a 17.17±0.31 a 31.51±0.57 b 95.63±0.40 a 9.89±0.70 a
20-30 CK 52.08±0.87 a 19.51±0.23 a 28.42±0.67 b 98.03±0.09 a 9.39±1.69 a
FLRC 50.82±0.33 ab 19.10±0.82 a 30.08±1.05 ab 97.42±0.79 a 7.60±0.54 ab
AL 49.43±0.22 b 18.66±0.19 a 31.90±0.11 a 97.65±0.82 a 5.08±0.73 b
AC 51.32±0.22 a 20.23±0.57 a 28.45±0.70 b 98.47±0.40 a 7.73±0.39 ab
0-10 CK 46.04±0.58 b 14.33±1.39 b 39.63±1.94 a 87.58±2.92 b 6.63±1.92 a
FLRC 44.28±0.25 c 14.57±0.15 b 41.15±0.13 a 86.60±0.12 b 5.59±0.32 a
AL 43.14±0.45 c 14.26±0.69 b 42.59±0.47 a 84.56±0.96 b 6.10±1.11 a
AC 50.82±0.50 a 17.26±0.50 a 31.92±0.23 b 95.57±0.46 a 8.95±1.24 a
10-20 CK 51.07±0.33 a 18.88±1.22 a 30.05±1.51 b 97.12±1.06 a 8.33±0.47 a
FLRC 47.42±0.33 b 16.63±0.91 a 35.95±1.11 a 97.49±0.39 a 3.96±1.64 b
AL 48.55±0.67 b 18.83±1.11 a 32.62±1.75 ab 96.09±1.34 a 3.04±0.73 b
AC 51.95±0.33 a 18.83±0.41 a 29.22±0.72 b 92.79±1.39 b 9.74±0.36 a
20-30 CK 53.08±0.50 a 21.06±1.37 a 25.85±1.86 a 98.53±0.68 a 10.78±0.31 a
FLRC 52.45±0.22 a 21.22±0.67 a 26.33±0.81 a 99.03±0.26 a 9.41±0.36 a
AL 52.45±0.33 a 21.16±0.27 a 27.39±0.14 a 99.09±0.12 a 7.37±0.82 b
AC 53.46±0.45 a 21.23±0.62 a 25.31±1.07 a 98.85±0.06 a 11.20±0.60 a
处理 Treatment (T) 0.000 0.424 0.015 0.060 0.000
年份 Year (Y) 0.145 0.007 0.033 0.043 0.102
处理×年份 T×Y 0.923 0.920 0.922 0.896 0.376

Table 3

Effect of plough layer constructions on three-phase ratio of soil in maize harvest"

Soil layer (cm)
Solid phase (%)
Liquid phase (%)
Gas phase (%)
0-10 CK 51.82±0.33 b 11.98±0.50 b 36.20±0.81 a 86.79±1.29 b 14.92±0.20 a
FLRC 50.31±0.55 c 12.75±0.56 ab 36.93±0.98 a 87.80±1.37 ab 12.62±0.53 b
AL 51.07±0.33 bc 14.40±0.60 a 34.53±0.91 ab 91.39±1.14 a 11.93±0.23 b
AC 53.46±0.33 a 13.52±0.38 ab 33.02±0.18 b 90.57±0.67 ab 15.56±0.68 a
10-20 CK 55.72±0.67 a 16.33±0.76 a 27.95±1.42 a 94.74±0.68 a 16.91±0.59 a
FLRC 54.34±0.44 a 15.10±0.47 a 30.56±0.81 a 93.32±0.75 a 15.65±0.47 a
AL 55.47±0.22 a 16.96±0.74 a 27.56±0.59 a 95.60±0.75 a 16.18±0.64 a
AC 54.97±0.33 a 16.66±0.46 a 28.37±0.79 a 95.37±0.51 a 15.61±0.23 a
20-30 CK 56.98±0.44 a 19.86±0.23 a 23.16±0.34 a 97.14±0.29 a 17.27±0.71 a
FLRC 55.60±0.13 c 18.96±1.64 a 25.44±1.74 a 96.77±1.03 a 15.62±0.50 a
AL 55.72±0.45 bc 20.17±0.28 a 24.11±0.19 a 97.87±0.30 a 15.22±0.80 a
AC 56.86±0.33 ab 19.71±0.48 a 23.43±0.15 a 97.15±0.34 a 17.13±0.66 a
0-10 CK 52.96±0.33 b 18.89±0.15 a 28.15±0.21 a 97.66±0.13 a 11.33±0.61 b
FLRC 51.45±0.55 c 20.02±0.15 a 28.53±0.62 a 98.37±0.16 a 8.03±1.00 c
AL 52.20±0.33 bc 19.49±0.76 a 28.31±1.06 a 97.96±0.52 a 9.82±0.32 bc
AC 54.59±0.33 a 18.45±0.55 a 26.96±0.26 a 97.15±0.46 a 14.13±0.76 a
10-20 CK 56.10±0.25 a 21.77±0.38 a 22.13±0.57 a 97.98±0.16 a 15.42±0.36 a
FLRC 55.35±0.45 a 23.20±0.58 a 21.45±0.31 a 98.36±0.22 a 13.94±0.81 a
AL 55.72±0.33 a 22.47±0.89 a 21.80±1.03 a 98.07±0.24 a 14.71±0.52 a
AC 56.10±0.33 a 21.22±0.23 a 22.68±0.19 a 97.96±0.21 a 15.53±0.58 a
20-30 CK 57.61±0.25 ab 25.66±0.70 ab 16.73±0.78 a 94.78±0.72 a 17.53±0.19 a
FLRC 56.60±0.22 b 26.59±0.30 a 16.81±0.14 a 95.29±0.12 a 15.97±0.33 b
AL 56.86±0.45 b 25.30±0.74 ab 17.84±1.00 a 95.95±0.81 a 16.32±0.71 b
AC 57.99±0.33 a 23.95±0.65 b 18.06±0.95 a 95.61±0.80 a 18.14±0.50 a
处理 Treatment (T) 0.095 0.808 0.893 0.528 0.009
年份 Year (Y) 0.071 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.046
处理×年份 T×Y 0.991 0.429 0.801 0.585 0.670

Fig. 3

Effect of plough layer constructions on maize root weight density Bars labelled with different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05. Abbreviations are the same as those described in Table 1. "

Fig. 4

Effect of plough layer constructions on maize root length density Bars labelled with different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05. Abbreviations are the same as those described in Table 1. "

Fig. 5

Effect of plough layer constructions on maize root surface area density Bars labelled d with different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05. Abbreviations are the same as those described in Table 1. "

Fig. 6

Effect of plough layer constructions on maize root volume density Bars labelled with different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05. Abbreviations are the same as those described in Table 1. "

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