Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 777-791.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83055


Responses of maize growth and yield to nitrogen application in dryland under different precipitation conditions

Fang NING,Yuan-Hong ZHANG,Peng-Fei WEN,Rui WANG,Qian WANG,Zhao-Yang DONG,Guang-Can JIA,Jun LI()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University / Key Laboratory of Crop Physi-ecology and Tillage Science in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2018-07-20 Accepted:2019-01-19 Online:2019-05-12 Published:2019-02-27
  • Contact: Jun LI E-mail:junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Science and Technology Support Program(2015BAD22B02);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31571620);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801300);the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program)(2013AA102902)


Water deficiency is a main limiting factor for maize growth in dryland. The seasonal fluctuation of precipitation and the frequent occurrence of drought have severely affected the normal growth and stable production of spring maize in Weibei dryland. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Heyang county located in Weibei dryland from 2016 to 2018, with five treatments of nitrogen rates, including 0 kg ha -1 (N0), 75 kg ha -1 (N75), 150 kg ha -1 (N150), 270 kg ha -1 (N270), and 360 kg ha -1 (N360) from 2016 to 2017 and 0 kg ha -1 (N0), 90 kg ha -1 (N90), 180 kg ha -1 (N180), 270 kg ha -1 (N270), and 360 kg ha -1 (N360) in 2018, using two spring maize varieties Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Shaandan 8806 (SD8806). The effects of nitrogen application rates on dynamic changes of soil moisture, dry matter accumulation, yield composition, economic returns and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize during growth period were analyzed in different test years. There were two distribution types of precipitation in the test years, one was rainy at the ear stage and droughty at the grain stage (2016, 2018), while the other was droughty at the ear stage and rainy at the grain stage (2017). Precipitation amount and its distribution in the growing season significantly affected soil water storage and aboveground dry matter accumulation of maize, thus affecting grain yield and its components. Drought at the ear stage significantly reduced aboveground dry matter accumulation and kernel number per ear, while drought in the grain stage decreased kernel weight. The yield of applying nitrogen fertilizer treatment was 6.72%-91.23% higher than that of N0 across three years. The effects of nitrogen rates on grain yield and WUE followed a quadratic curve relationship. In the case of being rainy at the ear stage and droughty at the grain stage there occurred the highest grain yield and WUE in N270, in contrast when it was droughty at the ear stage and rainy at the grain stage, spring maize performed better in N150 treatment. The Grain yield was positively correlated with “precipitation from fallow to tasseling” (FP2) and “the sum of soil water storage before sowing and precipitation from sowing to tasseling” (SP2) (FP2: R 2=0.839 **; SP2: R 2=0.837 **). Based on a comprehensive assessment for grain yield, WUE and net economic returns, the optimum nitrogen application rate in this study is basic fertilizer of 150 kg ha -1 plus top dressing of nitrogen fertilizer in time according to the predicted yield, which is estimated by FP2 or SP2, so as to get the optimized N fertilizer amount and maximized yield, WUE and economic returns in Weibei dryland.

Key words: spring maize, distribution of precipitation, nitrogen application rate, yield, WUE

Table 1

Soil basic chemical properties before experiment"

Soil depth
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total N
(g kg-1)
Total P
(g kg-1)
Total K
(g kg-1)
(mg kg-1)
Available P content
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
0-20 11.38 0.98 0.79 11.15 56.02 28.39 277.36
20-40 8.53 0.81 0.65 10.41 38.20 24.89 283.09
40-60 8.02 0.63 0.71 11.53 25.74 21.78 233.95

Table 2

Determination time at each growth period of spring maize (month/day)"

2016 4/26 6/1 6/27 7/25 8/25 9/17
2017 4/26 5/25 6/26 7/13 8/14 9/22
2018 4/26 5/26 6/28 7/17 8/17 9/10

Fig. 1

Monthly precipitation of spring maize in growing season (A) and distribution of precipitation in different growth periods (B) in 2016-2018"

Fig. 2

Soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer before sowing of maize under different treatments ZD958: Zhengdan 958; SD8806: Shaandan 8806; N0: N application rate was 0 kg hm-2; N75: N application rate was 75 kg hm-2; N90: N application rate was 90 kg hm-2; N150: N application rate was 150 kg hm-2; N180: N application rate was 180 kg hm-2; N270: N application rate was 270 kg hm-2; N360: N application rate was 360 kg hm-2."

Fig. 3

Soil water storage in 0-200 cm of spring maize in different growth stages under different treatments ZD958: Zhengdan 958; SD8806: Shaandan 8806; N0: N application rate was 0 kg hm-2; N75: N application rate was 75 kg hm-2; N90: N application rate was 90 kg hm-2; N150: N application rate was 150 kg hm-2; N180: N application rate was 180 kg hm-2; N270: N application rate was 270 kg hm-2; N360: N application rate was 360 kg hm-2."

Fig. 4

Dry matter accumulation in different growth stages of spring maize under different treatments ZD958: Zhengdan 958; SD8806: Shaandan 8806; N0: N application rate was 0 kg hm-2; N75: N application rate was 75 kg hm-2; N90: N application rate was 90 kg hm-2; N150: N application rate was 150 kg hm-2; N180: N application rate was 180 kg hm-2; N270: N application rate was 270 kg hm-2; N360: N application rate was 360 kg hm-2."

Table 3

Yield and its components and economic benefits of spring maize under different nitrogen application rates"

N rate
Kernels per spike
百粒重100-kernel weight (g) 籽粒产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
HI (%)
(kg N-1)
(Yuan kg-1)
(Yuan kg-1)
N0 60224 520 e 31.97 c 9983 18220 54.74 b
N75 63545 545 b 31.66 d 10947 20132 54.11 c 964 0.3351 1.1888
N150 67750 543 c 32.18 b 11882 21397 55.45 a 935 0.3407 1.2512
N270 68279 550 a 32.47 a 12192 21934 55.72 a 194 0.5269 1.1000
N360 69860 532 d 32.09 b 11923 22222 53.49 d -224 0.8000 0.7763
平均Average 65932 538 32.07 11385 20781 54.70
N0 56873 145 e 26.79 e 2209 13257 16.71 d
N75 53333 165 d 31.67 d 2780 17345 16.03 e 571 0.4536 1.1261
N150 58347 235 a 32.74 c 4482 18097 24.72 a 1702 0.2275 1.3625
N270 56667 209 b 34.88 a 4121 19839 20.74 b -226 0.4869 1.1025
N360 50000 208 c 32.93 b 3426 18354 18.67 c -579 1.0197 0.5735
平均Average 55044 192 31.80 3404 17378 19.37
N0 63505 420 e 25.17 e 6718 19451 34.54 d
N90 68331 543 d 26.10 d 9675 21420 45.17 a 2463 0.1050 1.4950
N180 64429 551 c 27.68 a 9821 22286 44.07 ab 122 0.2000 1.4000
N270 65884 559 a 27.43 b 10102 23231 43.48 b 234 0.2752 1.3248
N360 63657 557 b 26.56 c 9411 24334 38.68 c -575 0.4610 1.1390
平均Average 65161 526 26.59 9145 22144 41.19

Table 4

Yield, water use efficiency, and evapotranspiration of maize under different treatments"

N application rate
Soil water storage before sowing (mm)
Soil water storage in harvesting (mm)
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
Zhengdan 958
N0 440.00 324.51 357.5 472.99 a 9975 d 21.14 b
N75 440.00 348.09 357.5 449.41 a 10893 c 24.29 ab
N150 440.00 350.18 357.5 447.32 a 11864 b 26.58 a
N270 440.00 348.07 357.5 449.43 a 12221 a 27.25 a
N360 440.00 348.00 357.5 449.50 a 11886 b 26.50 a
Shaandan 8806
N0 440.00 367.40 357.5 430.10 b 9771 d 22.78 a
N75 440.00 303.87 357.5 493.63 a 10141 c 20.59 a
N150 440.00 321.72 357.5 475.78 a 10678 b 22.50 a
N270 440.00 334.37 357.5 463.13 ab 10970 a 23.74 a
N360 440.00 330.05 357.5 467.45 ab 10998 a 23.58 a
Zhengdan 958
N0 423.62 405.54 362.6 380.68 a 2215 e 5.83 c
N75 410.34 391.09 362.6 381.85 a 2779 d 7.29 c
N150 419.71 391.76 362.6 390.56 a 4474 a 11.48 a
N270 420.35 400.57 362.6 382.38 a 4115 b 10.78 ab
N360 421.82 425.56 362.6 358.86 a 3427 c 9.57 b
Shaandan 8806
N0 418.00 423.05 362.6 357.55 b 2305 e 6.46 c
N75 390.57 372.08 362.6 381.09 ab 3022 d 7.95 b
N150 398.73 349.95 362.6 411.38 a 4170 b 10.16 a
N270 412.64 380.34 362.6 394.89 a 4285 a 10.87 a
N360 395.96 400.60 362.6 357.96 b 3802 c 10.64 a
Zhengdan 958
N0 451.88 376.05 225.0 300.83 d 6718 b 22.33 c
N90 443.38 351.20 225.0 317.18 b 9675 a 30.50 a
N180 452.88 365.40 225.0 312.49 c 9821 a 31.43 a
N270 455.23 359.73 225.0 320.50 b 10102 a 31.52 a
N360 452.25 341.28 225.0 335.97 a 9411 a 28.01 b
Shaandan 8806
N0 456.45 375.36 225.0 306.09 d 4670 c 15.26 d
N90 439.14 333.00 225.0 331.14 b 7172 b 21.66 c
N180 454.16 353.96 225.0 325.20 c 9752 a 29.99 ab
N270 456.36 354.43 225.0 326.93 bc 10259 a 31.38 a
N360 465.66 344.64 225.0 346.01 a 9827 a 28.40 b
变异来源 Source of variation
年份Year (Y) ** ** **
施氮量N application rate (N) NS ** *
品种Cultivar (C) NS NS NS
年份×施氮量 Y×N NS NS NS
年份×品种 Y×C NS NS NS
施氮量×品种 N×C NS NS NS
年份×施氮量×品种 Y×N×C NS ** **

Fig. 5

Correlation of maize grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and the N application rates in different years WUE: water use efficiency."

Fig. 6

Relationship between maize grain yield and soil water storage before sowing and precipitation in different growth periods A shows the relationship between grain yield and precipitation at different stages, among which FP0: precipitation during fallow; FP1: precipitation from fallow to jointing; FP2: precipitation from fallow to tasseling; FP3: precipitation from fallow to filling. B shows the relationship between grain yield and soil water storage before sowing and the sum of precipitation at different stages. SP0: soil water storage before sowing; SP1: soil water storage before sowing + precipitation from sowing to jointing; SP2: soil water storage before sowing + precipitation from sowing to tasseling; SP3: soil water storage before sowing + precipitation from sowing to filling. ** indicates significant at the 0.01 probability level."

[1] 中华人民共和国国家统计局. 中国统计年鉴. 北京: 中国统计出版社, 2017.
National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China. China Statistical Yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2017 (in Chinese).
[2] 武良, 张卫峰, 陈新平, 崔振岭, 范明生, 陈清, 张福锁 . 中国农田氮肥投入和生产效率. 中国土壤与肥料, 2016, ( 4):76-83.
Wu L, Zhang W F, Chen X P, Cui Z L, Fan M S, Chen Q, Zhang F S . Nitrogen fertilizer input and nitrogen use efficiency in Chinese farmland. Soil Fert Sci China, 2016, ( 4):76-83 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[3] Erisman J W, Sutton M A, Galloway J, Klimont Z, Winiwarter W . How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world. Nat Geosci, 2008,1:636-639.
[4] 赵营, 同延安, 赵护兵 . 不同供氮水平对夏玉米养分累积、转运及产量的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2006,12:622-627.
Zhao Y, Tong Y A, Zhao H B . Effects of different N rates on nutrients accumulation, transformation and yield of summer maize. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2006,12:622-627 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[5] 易镇邪, 吴小京, 张小平, 李水加, 罗红兵, 屠乃美 . 施氮量对春玉米产量形成与氮肥利用率的影响. 作物研究, 2010,24:22-24.
Yi Z X, Wu X J, Zhang X P, Li S J, Luo H B, Tu N M . Effects of nitrogen application rate on yield formation and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize. Crop Res, 2010,24:22-24 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[6] 孙占祥, 邹晓锦, 张鑫, 安景文 . 施氮量对玉米产量和氮素利用效率及土壤硝态氮累积的影响. 玉米科学, 2011,19(5):119-123.
Sun Z X, Zou X J, Zhang X, An J W . Effects of maize yield and N application on N utilization and content of soil nitrate nitrogen. J Maize Sci, 2011,19(5):119-123 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[7] 叶东靖, 高强, 何文天, 何萍 . 施氮对春玉米氮素利用及农田氮素平衡的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2010,16:552-558.
Ye D J, Gao Q, He W T, He P . Effect of N application on N utilization and N balance in spring maize. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2010,16:552-558 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[8] 姜涛 . 氮肥运筹对夏玉米产量、品质及植株养分含量的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2013,19:559-565.
Jiang T . Effects of nitrogen application regime on yield, quality and plant nutrient contents of summer maize. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2013,19:559-565 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[9] Hall A J, Vilella F, Trapani N . The effects of water stress and genotype on the dynamics of pollen-shedding and silking in maize. Field Crops Res, 1982,5:349-363.
doi: 10.1016/0378-4290(82)90036-3
[10] 李耕, 高辉远, 赵斌, 董树亭, 张吉旺, 杨吉顺, 王敬锋, 刘鹏 . 灌浆期干旱胁迫对玉米叶片光系统活性的影响. 作物学报, 2009,35:1916-1922.
Li G, Gao H Y, Zhao B, Dong S T, Zhang J W, Yang J S, Wang J F, Liu P . Effects of drought stress on activity of photosystems in leaves of maize at grain filling stage. Acta Agron Sin, 2009,35:1916-1922 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[11] 白向历, 孙世贤, 杨国航, 刘明, 张振平, 齐华 . 不同生育时期水分胁迫对玉米产量及生长发育的影响. 玉米科学, 2009,17(2):60-63.
Bai X L, Sun S X, Yang G H, Liu M, Zhang Z P, Qi H . Effect of water stress on maize yield during different growing stages. J Maize Sci, 2009,17(2):60-63 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[12] 张玉书, 米娜, 陈鹏狮, 纪瑞鹏 . 土壤水分胁迫对玉米生长发育的影响研究进展. 中国农学通报, 2012,28(3):1-7.
Zhang Y S, Mi N, Chen P S, Ji R P . Influences of soil water stress on growth and development of maize. Chin Agric Sci Bull, 2012,28(3):1-7 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[13] 姜鹏, 李曼华, 薛晓萍, 李鸿怡 . 不同时期干旱对玉米生长发育及产量的影响. 中国农学通报, 2013,29(36):232-235.
Jiang P, Li M H, Xue X P, Li H Y . Effects of drought on the growth and yield of maize at different stage. Chin Agric Sci Bull, 2013,29(36):232-235 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[14] 李叶蓓, 陶洪斌, 王若男, 张萍, 吴春江, 雷鸣, 张巽, 王璞 . 干旱对玉米穗发育及产量的影响. 中国生态农业学报, 2015,23:383-391.
Li Y B, Tao H B, Wang R N, Zhang P, Wu C J, Lei M, Zhang X, Wang P . Effect of drought on ear development and yield of maize. Chin J Eco-Agric, 2015,23:383-391 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[15] 张冬梅, 池宝亮, 张伟, 李海金, 黄学芳, 刘恩科, 樊修武 . 不同降水年型施肥量对旱地玉米生长及水分利用效率的影响. 西北农业学报, 2012,21:84-90.
Zhang D M, Chi B L, Zhang W, Li H J, Huang X F, Liu E K, Fan X W . Influence of fertilizer application levels on yield and WUE of dryland maize in different precipitation years. Acta Agric Boreali-Occident Sin, 2012,21:84-90 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[16] 沈荣开, 王康, 张瑜芳, 杨路华, 穆金元, 赵立新 . 水肥耦合条件下作物产量、水分利用和根系吸氮的试验研究. 农业工程学报, 2001,17(5):35-38.
Shen R K, Wang K, Zhang Y F, Yang L H, Mu J Y, Zhao L X . Field test and study on yield, water use and N uptake under varied irrigation and fertilizer in crops. Trans CSAE, 2001,17(5):35-38 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[17] Cossani C M, Slafer G A, Savin R . Nitrogen and water use efficiencies of wheat and barley under a Mediterranean environment in Catalonia. Field Crops Res, 2012,128:109-118.
doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2012.01.001
[18] Zhou X, Zhang Y, Ji X, Downing A, Serpe M . Combined effects of nitrogen deposition and water stress on growth and physiological responses of two annual desert plants in northwestern China. Environ Exp Bot, 2011,74:1-8.
doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.12.005
[19] 高亚军, 李生秀, 田霄鸿, 李世清, 王朝辉, 杜建军 . 不同供肥条件下水分分配对旱地玉米产量的影响. 作物学报, 2006,32:415-422.
Gao Y J, Li S X, Tian X H, Li S Q, Wang Z H, Du J J . Effects of water supply levels in different growth stages on maize yield under different fertilizer levels. Acta Agron Sin, 2006,32:415-422 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[20] 熊炳霖, 王仕稳, 王鑫月, 陈道钳, 殷俐娜, 邓西平 . 干旱胁迫下氮肥对玉米叶片衰老影响及与碳氮平衡的关系. 玉米科学, 2016,24(3):138-146.
Xiong B L, Wang S W, Wang X Y, Chen D Q, Yin L N, Deng X P . Effects of nitrogenous fertilizer on leaf senescence of maize and the associate with carbon/nitrogen balance under drought stress. J Maize Sci, 2016,24(3):138-146 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[21] 胡红玲, 张健, 胡庭兴, 涂利华, 泮永祥, 曾凡明, 陈洪, 吴秀华 . 不同施氮水平对巨桉幼树耐旱生理特征的影响. 西北植物学报, 2014,34:118-127.
Hu H L, Zhang J, Hu T X, Tu L H, Pan Y X, Zeng F M, Chen H, Wu X H . Drought tolerance comparison of Eucalyptus grandis under different nitrogen application levels. Acta Bot Boreali-Occident Sin, 2014,34:118-127 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[22] 张仁和, 郭东伟, 张兴华, 路海东, 刘建超, 李凤艳, 郝引川, 薛吉全 . 干旱胁迫下氮肥对玉米叶片生理特性的影响. 玉米科学, 2012,20(6):118-122.
Zhang R H, Guo D W, Zhang X H, Lu H D, Liu J C, Li F Y, Hao Y C, Xue J Q . Effects of nitrogen on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize leaf under drought stress. J Maize Sci, 2012,20(6):118-122 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[23] Pinheiro H A , DaMatta F M, Chaves A R M . Drought tolerance in relation to protection against oxidative stress in clones of Coffea canephora subjected to long term drought. Plant Sci, 2004,167:1307-1314.
[24] 王浩, 董朝阳, 王淑兰, 张玉娇, 师祖姣, 张元红, 王瑞, 李军 . 基于春玉米籽粒产量的渭北旱塬区农户施肥现状评价. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2018,24:590-598.
Wang H, Dong Z Y, Wang S L, Zhang Y J, Shi Z J, Zhang Y H, Wang R, Li J . Evaluation on fertilization of farmer practice based on grain yield of spring maize in Weibei dryland. J Plant Nutr Fert, 2018,24:590-598 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[25] 司政邦, 李军, 周婷婷 . 耕作与施肥模式对渭北旱塬春玉米田蓄水保墒与玉米产量的影响. 干旱地区农业研究, 2016,34(2):24-31.
Si Z B, Li J, Zhou T T . Effects of different tillage and fertilization combinations on soil water conservation and yield increment in Weibei Highland. Agric Res Arid Areas, 2016,34(2):24-31 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[26] 张丽华, 李军, 贾志宽, 刘冰峰, 赵洪利, 尚金霞 . 不同保护性耕作对渭北旱塬麦玉轮作田肥力和产量的影响. 干旱地区农业研究, 2011,29(4):199-207.
Zhang L H, Li J, Jia Z K, Liu B F, Zhao H L, Shang J X . Effects of different conservation tillage measures on soil fertility, WUE and yield in winter wheat-spring maize rotation field of Weibei Highland. Agric Res Arid Areas, 2011,29(4):199-207 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[27] 尚金霞, 李军, 贾志宽, 张丽华 . 渭北旱塬春玉米田保护性耕作蓄水保墒效果与增产增收效应. 中国农业科学, 2010,43:2668-2678.
Shang J X, Li J, Jia Z K, Zhang L H . Soil water conservation effect, yield and income increments of conservation tillage measures in spring maize field on Weibei highland. Sci Agric Sin, 2010,43:2668-2678 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[28] 王淑兰, 王浩, 李娟, 吕薇, 陈宁宁, 李军 . 不同耕作方式下长期秸秆还田对旱作春玉米田土壤碳、氮、水含量及产量的影响. 应用生态学报, 2016,27:1530-1540.
Wang S L, Wang H, Li J, Lyu W, Chen N N, Li J . Effects of long-term straw mulching on soil organic carbon, nitrogen and moisture and spring maize yield on rain-fed croplands under different patterns of soil tillage practice. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2016,27:1530-1540 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[29] 王浩, 王淑兰, 徐宗贵, 李军 . 耕作与施肥对旱地玉米田土壤耗水量和水分利用效率的影响. 中国生态农业学报, 2017,25:856-864.
Wang H, Wang S L, Xu Z G, Li J . Effect of tillage and fertilization on water use efficiency of maize in dryland conditions. Chin J Eco-Agric, 2017,25:856-864 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[30] 李娟, 李军, 程科, 韩霁昌, 王丽, 尚金霞 . 渭北旱塬玉米田保护性轮耕土壤固碳效果与增产增收效应. 农业工程学报, 2016,32(5):104-111.
Li J, Li J, Cheng K, Han J C, Wang L, Shang J X . Soil organic carbon sequestration, yield and income increment of rotational tillage measures on Weibei highland maize field. Trans CSAE, 2016,32(5):104-111 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[31] 王晓娟, 贾志宽, 梁连友, 丁瑞霞, 王敏, 李涵 . 不同有机肥量对旱地玉米光合特性和产量的影响. 应用生态学报, 2012,23:419-425.
Wang X J, Jia Z K, Liang L Y, Ding R X, Wang M, Li H . Effects of organic fertilizer application rate on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2012,23:419-425 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[32] 王晓娟, 贾志宽, 梁连友, 韩清芳, 杨保平, 丁瑞霞, 崔荣美, 卫婷 . 旱地施有机肥对土壤水分和玉米经济效益影响. 农业工程学报, 2012,28(6):144-149.
Wang X J, Jia Z K, Liang L Y, Han Q F, Yang B P, Ding R X, Cui R M, Wei T . Effects of organic fertilizer application on soil moisture and economic returns of maize in dryland farming. Trans CSAE, 2012,28(6):144-149 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[33] 徐宗贵, 孙磊, 王浩, 王淑兰, 王小利, 李军 . 种植密度对旱地不同株型春玉米品种光合特性与产量的影响. 中国农业科学, 2017,50:2463-2475.
Xu Z G, Sun L, Wang H, Wang S L, Wang X L, Li J . Effects of different planting densities on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of different variety types of spring maize on dryland. Sci Agric Sin, 2017,50:2463-2475 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[34] 周婷婷, 李军, 司政邦 . 种植密度与品种类型对渭北旱地春玉米产量和光能利用的影响. 西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版), 2015,43(11):54-62.
Zhou T T, Li J, Si Z B . Effects of planting density and variety on growth and RUE of spring maize in Weibei highland. J Northwest A&F Univ( Nat Sci Edn), 2015,43(11):54-62 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[35] 朱敏, 史海滨, 郑和祥, 程满金, 王长生 . 河套灌区春小麦与向日葵套种模式下水分利用效率评估. 中国农村水利水电, 2010, ( 4):122-124.
Zhu M, Shi H B, Zheng H X, Cheng M J, Wang C S . Water use efficiency evaluation of wheat intercropping sunflowers in the Hetao irrigation district. China Rural Water Hydropower, 2010, ( 4):122-124 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[36] 刘化涛, 黄学芳, 黄明镜, 池宝亮, 郑秀清, 陈军峰 . 拔节期干旱对春玉米产量性状及抗旱性的影响. 作物杂志, 2016, ( 2):89-94.
Liu H T, Huang X F, Huang M J, Chi B L, Zheng X Q, Chen J F . Effects of drought stress at jointing stage on yield and drought resistance in spring maize. Crops, 2016, ( 2):89-94 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[37] Liu C, Zhou L, Jia J . Maize yield and water balance is affected by nitrogen application in a film-mulching ridge-furrow system in a semiarid region of China. Eur J Agron, 2014,52:103-111.
doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2013.10.001
[38] 易镇邪, 王璞, 刘明, 吕丽华, 魏凤桐 . 不同类型氮肥与施氮量下夏玉米水、氮利用及土壤氮素表观盈亏. 水土保持学报, 2006,20:63-67.
Yi Z X, Wang P, Liu M, Lyu L H, Wei F T . Water and nitrogen utilization and apparent budget of soil nitrogen under different types of nitrogen fertilizer and different application rates in summer maize. J Soil Water Conserv, 2006,20:63-67 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[39] 丁民伟, 杜雄, 刘梦星, 张建恒, 崔彦宏 . 氮素运筹对夏玉米产量形成与氮素利用效果的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2010,16:1100-1107.
Ding M W, Du X, Liu M X, Zhang J H, Cui Y H . Effects of nitrogen management modes on yield formation and nitrogen utilization efficiency of summer maize. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2010,16:1100-1107 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[40] 段文学, 于振文, 张永丽, 王东, 石玉 . 施氮量对旱地小麦耗水特性和产量的影响. 作物学报, 2012,38:1657-1664.
Duan W X, Yu Z W, Zhang Y L, Wang D, Shi Y . Effects of nitrogen application rate on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in rainfed wheat. Acta Agron Sin, 2012,38:1657-1664 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[41] 曹云者, 宇振荣, 赵同科 . 夏玉米需水及耗水规律的研究. 华北农学报, 2003,18(2):47-50.
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7091.2003.02.013
Cao Y Z, Yu Z R, Zhao T K . Study of water demand and consumption rules in summer maize. Acta Agric Boreali-Sin, 2003,18(2):47-50 (in Chinese with English abstract).
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7091.2003.02.013
[42] Zhang X C, Mackown C T, Garbrecht J D, Zhang H, Edwards J T . Variable environment and market affect optimal nitrogen management in wheat and cattle production systems. Agron J, 2011,104:1136-1148.
[43] Cao H B, Wang Z H, He G, Dai J, Huang M, Wang S, Luo L C, Sadras V O, Hoogmoedc M, Malhl S S . Tailoring NPK fertilizer application to precipitation for dryland winter wheat in the Loess Plateau. Field Crops Res, 2017,209:88-95.
doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2017.04.014
[44] Calvino P A, Andrade F H, Sadras V O . Maize yield as affected by water availability, soil depth, and crop management. Agron J, 2003,95:275-281.
doi: 10.2134/agronj2003.0275
[45] 周怀平, 杨治平, 李红梅, 关春林 . 施肥和降水年型对旱地玉米产量及水分利用的影响. 干旱地区农业研究, 2004,22:27-31.
Zhou H P, Yang Z P, Li H M, Guan C L . Influence of fertilization and rainfall distribution on yield and water use efficiency of maize in dryland. Agric Res Arid Areas, 2004,22:27-31 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[46] 李少昆, 赵久然, 董树亭, 赵明, 李潮海, 崔彦宏, 刘永红, 高聚林, 薛吉全, 王立春, 王璞, 陆卫平, 王俊河, 杨祁峰, 王子明 . 中国玉米栽培研究进展与展望. 中国农业科学, 2017,50:1941-1959.
Li S K, Zhao J R, Dong S T, Zhao M, Li C H, Cui Y H, Liu Y H, Gao J L, Xue J Q, Wang L C, Wang P, Lu W P, Wang J H, Yang Q F, Wang Z M . Advances and prospects of maize cultivation in China. Sci Agric Sin, 2017,50:1941-1959 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[1] WANG Dan, ZHOU Bao-Yuan, MA Wei, GE Jun-Zhu, DING Zai-Song, LI Cong-Feng, ZHAO Ming. Characteristics of the annual distribution and utilization of climate resource for double maize cropping system in the middle reaches of Yangtze River [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1437-1450.
[2] WANG Wang-Nian, GE Jun-Zhu, YANG Hai-Chang, YIN Fa-Ting, HUANG Tai-Li, KUAI Jie, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, FU Ting-Dong. Adaptation of feed crops to saline-alkali soil stress and effect of improving saline-alkali soil [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1451-1462.
[3] YAN Jia-Qian, GU Yi-Biao, XUE Zhang-Yi, ZHOU Tian-Yang, GE Qian-Qian, ZHANG Hao, LIU Li-Jun, WANG Zhi-Qin, GU Jun-Fei, YANG Jian-Chang, ZHOU Zhen-Ling, XU Da-Yong. Different responses of rice cultivars to salt stress and the underlying mechanisms [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1463-1475.
[4] YANG Huan, ZHOU Ying, CHEN Ping, DU Qing, ZHENG Ben-Chuan, PU Tian, WEN Jing, YANG Wen-Yu, YONG Tai-Wen. Effects of nutrient uptake and utilization on yield of maize-legume strip intercropping system [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1476-1487.
[5] CHEN Jing, REN Bai-Zhao, ZHAO Bin, LIU Peng, ZHANG Ji-Wang. Regulation of leaf-spraying glycine betaine on yield formation and antioxidation of summer maize sowed in different dates [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1502-1515.
[6] LI Yi-Jun, LYU Hou-Quan. Effect of agricultural meteorological disasters on the production corn in the Northeast China [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1537-1545.
[7] SHI Yan-Yan, MA Zhi-Hua, WU Chun-Hua, ZHOU Yong-Jin, LI Rong. Effects of ridge tillage with film mulching in furrow on photosynthetic characteristics of potato and yield formation in dryland farming [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1288-1297.
[8] YAN Xiao-Yu, GUO Wen-Jun, QIN Du-Lin, WANG Shuang-Lei, NIE Jun-Jun, ZHAO Na, QI Jie, SONG Xian-Liang, MAO Li-Li, SUN Xue-Zhen. Effects of cotton stubble return and subsoiling on dry matter accumulation, nutrient uptake, and yield of cotton in coastal saline-alkali soil [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1235-1247.
[9] KE Jian, CHEN Ting-Ting, WU Zhou, ZHU Tie-Zhong, SUN Jie, HE Hai-Bing, YOU Cui-Cui, ZHU De-Quan, WU Li-Quan. Suitable varieties and high-yielding population characteristics of late season rice in the northern margin area of double-cropping rice along the Yangtze River [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 1005-1016.
[10] LI Rui-Dong, YIN Yang-Yang, SONG Wen-Wen, WU Ting-Ting, SUN Shi, HAN Tian-Fu, XU Cai-Long, WU Cun-Xiang, HU Shui-Xiu. Effects of close planting densities on assimilate accumulation and yield of soybean with different plant branching types [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 942-951.
[11] WANG Lyu, CUI Yue-Zhen, WU Yu-Hong, HAO Xing-Shun, ZHANG Chun-Hui, WANG Jun-Yi, LIU Yi-Xin, LI Xiao-Gang, QIN Yu-Hang. Effects of rice stalks mulching combined with green manure (Astragalus smicus L.) incorporated into soil and reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate on rice yield and soil fertility [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 952-961.
[12] DU Hao, CHENG Yu-Han, LI Tai, HOU Zhi-Hong, LI Yong-Li, NAN Hai-Yang, DONG Li-Dong, LIU Bao-Hui, CHENG Qun. Improving seed number per pod of soybean by molecular breeding based on Ln locus [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 565-571.
[13] CHEN Yun, LI Si-Yu, ZHU An, LIU Kun, ZHANG Ya-Jun, ZHANG Hao, GU Jun-Fei, ZHANG Wei-Yang, LIU Li-Jun, YANG Jian-Chang. Effects of seeding rates and panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 656-666.
[14] YUAN Jia-Qi, LIU Yan-Yang, XU Ke, LI Guo-Hui, CHEN Tian-Ye, ZHOU Hu-Yi, GUO Bao-Wei, HUO Zhong-Yang, DAI Qi-Gen, ZHANG Hong-Cheng. Nitrogen and density treatment to improve resource utilization and yield in late sowing japonica rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 667-681.
[15] DING Hong, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, QIN Fei-Fei, DAI Liang-Xiang, ZHANG Zhi-Meng. Effects of drought at different growth stages and nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization in peanut [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 695-703.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!