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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (7): 1063-1075.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93065


Effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid and ethephon compound on carbon balance of source-sink of spring maize in Northeast China

LI Rui-Jie1,2,TANG Hui-Hui2,WANG Qing-Yan2,XU Yan-Li2,WANG Qi2,LU Lin2,YAN Peng2,DONG Zhi-Qiang2,*(),ZHANG Feng-Lu1,*()   

  1. 1,# College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation / Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei Province, Baoding 071001, Hebei, China
    2,# Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-physiology and Cultivation, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-12-25 Accepted:2020-04-15 Online:2020-07-12 Published:2020-04-26
  • Contact: Zhi-Qiang DONG,Feng-Lu ZHANG E-mail:dongzhiqiang@caas.cn;nxyumi@hebau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program(2017YFD0201301);National Key Research and Development Program(2016YFD0300300);National Natural Science Foundation of China Face Project(31470087)


In order to explore the mechanism of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and ethephon (ETH) compound for alleviating chilling damage, and to establish a chemical controlled cultivation technique for cold tolerance, dense planting and stable production of spring maize (Zea mays L.) in Northeast China, we conducted a field experiment at Gongzhuling Experiment Station (43o9'55"N, 124o48'43"E) of Jilin province, China, in 2018 and 2019. The maize (cv. Zhongdan 909) plants were treated with mixture of 5-ALA and ETH at different concentrations by foliar spraying at the jointing stage (V6). The source-sink metabolism, grain filling rate and yield of spring maize were evaluated. The yield of plants treated with 22.50 g hm-2 5-ALA combined with 450 g hm-2 ETH (A2E1) was significantly increased by 4.8% compared with the control. A2E1 promoted the synthesis of sucrose in functional leaf before anthesis. The sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose content in functional leaf were increased by 5.4% and 7.9% by A2E1 treatment, in comparison with the control, respectively. A2E1 treatment promoted the transport of sucrose from leaf to kernel during the first 20 days after anthesis, showing that the sucrose content decreased by 14.4% in the ear leaf, but increased by 41.4% in kernel. In addition, A2E1 also promoted sucrose degradation in grain. Sucrose synthase (SS) activity in the direction of decomposition was increased by 12.5% compared with the control, and the activities of acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) were increased by 52.8% and 24.1%, respectively, during early grain-filling stage (about 10 days after anthesis). In this case, spring maize under A2E1 treatment had a relatively higher maximum grain-filling rate than the control treatment. At harvest, ear length and kernel number per ear were 4.7% longer and 8.6% higher, respectively, and the bare tip length was 58.3% shorter than those of the control. In conclusion, 5-ALA-ETH can effectively improve the transportation of sucrose between source and sink of spring maize in Northeast China, accelerate the kernel filling and alleviate the effect of chilling damage during the growing period, which is of great guarantee to a high and stable yield of spring maize in this region.

Key words: 5-ALA-ETH compound, spring maize, chilling damage, sucrose metabolism, yield

Fig. 1

Daily total rainfall distribution (bar) and daily mean air temperature (line) during spring maize growth stage at Gongzhuling Experimental Station in 2018 and 2019"

Table 1

Amount of 5-aminolevulinic and ethephon used under different treatments in 2018 and 2019"

5-ALA (g hm-2)
ETH (mL hm-2)
CK 0 0
A1 11.25 0
A2 22.50 0
A3 33.75 0
E1 0 450
A1E1 11.25 450
A2E1 22.50 450
A3E1 33.75 450
E2 0 900
A1E2 11.25 900
A2E2 22.50 900
A3E2 33.75 900

Fig. 2

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on sucrose content in functional leaves of maize in 2018 V9: vegetative 9th leaf; V12: trumpet Stage; VT: silking stage; VT+10: the 10th day after silking; VT+20: the 20th day after silking; VT+30: the 30th day after silking; VT+40: the 40th day after silking; treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Fig. 3

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on the activity of sucrose synthase (SS, synthetic direction) in 2018 V9: vegetative 9th leaf; V12: trumpet Stage; VT: silking stage; VT+10: the 10th day after silking; VT+20: the 20th day after silking; VT+30: the 30th day after silking; VT+40: the 40th day after silking; treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Fig. 4

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in 2018。。。"

Fig. 5

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on sucrose content in grains in 2018 Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Fig. 6

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on the activity of sucrose synthase (SS, cleavage direction) in 2018 Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Fig. 7

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on the activity of acid invertase (AI) in 2018 Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Fig. 8

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on the activity of neutral invertase (NI) in 2018 Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Table 2

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on characteristic parameters of maize at grain-filling stage in 2018"

a b c r Tmax
(g 100-kernel-1)
(g 100-kernel-1 d-1)
CK 34.16 33.56 0.11 1.00 31.63 17.08 0.95 23.72
A1 35.78 32.13 0.11 1.00 32.84 17.89 0.95 24.93
A2 36.27 44.74 0.12 1.00 32.53 18.14 1.06 22.504
A3 35.87 31.02 0.11 1.00 31.72 17.93 0.97 24.33
E1 33.18 36.15 0.12 1.00 30.01 16.59 0.99 22.04
A1E1 36.72 36.12 0.11 1.00 33.41 18.36 0.99 24.53
A2E1 34.69 33.40 0.11 1.00 31.02 17.34 0.98 23.29
A3E1 34.30 33.07 0.11 0.99 31.81 17.15 0.94 23.95
E2 33.46 36.88 0.12 1.00 30.64 16.73 0.99 22.37
A1E2 35.68 30.32 0.11 0.99 32.41 17.84 0.94 25.02
A2E2 34.38 57.02 0.13 1.00 30.97 17.19 1.12 20.18
A3E2 33.69 33.79 0.11 0.99 31.87 16.85 0.93 23.85

Table 3

Effects of 5-ALA, ETH, and 5-ALA-ETH on yield and yield components of maize in 2018 and 2019"

Ear length
Bare tip length
Kernel number
1000-kernel weight (g)
Ear number
(kg hm-2)
2018 CK 17.5±0.9 bc 0.6±0.3 ab 511.4±12.9 abc 337.6±3.1 ab 6.9±0.2 ab 11,928.4±262.3 bc
A1 17.6±0.8 abc 0.5±0.2 abcd 504.2±24.7 bc 339.7±4.9 a 7.1±0.3 ab 12,145.9±282.2 ab
A2 17.8±0.8 abc 0.4±0.2 bcd 520.4±23.3 ab 340.7±12.2 a 6.9±0.6 ab 12,233.0±428.1 ab
A3 17.6±1.0 abc 0.5±0.1 abc 503.8±31.8 bc 340.6±9.6 a 7.1±0.4 ab 12,114.6±233.9 ab
E1 18.5±0.4 a 0.2±0.2 d 537.7±24.3 a 336.8±6.5 ab 6.8±0.1 b 12,270.5±313.1 ab
A1E1 16.8±0.7 c 0.5±0.2 abc 482.2±25.3 c 344.5±11.5 a 7.4±0.3 a 12,266.0±304.0 ab
A2E1 18.3±0.8 ab 0.3±0.2 cd 539.8±27.0 a 335.9±4.0 ab 6.9±0.4 ab 12,497.1±137.7 a
A3E1 17.5±0.8 bc 0.4±0.2 bcd 506.4±28.3 bc 341.4±5.0 a 7.1±0.3 ab 12,277.9±237.0 ab
E2 18.3±0.6 ab 0.4±0.2 bcd 502.4±25.8 bc 334.9±4.8 ab 6.9±0.3 ab 11,549.7±162.1 c
A1E2 18.0±0.4 ab 0.4±0.3 abcd 491.9±19.6 bc 342.6±6.8 a 7.1±0.2 ab 11,932.2±80.8 bc
A2E2 18.0±0.6 ab 0.7±0.2 a 481.1±20.6 c 334.1±7.0 ab 7.3±0.1 ab 11,806.1±297.9 bc
A3E2 17.9±0.8 ab 0.5±0.2 abcd 505.5±19.4 bc 327.1±8.9 b 7.1±0.0 ab 11,789.9±222.8 bc
2019 CK 18.1±0.6 bc 1.2±0.2 abc 512.2±2.7 abcd 376.4±6.9 ab 6.9±0.0 b 13,357.5±233.8 bc
A1 17.8±0.6 c 0.9±0.1 c 498.3±15.7 cd 364.9±1.6 abc 7.5±0.4 ab 13,560.1±185.4 bc
A2 18.9±0.2 ab 1.4±0.1 a 527.1±27.7 abc 365.1±7.1 abc 7.0±0.4 b 13,506.3±165.8 bc
A3 18.4±0.6 abc 1.2±0.2 abc 504.7±32.9 bcd 378.7±3.1 a 6.9±0.6 b 13,169.1±275.4 c
E1 18.5±0.2 abc 1.0±0.3 bc 534.5±6.5 ab 360.6±12.4 abc 7.0±0.2 b 13,406.9±222.50 bc
A1E1 18.2±0.3 abc 1.1±0.1 abc 526.5±5.0 abcd 360.2±5.0 abc 7.2±0.1 ab 13,645.0±126.1 b
A2E1 19.1±0.4 a 0.6±0.3 d 544.1±27.3 a 371.9±4.7 abc 7.0±0.4 b 14,078.9±102.1 a
A3E1 18.5±0.7 abc 0.9±0.1 cd 492.8±1.5 d 357.6±12.8 bc 7.7±0.3 a 13,497.2±266.7 bc
E2 18.7±0.4 abc 1.0±0.2 abc 519.1±14.0 abcd 369.8±1.9 abc 6.9±0.2 b 13,218.0±105.3 bc
A1E2 18.4±0.4 abc 1.3±0.0 ab 508.4±4.0 bcd 371.4±9.9 abc 7.0±0.3 b 13,231.4±348.6 bc
A2E2 18.2±0.3 abc 0.9±0.2 bc 543.3±18.2 a 354.9±21.7 c 7.0±0.2 b 13,466.9±296.3 bc
A3E2 18.3±0.4 abc 1.1±0.1 abc 522.8±14.7abcd 363.1±15.8 abc 7.0±0.5 b 13,294.5±149.6 bc
变异来源 Source of variation
年份Year ** ** * ** ns **
5-ALA * ** ns ** ns **
ETH ns ** ns ** ns **
5-ALA×ETH ** ** * ** ns **
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