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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (1): 226-237.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02060


Interactive effects of liming and straw return on apparent soil potassium balance in a double rice cropping system

LIU Lei1(), LIAO Ping1, SHAO Hua2, LIU Jin-Song1, YANG Xing-Lian1, WANG Jing1, WANG Hai-Yuan1, ZHANG Jun3, ZENG Yong-Jun1, HUANG Shan1,*()   

  1. 1Ministry of Education and Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, China
    2Jiangxi Soil and Fertilizer Technology Extension Station, Nanchang 330046, Jiangxi, China
    3Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2020-08-28 Accepted:2021-06-16 Online:2022-01-12 Published:2021-07-19
  • Contact: HUANG Shan E-mail:13657909609@163.com;ecohs@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31701383);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300903);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFD0301102)


Soil acidification and potassium (K) deficit are two important factors limiting crop productivity in acidic paddy soils. Lime application and straw return are effective measures to alleviate soil acidification and improve soil K content, but their interaction effect on K balance is still unclear. A four-year field experiment including two factors (liming and straw return) was conducted in Shanggao, Jiangxi province from 2015 to 2018. Four treatments were arranged in this experiment: (1) Straw removal without liming; (2) Straw removal with lime application only once in 2015; (3) 100% straw return every season without liming; (4) Straw return combined with lime application only once in 2015. Straw return significantly improved rice K uptake, while liming only significantly increased K uptake in late rice in 2016. There were positive interactive effects between liming and straw return on K uptake in late rice in 2016. Liming significantly improved K uptake by 25.7% under straw return in late rice in 2016, but there was no significant effect under straw removal. Neither liming nor straw return significantly affected soil total K concentration. However, the apparent balance of soil K in four years indicated the apparent balance of soil total K was surplus under straw return, while it was deficit under straw removal not returning, and lime application had not significant effect on it. Straw return enhanced soil cumulative apparent K surplus by 19.5 kg hm-2 a-1 and 29.0 kg hm-2 a-1 with liming and without liming, respectively. Soil cumulative apparent K balance showed a surplus of 24.3 kg hm-2 a-1under straw return and a deficit of 185.8 kg hm-2 a-1under straw removal. In summary, lime application combined with straw return could simultaneously alleviate soil acidification and maintain K balance, which is conductive to continuously improve the productivity of double rice cropping in acidic paddy fields.

Key words: straw return, soil acidification, double rice, lime, apparent potassium balance

Fig. 1

Effects of liming and straw return on above-ground biomass and K uptake in the double rice cropping system from 2015 to 2018 CK, L, RS, and L+RS indicate control, liming, straw return, and straw return combined with liming, respectively. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means (n = 3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 among treatments in the same year."

Table 1

Effects of liming (L) and straw return (RS) on biomass and K uptake in the double rice cropping system (F-value)"

Source of variations
生物量 Biomass 钾素吸收 K uptake
早稻 Early rice 晚稻 Late rice 早稻 Early rice 晚稻 Late rice
2015 石灰Liming (L) 8.42* 20.36** 0.68 1.38
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 11.92* 18.49** 33.23** 61.16**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.87 11.01* 5.10 1.36
2016 石灰Liming (L) 6.60* 24.93** 0.05 13.50*
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 23.45** 11.51* 64.70** 224.24**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 1.26 11.31* 3.77 19.49*
2017 石灰Liming (L) 24.41** 2.60 1.72 0.00
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 79.05** 0.09 265.32** 13.75*
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.45 1.26 3.47 0.82
2018 石灰Liming (L) 0.25 1.56 2.10 0.32
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 153.99** 7.06* 190.98** 19.89**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.00 0.47 1.23 0.37

Fig. 2

Effects of liming and straw return on K concentration in various organs from 2015 to 2018 Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 1. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means (n = 3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 among treatments in the same year."

Table 2

Effects of liming (L) and straw return (RS) on K concentration in various organs (F-value)"

Source of variations



K concentration in early rice
2015 石灰Liming (L) 58.38** 4.21 1.80
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 89.86** 0.48 0.45
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 32.82** 0.01 2.35
2016 石灰Liming (L) 36.06** 49.27** 5.38
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 144.18** 25.16** 0.57
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 10.80* 0.56 26.40**
2017 石灰Liming (L) 43.70** 1.91 7.04*
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 404.41** 722.59** 18.83**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 26.92** 98.61** 0.77
2018 石灰Liming (L) 2.61 3.29 0.54
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 81.52** 39.53** 0.30
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.81 1.03 2.72
Source of variations



K concentration in late rice
2015 石灰Liming (L) 15.86** 1.35 0.04
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 57.73** 18.23** 1.97
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.80 0.05 0.27
2016 石灰Liming (L) 62.68** 1706.20** 0.98
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 2916.73** 9960.00** 1.68
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 3.25 233.32** 0.98
2017 石灰Liming (L) 7.44** 6.21* 0.05
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 33.86** 79.53** 4.90
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.23 5.67 0.09
2018 石灰Liming (L) 0.13 2.06 2.04
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 17.31** 182.08** 0.17
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.05 2.82 0.51

Table 3

Effects of liming (L) and straw return (RS) on the rate of straw and K input"

Rate of straw returned into field (kg hm-2)
K input through straw return (kg hm-2)
早稻 Early rice 晚稻 Late rice 早稻 Early rice 晚稻 Late rice
2015 秸秆还田
Strew return (RS)
4313 a 4141 b 119 a 179 a
Strew return combine with liming (L+RS)
4313 a 4822 a 119 a 187 a
2016 秸秆还田Strew return (RS) 5163 a 4415 a 165 a 154 a
Strew return combine with liming (L+RS)
5830 a 4802 a 170 a 159 a
2017 秸秆还田Strew return (RS) 3879 b 4097 a 137 b 157 a
Strew return combine with liming (L+RS)
5149 a 4514 a 171 a 155 a
2018 秸秆还田Strew return (RS) 4314 a 4141 a 149 a 161 b
Strew return combine with liming (L+RS)
4671 a 4261 a 153 a 172 a

Table 4

Effects of liming (L) and straw return (RS) on soil apparent K balance and available K concentration (F-value)"

Source of variations
土壤钾素表观平衡 Soil apparent K balance 土壤速效钾含量
Soil available K concentration
Early rice
Late rice
2015 石灰Liming (L) 0.66 0.04 0.45 1.82
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 174.32** 1817.50** 1214.69** 303.21**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 5.10 0.04 4.93 1.08
2016 石灰Liming (L) 0.00 8.14* 8.68* 0.28
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 189.75** 161.24** 983.79** 29.03**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 3.23 12.42* 36.48** 0.07
2017 石灰Liming (L) 1.96 0.01 0.99 0.10
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 101.37** 180.68** 424.19** 271.59**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 11.87* 0.84 3.19 0.05
2018 石灰Liming (L) 0.21 0.05 0.04 0.01
秸秆还田Straw return (RS) 131.26** 447.30** 324.05** 42.42**
石灰×秸秆还田 L×RS 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.69

Fig. 3

Effects of liming and straw return on soil available K (a, 2015-2018) and total K concentration (b, 2018) Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 1. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means (n = 3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 among treatments in the same year."

Fig. 4

Effects of liming and straw return on seasonal and annual soil apparent K balance (a, b, c) from 2015 to 2018 and cumulative apparent K balance (d) Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 1. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means (n = 3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 among treatments in the same year."

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