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    12 January 2022, Volume 48 Issue 1
    • REVIEW
      Research advances of cover crops and their important roles
      JIAN Shu-Lian, LI Shu-Xin, LIU Sheng-Qun, LI Xiang-Nan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  1-14.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03058
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      In crop planting system, the influences of field weeds and soil properties on crop growth and development, yield, and quality have always been paid close attention to agriculture field. Overdose applications of chemical fertilizers and herbicides are beneficial for crop yield and well control of weeds, however, their negative impacts on soil and environment seriously restrict the sustainable development of agricultural production. Planting cover crops have been considered as a novel strategy to achieve sustainable agricultural development, which can help to control weeds, reduce nitrogen application, and improve soil quality. We summarize the current research advance progress of cover crops and their application in crop cultivation, including the origin and development process, main types, functions, and cropping systems of cover crops, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the research and application of cover crops in agriculture production in China.

      Research progress on traits and assessment methods of stalk lodging resistance in maize
      ZHAO Xue, ZHOU Shun-Li
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  15-26.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03055
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      Maize stalk lodging causes yield loss, decreases grain quality, increases harvest costs, and makes it impossible for grain dehydration after physiological maturity which limits mechanical grain harvest. Previous researches have been conducted to study the traits related to stalk lodging, including morphological and anatomical traits, chemical constituents of the plant and internode. However, there exist some disagreements, and lack quantitative studies on stalk lodging resistance. In this study, we review the evaluation methods and indicators of stalk lodging resistance, the determination methods of mechanical properties as well as analysis methods of stalk lodging related traits and some factors that may have effects on the results. Furthermore, we put forward the existing problems in previous researches on traits and evaluation indicators related to stalk lodging resistance and the contents need to be given further attention. These results provide a reference for further study of maize stalk lodging resistance traits and evaluation methods, lodging resistance breeding and optimization of cultivation measures.

      Mapping and candidate gene analysis of silique number mutant in Brassica napus L.
      ZHAO Gai-Hui, LI Shu-Yu, ZHAN Jie-Peng, LI Yan-Bin, SHI Jia-Qin, WANG Xin-Fa, WANG Han-Zhong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  27-39.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04281
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      The silique number is one of the important components of yield per plant in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the exploitation and utilization of its excellent alleles are essential to increase yield. More than hundreds of silique number QTLs have been mapped in oilseed rape, but they are difficult to be fine-mapped or cloned because of their moderate and unstable effects. A oilseed rape mutant (No.7931) was detected in previous study and it had few siliques at mature stage due to the stop growth after differentiation about 10 flowers on the top of inflorescence. A F2 segregating population consisting of 3400 individuals was constructed using this mutant and another more-silique lines No.73290. Among them, we performed BSA-seq on 30 individuals with extreme more- or less-siliques and detected three associated intervals of 0-1.1 Mb, 4.7-6.2 Mb, and 11.5-12.4 Mb on the C02 chromosome. These genomic intervals contained a total of 522 annotated genes in the reference genome DarmorV8.1, among which 235 genes had functional annotation and SNP/InDel variation. At the early stage of flower bud differentiation, the shoot apical meristems of two parents were subjected to RNA-seq, and a total of 8958 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. These DEGs were significantly enriched into 20 pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and amino acid metabolism (highly associated with flower bud differentiation) and so on, among which 99 were located in the associated intervals. By the integration of gene functional annotation as well as sequence and expression variation analysis, a total of nine candidate genes (BnaC02g00490.1D2, BnaC02g01030.1D2, BnaC02g01120.1D2, BnaC02g00270.1D2, BnaC02g02670.1D2, BnaC02g08680.1D2, BnaC02g08890.1D2, BnaC02g09480.1D2, and BnaC02g10490.1D2) were identified, which were mainly involved in the maintenance of inflorescence meristems and the regulation of flower development. The above results lay the foundation for the following fine-mapping and cloning of the silique number mutant gene in oilseed rape.

      Alternative splicing analysis of wheat glutamine synthase genes
      WEI Yi-Hao, YU Mei-Qin, ZHANG Xiao-Jiao, WANG Lu-Lu, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, MA Xin-Ming, LI Hui-Qing, WANG Xiao-Chun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  40-47.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.01103
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      As a key enzyme for nitrogen assimilation in plant, glutamine synthetase (TaGS) is encoded by 12 genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely TaGS1;1-6A/6B/6D, TaGS1;2-4A/4B/4D, TaGS1;3-4A/4B/4D, and TaGS2-2A/2B/2D. Transcripts of TaGS genes were obtained using the single molecular sequencing technology, and the results showed that TaGS1;1-6A had one alternative splicing (AS) version of transcripts and TaGS1;1-6B had two AS versions. Compared with the TaGS encoded by normal transcript, TaGS1;1-6A-1 lacked part of the Gln_synt_N domain, and TaGS1;1-6B-3 lacked the Gln_synth_gly_rich_ site domain; TaGS1;1-6B-4 was a new AS event, and encoded a truncated GS without Gln_synth_gly_rich_site and Gln_synth_ cat_dom domain. The relative expression level of TaGS alternative splicing transcripts of wheat cultivars with different nitrogen use efficiencies showed that the relative expression level of TaGS1;1-6A-1 in leaves of YM49 (N-efficient) was significantly higher than that of XN509 (N-inefficient), and increased with the increase of nitrogen supply. In roots, the relative expression of TaGS1;1-6A-1 increased with the increase of nitrogen supply in YM49, but decreased in XN509. TaGS1;1-6B-3 showed a similar expression trend in YM49 and XN509, and high concentration of NO3- promoted the expression of TaGS1;1-6B-3 in leaves while inhibited in roots. High concentration of NH4+ inhibited the expression of TaGS1;1-6B-3 in leaves, but had little effect in roots. TaGS1;1-6B-4 was mainly expressed under low nitrogen condition, and its expression in roots of YM49 was not affected by NH4+ supply. Understanding the AS transcript versions of TaGS genes is helpful to illustrate the functions of TaGS isozymes in nitrogen metabolism of wheat.

      Transcriptome profiling of glossy1 mutant with glossy glume in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
      LI Ling-Hong, ZHANG Zhe, CHEN Yong-Ming, YOU Ming-Shan, NI Zhong-Fu, XING Jie-Wen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  48-62.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11006
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      In order to clarify the molecular mechanism of the significant change in glume wax content, transcriptome profiling was performed on glossy glume mutant glossy1 and its wild-type Jimai 22. The results showed that a total of 12,230 differentially expressed genes were screened in the glossy1 mutant, among which 5811 genes were up-regulated and 6419 were down-regulated. GO functional enrichment revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in the wax synthesis and transport pathway, specifically distributed in acyltransferase activity, lipid binding, hydrolase activity. The findings suggested that these pathways were closely related to the glume-wax-deficient trait in wheat. We also detected the relative expression levels of some genes involved in the wax metabolic pathway by RT-qPCR, and the results were consistent with the transcriptome data. This study not only provides data support for the further study of the molecular mechanism of wax metabolism and gene regulation network but also lays a theoretical foundation for the breeding of stress-resistant variety in wheat.

      Cloning of Ta4CL1 and its function in promoting plant growth and lignin deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis plants
      MENG Ying, XING Lei-Lei, CAO Xiao-Hong, GUO Guang-Yan, CHAI Jian-Fang, BEI Cai-Li
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  63-75.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.01100
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      4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL; EC acts upstream of the branch point of phenylpropanoid, which is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways for monolignol and flavonoid biosynthesis, and these compounds play important roles in plant growth and development as well as stress adaptability. Many 4CLs had been extensively studied in dicotyledons, but their function in monocotyledons, especially in crops, was relatively poorly understood. In this study, Ta4CL1, which encoded 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, was isolated from common wheat by RACE technique. Polygenetic analysis revealed that Ta4CL1 could be clustered to the same group of 4CLs from rice, maize, and sorghum, which was mainly involved in lignin biosynthesis. Ta4CL1-overexpressed Arabidopsis lines, at4cl1, at4cl3, and at4cl14cl3 as well as their corresponding functional recovery lines were used to elucidate the function of Ta4CL1 in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway. The results suggested that Ta4CL1 had similar function with At4CL1 in regulating lignin biosynthesis but it had no effect on flavonoid biosynthesis. Ta4CL was the major contributor of 4CL enzyme activity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Overexpression of Ta4CL led to enlarged leaves and thickened stems in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings, the expression of Ta4CL was also affected by MeJA, GA, and IAA treatments. These results provide the theoretical basis for improving the utilizing efficiency of plant straws using Ta4CL1 by genetic engineering.

      Identification of StDRO1 gene polymorphism and association analysis with root traits in potato
      XU De-Rong, SUN Chao, BI Zhen-Zhen, QIN Tian-Yuan, WANG Yi-Hao, LI Cheng-Ju, FAN You-Fang, LIU Yin-Du, ZHANG Jun-Lian, BAI Jiang-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  76-85.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04241
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      In order to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of StDRO1 gene associated with potato root traits, StDRO1 gene coding region of the 110 tetraploid potato genotypes was cloned and sequenced. The association analysis between the StDRO1 SNPs and the major root traits of potato such as surface area, volume, and average diameter were carried out. The results showed that a SNP (G64C) was detected in the second exon of the StDRO1, 10 SNPs (G152A, A214G, A297G, C314T, A337T, T353C, T560A, C577A, C620A, and C625A) were identified in the third exon, and a SNP (T793A) was detected in the fourth exon. The association analysis indicated that in the total root volume, G152A locus of StDRO1 gene showed that GA genotype was superior to GG genotype (P < 0.05). In the average root diameter, C314 locus showed that CC genotype were superior to CT genotype (P < 0.05). In the root surface area, fresh weight, and dry weight, A337T locus showed that AT genotype were better than AA genotype (P < 0.05), while the locus in the average root diameter showed that AT genotype was significantly lower than AA genotype (P < 0.05). The root surface area, root volume, and fresh weight were showed as TC genotype > TT genotype (P < 0.05) in T353C site; the root volume was showed as CA genotype > CC genotype (P < 0.05) in C620A site; the root surface area, root volume, and fresh weight were showed as AT genotype > TT genotype (P < 0.05) in T793A site. In summary, the above six SNPs of StDRO1 genes had a significant impact on potato root traits, and the A337T, T353C, and T793A sites were particularly important. These results provide a basic theoretical reference for subsequent potato root architecture research and genetic improvement, but whether it could be used as a genetic marker for potato root traits need to be further verified by expanding the population sample.

      Genome-wide identification and characterization of PIF genes and their response to high temperature stress in potato
      JIAN Hong-Ju, SHANG Li-Na, JIN Zhong-Hui, DING Yi, LI Yan, WANG Ji-Chun, HU Bai-Geng, Vadim Khassanov, LYU Dian-Qiu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  86-98.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04285
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      Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, which integrates external environmental signals such as light and temperature with plant endogenous signal pathways, and then form a complex signal transduction network to precisely regulate the growth and development of plants. Up to now, there are few studies of PIF family genes in potato. Identification and analysis of StPIF family members will help to further improve the yield and quality of potatoes. In this study, BlastP analysis was performed in the potato genome database using Arabidopsis PIFs family member protein sequences as source sequences and seven StPIFs family members were identified. Systemic evolution, chromosome distribution, replication events, protein physicochemical properties, gene structure, motif prediction, promoter cis-acting elements, gene expression pattern, and the response to high temperature stress were also conducted. These results showed that all members of the StPIFs gene family contain Motif 1 (bHLH domain) and Motif 2 (APB domain); multiple cis-regulatory elements involved in light response, hormones, drought, low temperature, and circadian rhythm as well as defense and stress response regulatory elements were predicted in the promoter regions of the StPIF genes. Results of gene expression patterns and high temperature stress response at budding stage revealed that StPIFs family members had obvious tissue expression specificity, indicating their functional differentiation, and most StPIFs members had obvious responses to biotic stress and abiotic stresses including high temperature. In conclusion, these foundlings greatly enriched the understanding of the members of the StPIF family, and laid a theoretical foundation for further exploring the functions of StPIFs genes in responses to biotic stress and abiotic stress during potato growth period including high temperature at tuber stage.

      NtPHYB1 interacts with light and temperature signal to regulate seed germination in Nicotiana tabacum L.
      LI Zhen-Hua, WANG Xian-Ya, LIU Yi-Ling, ZHAO Jie-Hong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  99-107.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04275
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      Temperature and light are two important environmental factors affecting seed germination, and phytochromes are the sensors of light and temperature. It is of great significance to investigate the interaction of phytochromes with light and temperature to regulate seed germination for guiding crop sowing. The aim of this study is to explore how the NtPHYB1 genotype regulates seed germination in response to change in light and temperature environments in tobacco. The average germination frequency of WT seeds was significantly higher than that of NtPHYB1-OE and NtPHYB1-RNAi seeds under 15 environments. The germination of NtPHYB1-OE seeds was inhibited by continuous light exposure, while the germination of NtPHYB1-RNAi seeds was repressed by darkness. At 15℃, the germinations of all three genotypic seeds were inhibited by the low-temperature, and the germination frequency of NtPHYB1-OE seeds was significantly lower than that of WT and NtPHYB1-RNAi seeds; while there was no significant effect in light signal. At 20℃ and 25℃, the temperature signal promoted the ability of seed germination, and the signal of light was dispensable, resulting in the highest germination frequencies for NtPHYB1-OE and WT seeds. At 30℃ and 35℃, the light signal was indispensable to maintain seed germination for all three genotypic seeds, resulting in the highest germination frequency for NtPHYB1-RNAi seeds. To sum up, there were interactions among NtPHYB1, photoperiod, and temperature in the regulation of seed germination in tobacco. The germination frequencies of tobacco seeds could be significantly improved by modifying NtPHYB1 gene or improving the cultivation environment.

      Molecular cloning and expression analysis of BoPUB9 in self-incompatibility Brassica oleracea
      XIE Qin-Qin, ZUO Tong-Hong, HU Deng-Ke, LIU Qian-Ying, ZHANG Yi-Zhong, ZHANG He-Cui, ZENG Wen-Yi, YUAN Chong-Mo, ZHU Li-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  108-120.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04276
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      Self-incompatibility (SI) refers to the characteristic that the pistil of a plant can recognize its own pollen and allogeneic pollen so as to inhibit the germination of its own pollen. PUB (Plant U-Box) proteins play an important role in plant stress resistance and signal transduction. In this study, through the analysis of stigma transcriptome data of Brassica oleracea self-pollination at 0-60 minute(s), a PUB protein coding gene BoPUB9 was screened and up-regulated by self-pollination. The BoPUB9 cDNA sequence was 1368 bp, gDNA of 1720 bp in length, containing one arm repeat domain and one U-box domain. The relative expression levels showed that BoPUB9 gene was expressed in different tissues of Brassica oleracea, and the relative expression level was the highest in sepals, followed by petals, stamens and stigmas, and relatively lower in pollen buds, which was consistent with the results of GUS staining. The relative expression level of BoPUB9 gene was up-regulated rapidly in self-pollination 0-30 minute(s), the expression level after 15 min was more than 20 times that after cross-pollination, and the difference was the biggest after 30 min, the expression level after self-pollination was more than 40 times that after cross-pollination. Subcellular localization revealed that BoPUB9 protein was expressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and BoPUB9 protein was successfully induced in E. coli, and the relative molecular weight of 51 kD was consistent with the predicted results. The results of yeast two-hybrid and poll-down indicated that the intracellular domain of SRK interacted with PUB9 protein. It was speculated that BoPUB9 might be a novel gene involved in the process of self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea, which providing a new content for further research and utilization of self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea.

      Genetic dissection of the bacterial blight disease resistance in super hybrid rice RILs using genome-wide association study
      ZHAO Hai-Han, LIAN Wang-Min, ZHAN Xiao-Deng, XU Hai-Ming, ZHANG Ying-Xin, CHENG Shi-Hua, LOU Xiang-Yang, CAO Li-Yong, HONG Yong-Bo
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  121-137.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02090
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      Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the most destructive bacterial disease in rice production, and cultivating new disease-resistance variety by mining and utilizing the novel disease resistance genes is one of the most effective ways to control this disease. In our study, a population of 139 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from super hybrid rice Xieyou 9308, between the parents of which there was genetic difference in resistance to bacterial blight, were inoculated with four Xoo strains. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out using 476,505 SNPs for the lesion length as a quantitative phenotype. The result revealed that a total of 109 significant SNPs including two genes encoding NBS-LRR containing proteins were detected to be significantly difference at P < 1×10-4 for four Xoo strains-treated lesions, accounting for phenotype variation of 59.78%-63.29%, respectively. Furthermore, 25 SNPs located in/nearby 19 candidate genes were identified by the CR4 inoculation, accounting for 61.00%. Relative expression analysis of two selected candidate genes, LOC_Os11g43420 and LOC_Os11g45930, demonstrated their higher expression levels in the resistant cultivar Zhonghui 9308 than in the susceptible variety Xieqingzao B, suggesting that these two genes might positively regulated bacterial blight resistance. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that these two genes were different from the previous cloned resistant genes in evolution, suggesting they were novel disease resistance genes. These results lays a theoretical basis and provides genetic resources for future resistant breeding in rice.

      Dissecting the genetic architecture of lodging related traits by genome-wide association study and linkage analysis in maize
      YU Rui-Su, TIAN Xiao-Kang, LIU Bin-Bin, DUAN Ying-Xin, LI Ting, ZHANG Xiu-Ying, ZHANG Xing-Hua, HAO Yin-Chuan, LI Qin, XUE Ji-Quan, XU Shu-Tu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  138-150.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03072
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      Lodging is one of the main factors affecting the grain yield and mechanized harvesting in maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of lodging related traits can provide a theoretical basis for high yield and mechanized harvest breeding of maize. In this study, genome-wide association study (GWAS) and linkage analysis were combined to identify the significant loci interrelated with lodging related traits using 153 inbred lines from China and abroad. We detected 5, 14, 16, and 21 SNPs significant SNPs related to stem strength, plant height, ear height, and ear height-to-plant height ratio, respectively. Among these significant SNPs, the maximum effect value of a single site was 13.24. Twenty-one QTLs related to lodging related traits were identified by linkage analysis, which explaining the phenotypic variations of 3.86%-16.58% in F5 population constructed by KA105 and KB020. Further, we noticed that two QTL intervals were coincided with the candidate intervals of association analysis. Finally, GRMZM2G105391, GRMZM2G014119, and GRMZM2G341410 candidate genes related to cell wall biosynthesis, cell division and elongation were predicted by functional annotation for these candidate regions. These results can provide a new reference for further analysis of the genetic basis of lodging resistance in maize.

      Physiological mechanisms of pre-anthesis waterlogging priming on waterlogging stress tolerance under post-anthesis in wheat
      MA Bo-Wen, LI Qing, CAI Jian, ZHOU Qin, HUANG Mei, DAI Ting-Bo, WANG Xiao, JIANG Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  151-164.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11005
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      In order to investigate the responses and mechanisms of different wheat varieties to waterlogging stress and waterlogging priming, waterlogging priming was conducted for two days at the four-leaf and six-leaf stages, respectively, and waterlogging stress was performed for five days at post-anthesis using wheat varieties with different responses to waterlogging stress and waterlogging priming as experimental materials. Results showed that waterlogging stress significantly reduced chlorophyll content (SPAD) and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII), inhibited the accumulation of post-anthesis photosynthetic assimilation accumulation (PAA), decreased kernel weight and grain yield. Compared with the waterlogging-sensitive varieties, the waterlogging-tolerance varieties could maintain higher SPAD, ΦPSII and PAA, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), lower contents of H2O2, O2?production rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) under post-anthesis waterlogging stress. Compared with non-primed plants, primed plants could maintain higher chlorophyll fluorescence performance and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. Compared with the waterlogging priming-insensitive varieties, the priming-sensitive varieties increased SPAD (8.8%) and ΦPSII (17.6%), decreased the non-regulated energy dissipation ΦNO (10.7%) and the regulation energy dissipation ΦNPQ (16.5%), increased the activities of SOD (15.8%), CAT (17.8%), APX (8.9%) and GR (30.7%), increased the contents of total soluble sugar (17.5%) and sucrose (21.6%), increased remobilization efficiency of pre-anthesis stored dry matter (REP, 20.0%) and PAA (10.8%). The waterlogging tolerant varieties could maintain higher photosynthesis rate, dry matter translocation capacity and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Compared with waterlogging sensitive varieties, the increase amplitude of photosynthetic ability and antioxidant enzyme activity of priming-sensitive cultivars was higher under waterlogging stress.

      Effects of controlled release fertilizer ratio on yield formation and nitrogen absorption and utilization of late-maturing medium japonica rice under different mechanized cultivation methods
      FU Zheng-Hao, MA Zhong-Tao, WEI Hai-Yan, XING Zhi-Peng, LIU Guo-Dong, HU Qun, ZHANG Hong-Cheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  165-179.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02087
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      Rice cultivars of Nanjing 9108 with good taste quality was adopted as material under the pure nitrogen condition of 270 kg hm-2in this study. Rice was cultivated with two methods including mechanical transplanting with pothole seedlings (MT) and mechanical transplanting with carpet seedlings (MC). Controlled-release fertilizer and quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer were mixed at a ratio of 5:5. Controlled-release fertilizer was mixed from four different release periods (40, 80, 100, and 120 days) at a ratio of 1:4 to form three mixing modes (40+80, 40+100, and 40+120). Conventional urea split fertilization (CK) was used as a control, and the effects of different controlled-release fertilizer ratios on yield formation and nitrogen accumulation of high-quality japonica rice were studied. Under the same fertilizer treatment, compared with mechanical transplanting with carpet seedlings (MC), the two-year yield of mechanical transplanting with pothole seedlings (MT) was significantly increased by 3.9% and 4.9%, respectively. The reason was that the transplanting of pothole seedling machine could improve the accumulation of photosynthetic substances in the middle and late stages and obtain larger panicle type with higher grain number per panicle, seed setting rate, and 1000-grain weight. Under the cultivation mode of pothole seedling transplanting and carpet seedling transplanting, compared with CK, the two-year yield of 40+80 and 40+100 controlled-release fertilizer treatments were higher than CK, and the two-year yield of 40+100 controlled-release fertilizer treatments was the highest, which was significantly increased by 7.3% and 9.2%, respectively. The reason was that 40+100 controlled-release fertilizer treatment had higher effective panicle number and population glume amount. Compared with 40+80 and 40+120 controlled-release fertilizer treatments, the nutrient absorption law of 40+100 controlled-release fertilizer treatment was more consistent with Nanjing 9108, which not only ensured the occurrence of early tillering, but also ensured the stable production of photosynthetic substances at later stage, thus obtaining stable panicle number, grains per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. Compared with CK, the nitrogen recovery efficiency, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, nitrogen physiological efficiency, and nitrogen partial productivity of 40+100 controlled-release fertilizer treatments were significantly increased by 10.0%-12.5%, 24.6%-30.5%, 11.4%-18.6%, and 7.3%-9.1%, respectively. In conclusion, the mechanical transplanting with pothole seedlings (MT) had obvious advantages over mechanical transplanting with carpet seedlings (MC), which was a cultivation method that was conducive to high-quality japonica rice. At the same time, the 40+100 controlled-release fertilizer ratio could better meet the nutrient requirements of good-quality japonica rice at various stages, and could obtain high yield, which could be used as a simplified fertilization scheme for high-quality japonica rice.

      Reduced application and different combined applications of loss-control urea on summer maize yield and fertilizer efficiency improvement
      ZHANG Qian, HAN Ben-Gao, ZHANG Bo, SHENG Kai, LI Lan-Tao, WANG Yi-Lun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  180-192.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03071
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      Loss-control urea with nanometer mineral loss control agent added during production period could reduce the loss of nitrogen (N) through adsorption. Figuring out the application rate of loss-control urea and the appropriate rate with conventional urea could provide evidences for summer maize one-time fertilization, N fertilizer reduction, and use efficiency improvement. Under different yield level soil conditions, field experiment was arranged to investigate the effects of different N fertilizer managements on summer maize yield, aboveground biomass, nutrient accumulation, photosynthetic characteristic, and N utilization efficiency. Treatments of conventional urea (N at 210 kg hm-2), loss-control urea (full dose with N at 210 kg hm-2, 10% reduction with N at 189 kg hm-2, and 20% reduction with N at 168 kg hm-2), and different combined proportions of loss-control urea and conventional urea (at 7:3, 5:5, and 3:7) were carried out. The results revealed that N fertilizer application could significantly increase the yield of summer maize and the full-dose loss-control urea treatments increased the yield by 22.96%-27.55%, compared with that under conventional urea application at high- and middle-yield soil conditions. The application of loss-control urea at 10% and 20% reduction sustained the summer maize yield at high- and middle-yield soil condition with improved grains per ear, compared with full-dose loss-control urea application. The N fertilizer utilization efficiency under loss-control urea at 20% reduction treatment at high-yield soil condition reached 41.60%. N accumulation was comparable with full-dose loss-control urea application under proportions of loss-control urea and conventional urea at 7:3 application. Meanwhile, this treatment could sustain the yield and straw biomass at high- and middle-yield level soil and significantly increased the yield and straw biomass at low-yield field. In conclusion, one-time application of loss-control urea with N at 210 kg hm-2 could significantly improve the yield of summer maize and N efficiency of the fertilizer utilization. The application of loss-control urea with 20% reduction could sustain the summer maize yield with significantly improved N utilization efficiency at high- and middle-yield soil conditions, which was the suitable N fertilizer application for high- and middle-yield field. Loss-control urea and conventional urea at 7:3 application was suitable for N fertilizer application for low-yield field.

      Effects of free air temperature increase on nitrogen utilization of rice in northeastern China
      RUAN Jun-Mei, ZHANG Jun, LIU You-Hong, DONG Wen-Jun, MENG Ying, DENG Ai-Xing, YANG Wan-Shen, SONG Zhen-Wei, ZHANG Wei-Jian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  193-202.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02092
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      Northeastern China is one of the regions where are experiencing the most significant global warming trend. Revealing the effects of anticipated warming on nitrogen absorption and utilization of rice in northeastern China can provide reference for regional sustainable production of rice and optimal management of nitrogen fertilizer. In this study, the field and pot experiments were setup based on free air temperature increase (FATI) system in Harbin, Heilongjiang province during 2019 to 2020, combined with 15N isotope tracer technique, to investigate the effects of anticipated warming (+1.5℃) on rice yield, nitrogen utilization, and the fate of fertilizer nitrogen. The results showed that warming treatment (W) promoted rice above-ground dry-matter accumulation. The mean grain yields in field and pot experiments during 2019 and 2020 under warming treatment were higher by 10.4% and 10.8% than those under control (CK), respectively. Compared with CK, the mean total nitrogen uptake of two years under W treatment significantly increased by 21.3%, however, the nitrogen utilization efficiency of rice grains showed a decreased trend. Under W treatment, the nitrogen absorbed from fertilizer decreased significantly, while the nitrogen absorbed by rice from soil increased by 31.1%, resulting in the reduction of 12.5% in fertilizer nitrogen recovery rate and the increase of 14.2% in fertilizer nitrogen loss rate. Overall, warming tended to increase rice grain yield, but decreased the proportion of fertilizer nitrogen uptake by plant, which leading to the decrease in nitrogen use efficiency and the significant increase in nitrogen loss rate. Under the background of climate warming, it was suggested to reasonably increase the transplanting density of rice to make full use of the positive effect of global warming on rice yield, as well as appropriately reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer application and optimize the management of nitrogen fertilizer operation to improve the nitrogen use efficiency of rice.

      Effects of phosphorus fertilizer on kernel phytic acid and zinc bioavailability in sweet corn
      SU Da, YAN Xiao-Jun, CAI Yuan-Yang, LIANG Tian, WU Liang-Quan, MUHAMMAD Atif Muneer, YE De-Lian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  203-214.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13032
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      To clarify the effects of phosphorus fertilizer on nutritional characteristics of sweet corn kernels, the temporal (different filling stages) and spatial (upper, middle, and lower cob; kernel skin dregs, endosperm and embryo) variations of phytic acid (PA), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) contents and Zn bioavailability of sweet corn kernels and their responses to exogenous phosphorus fertilizer were investigated using filed phosphorus fertilizer experiment (P fertilizer location experiment for sweet corn genotypes and P fertilizer level experiment). The results were as follows: P fertilizer mainly inhibited Zn bioavailability by suppressing Zn concentration in sweet corn kernels, and increased PA concentrations concurrently. P fertilizer input showed significant effects on the accumulation of PA, P, and Zn (mg plant-1) after 16-24 days of silking, while inhibitory effects were detected on Zn bioavailability at different kernel filling stages. There was no significant difference in the kernel of PA (g kg-1) and zinc bioavailability among different cob positions under medium P treatment. However, the high P level significantly improved the accumulation of PA in the middle and lower cob, while the inhibitory effect was found on the kernel of Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability at all cob positions. Among different parts of the kernel (skin dregs, endosperm, and embryo), the concentrations of PA, P, and Zn were the highest values in the embryo and their accumulation were the highest value in the endosperm, while Zn bioavailability was also the highest in the embryo. High P treatment significantly increased PA and P concentrations and decreased Zn concentration and its bioavailability at different kernel positions. Hence, optimized phosphorus fertilizer application could promote kernel Zn accumulation, while excessive P fertilizer input significantly increased PA accumulation at different filling stages, as well as in the endosperm and embryo, and eventually had a significant inhibitory effect on kernel Zn bioavailability in sweet corn at different cob and kernel positions. This study provides a theoretical reference for the biofortification of Zn in sweet corn seeds.

      Analysis on the plant growth and yield formation of double cropping late season hybrid rice in machine transplanting with long seedling age by precision drill sowing
      WANG Ya-Liang, ZHU De-Feng, ZHANG Yu-Ping, CHEN Ruo-Xia, XIANG Jing, CHEN Hui-Zhe, CHEN Jiang-Hua, WANG Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  215-225.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02091
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      In order to ascertain the beneficial effects of precision drill sowing (PS) in machine transplanting with long seedling age of double cropping late season hybrid rice. In this study, seed of Yongyou 1540 (YY1540) was subjected to precision drill sowing of 16 rows (PS-16, 45.7 g tray-1), precision drill sowing of 18 rows (PS-18, 60.5 g tray-1) and traditional broadcast sowing (BS, 60.5 g tray-1) in standard seedling tray at the same day. Seedling ages of 20, 25, 30, and 35 days were set for machine transplanting to analyze the rice seedling quality, machine transplanting characters, rice population growth, and yield formation between PS-16, PS-18, and BS. The results were as follows: (1) PS improved the light transmittance of seedling population, compared to BS, PS enhanced the seedling quality and increased the percentage of seedlings with tillering buds, among the treatments, PS-16 got the best seedling quality and highest percentage of seedling with tillering buds. (2) Compared to BS, PS significantly reduced the missing hill percent and increased the ratio of hills with 2-3 seedlings transplanted, and there was no significant difference between PS-16 and PS-18. Seedling age prolonging increased the root injury degree and seedling injury rate, and decreased the seedling survival rate after machine-transplanting, in which, PS-16 had the minimal increasing in root injury degree and seedling injury rate, meanwhile PS-16 got the highest survival rate of seedling machine-transplanted. (3) The seedling age prolonging postponed the rice growth duration by increasing the duration of seedling rejuvenation period. Among the seedling age treatments, the shortest period of rejuvenation period was observed in PS-16, and then the growth period minimal delayed in PS-16 with the seedling age prolonging. (4) PS effectively promoted plant tillering, and PS-16 got the best effect. The number of tillers at 10 d after machine transplanting of PS-16 machine was 16.4% and 20.8% higher than that of PS-18 and BS, in average. Seedling age prolonging decreased the tiller number at tillering peak stage, and the tiller number at tillering peak stage was PS-16>PS-18>BS at different seedling age treatments. The productive tiller percentage presented no difference among the sowing methods and seedling ages. (5) Seedling age prolonging decreased the leaf area index and dry matter accumulation by the degree of PS-16<PS-18<BS. (6) PS contributed to yield enhancing by increasing the number of productive tillers, and effectively reduced the yield loss caused by the prolonging of seedling age, and rice yield was PS-16>PS-18>BS under different seedling age treatments, in average. In conclusion, compared to BS, PS could improve the seedling quality, reduce the missing hill percentage in machine transplanting, improve the machine transplanting quality, shorten the seedling rejuvenation period, promote plant tillering, and increase the leaf area index and dry matter accumulation, and then effectively reduce the yield loss of double late season hybrid rice with long seedling age in machine transplanting, and the benefits of PS-16 were better than that of PS-18.

      Interactive effects of liming and straw return on apparent soil potassium balance in a double rice cropping system
      LIU Lei, LIAO Ping, SHAO Hua, LIU Jin-Song, YANG Xing-Lian, WANG Jing, WANG Hai-Yuan, ZHANG Jun, ZENG Yong-Jun, HUANG Shan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  226-237.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02060
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      Soil acidification and potassium (K) deficit are two important factors limiting crop productivity in acidic paddy soils. Lime application and straw return are effective measures to alleviate soil acidification and improve soil K content, but their interaction effect on K balance is still unclear. A four-year field experiment including two factors (liming and straw return) was conducted in Shanggao, Jiangxi province from 2015 to 2018. Four treatments were arranged in this experiment: (1) Straw removal without liming; (2) Straw removal with lime application only once in 2015; (3) 100% straw return every season without liming; (4) Straw return combined with lime application only once in 2015. Straw return significantly improved rice K uptake, while liming only significantly increased K uptake in late rice in 2016. There were positive interactive effects between liming and straw return on K uptake in late rice in 2016. Liming significantly improved K uptake by 25.7% under straw return in late rice in 2016, but there was no significant effect under straw removal. Neither liming nor straw return significantly affected soil total K concentration. However, the apparent balance of soil K in four years indicated the apparent balance of soil total K was surplus under straw return, while it was deficit under straw removal not returning, and lime application had not significant effect on it. Straw return enhanced soil cumulative apparent K surplus by 19.5 kg hm-2 a-1 and 29.0 kg hm-2 a-1 with liming and without liming, respectively. Soil cumulative apparent K balance showed a surplus of 24.3 kg hm-2 a-1under straw return and a deficit of 185.8 kg hm-2 a-1under straw removal. In summary, lime application combined with straw return could simultaneously alleviate soil acidification and maintain K balance, which is conductive to continuously improve the productivity of double rice cropping in acidic paddy fields.

      Effect of 11-year storage of GMO reference material at ultra-low temperature on nucleic acid detection of standard matrix sample of transgenic crop
      WANG Wei-Xia, LAI Feng-Xiang, HU Hai-Yan, HE Jia-Chun, WEI Qi, WAN Pin-Jun, FU Qiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  238-248.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12001
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      Reference material is indispensable for the reliability, comparability, and accuracy of transgenic detection results. In this paper, the effects of long-term preservation of matrix reference materials on PCR detection and the stability of low content reference materials were studied. The reproducibility and quantity stability of transgenic reference materials and transgenic samples with different contents were detected by three methods (common qualitative PCR, real-time fluorescent PCR, and droplet digital PCR). The result showed that the transgenic reference material with 0.1% GM content could still be clearly amplified after 9 years of storage, and the Ct value was about 36. The digital PCR revealed that the quantity of GM matrix reference materials remained stable for long storage time. There was no effect on the detection of transgenic elements in sample mixed with soybean, corn and rice powder which stored at -70 to -75℃ for 11 years. In summary, the long-term storage of GM matrix reference materials at low temperature would not affect the detection of each transgenic component and its application as a positive control for transgenic nucleic acid detection.

      Genome-wide identification and expression patterns in response to signals from Phytophthora infestans of CrRLK1Ls gene family in potato
      YU Hui-Fang, ZHANG Wei-Na, KANG Yi-Chen, FAN Yan-Ling, YANG Xin-Yu, SHI Ming-Fu, ZHANG Ru-Yan, ZHANG Jun-Lian, QIN Shu-Hao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  249-258.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14019
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      Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase1-like kinases (CrRLK1Ls), a class of plant-specific protein receptor kinases, play an important role in maintaining cell wall integrity, cell-to-cell communications, and biotic and abiotic stress response. In this study, StCrRLK1Ls family members were identified, and their physical and chemical characteristics, chromosome location, evolutionary characteristics, subcellular location, and the expression patterns were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that 17 StCrRLK1Ls members were detected, with amino acid size (753-997 aa), molecular weight (83.34-108.69 kD), and isoelectric point (5.30-7.56). Among them, StCrRLK1Ls were mainly predicted on plasma membrane. Evolutionary analysis indicated that CrRLK1Ls from potato, rice, apple, Arabidopsis, and tomato could be divided into seven subgroups, and StCrRLK1Ls were distributed in subgroups III, IV, V, VI, and VII. Moreover, StCrRLK1Ls were distributed on eight chromosomes, and there are three tandem repeat gene clusters, including six members. In addition, there were many cis-elements in the promoter region of StCrRLK1Ls, which mainly responded to hormones, defense, and stress signals. After the inoculation with Phytophthora infestans (Pi), a large number of StCrRLK1Ls were differentially expressed in Atlantic and Longshu 7, and the relative expression levels of StCrRLK1L8 and StCrRLK1L10 were obviously up-regulated during Pi infection. The relative expression levels of StCrRLK1L11 were 9.74 times compared with the control at eight days Atlantic inoculated Pi. We speculated that they could be used as the candidate genes for disease resistance and further functional analysis, which might play an important role in response to pathogenic fungi of potato.

      Preparation and application of polyclonal antibody against SSIIb protein from maize
      YU Guo-Wu, QING Yun, HE Shan, HUANG Yu-Bi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(1):  259-264.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03010
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      Antibody is an important reagent for protein function research. It is difficult to carry out protein function research due to the lack of corresponding antibody. Maize starch synthase IIa and starch synthase IIb (SSIIb) belong to starch synthase, which are mainly responsible for the extension of amylopectin. However, the studies of starch synthase IIb were still in lack. In this study, we immunized New Zealand white rabbits with recombinant GST fusion protein (455-704 aa) at the C-terminal of starch synthase IIb as antigen and prepared polyclonal antibody against SSIIb protein. Western blot showed that the polyclonal antibody of SSIIb could recognize not only SSIIb-C (455-704 aa) antigen, but also SSIIb protein in endosperm of maize at different developmental stages. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal antibody revealed that the expression pattern of SSIIb protein in maize endosperm increased first and then decreased from 10 to 30 days after pollination, and the highest expression level was found at 15 days after pollination. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcription level of SSIIb was the highest at 20 days after pollination. These results indicated that the specific polyclonal antibody against SSIIb was successfully prepared, and it could specifically recognize the endogenous SSIIb protein of maize by Western blot, which laid a foundation for further study of the function of SSIIb protein.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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