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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (1): 215-225.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02091


Analysis on the plant growth and yield formation of double cropping late season hybrid rice in machine transplanting with long seedling age by precision drill sowing

WANG Ya-Liang1(), ZHU De-Feng1,*(), ZHANG Yu-Ping1, CHEN Ruo-Xia2, XIANG Jing1, CHEN Hui-Zhe1, CHEN Jiang-Hua2, WANG Feng2   

  1. 1China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 311400, Zhejiang, China
    2Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ningbo 315040, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2020-12-25 Accepted:2021-03-19 Online:2022-01-12 Published:2021-04-13
  • Contact: ZHU De-Feng E-mail:wangyaliang@caas.cn;cnrice@qq.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2019B10003);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2019B10003);Special Fund for Basic Scientific Research of China National Rice Research Institute(CPSIBRF-CNRRI-202117);China Agri-culture Research System(CARS-01-03A)


In order to ascertain the beneficial effects of precision drill sowing (PS) in machine transplanting with long seedling age of double cropping late season hybrid rice. In this study, seed of Yongyou 1540 (YY1540) was subjected to precision drill sowing of 16 rows (PS-16, 45.7 g tray-1), precision drill sowing of 18 rows (PS-18, 60.5 g tray-1) and traditional broadcast sowing (BS, 60.5 g tray-1) in standard seedling tray at the same day. Seedling ages of 20, 25, 30, and 35 days were set for machine transplanting to analyze the rice seedling quality, machine transplanting characters, rice population growth, and yield formation between PS-16, PS-18, and BS. The results were as follows: (1) PS improved the light transmittance of seedling population, compared to BS, PS enhanced the seedling quality and increased the percentage of seedlings with tillering buds, among the treatments, PS-16 got the best seedling quality and highest percentage of seedling with tillering buds. (2) Compared to BS, PS significantly reduced the missing hill percent and increased the ratio of hills with 2-3 seedlings transplanted, and there was no significant difference between PS-16 and PS-18. Seedling age prolonging increased the root injury degree and seedling injury rate, and decreased the seedling survival rate after machine-transplanting, in which, PS-16 had the minimal increasing in root injury degree and seedling injury rate, meanwhile PS-16 got the highest survival rate of seedling machine-transplanted. (3) The seedling age prolonging postponed the rice growth duration by increasing the duration of seedling rejuvenation period. Among the seedling age treatments, the shortest period of rejuvenation period was observed in PS-16, and then the growth period minimal delayed in PS-16 with the seedling age prolonging. (4) PS effectively promoted plant tillering, and PS-16 got the best effect. The number of tillers at 10 d after machine transplanting of PS-16 machine was 16.4% and 20.8% higher than that of PS-18 and BS, in average. Seedling age prolonging decreased the tiller number at tillering peak stage, and the tiller number at tillering peak stage was PS-16>PS-18>BS at different seedling age treatments. The productive tiller percentage presented no difference among the sowing methods and seedling ages. (5) Seedling age prolonging decreased the leaf area index and dry matter accumulation by the degree of PS-16<PS-18<BS. (6) PS contributed to yield enhancing by increasing the number of productive tillers, and effectively reduced the yield loss caused by the prolonging of seedling age, and rice yield was PS-16>PS-18>BS under different seedling age treatments, in average. In conclusion, compared to BS, PS could improve the seedling quality, reduce the missing hill percentage in machine transplanting, improve the machine transplanting quality, shorten the seedling rejuvenation period, promote plant tillering, and increase the leaf area index and dry matter accumulation, and then effectively reduce the yield loss of double late season hybrid rice with long seedling age in machine transplanting, and the benefits of PS-16 were better than that of PS-18.

Key words: late season rice of double cropping, hybrid rice, precision drill sowing, long seedling age, machine transplanting, yield.

Fig. 1

Air temperature and solar radiation across growth duration of rice A: air temperature; B: solar radiation and day length."

Table 1

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on seedling quality of rice"

Seedling age (d)
Sowing method
Leaf age
Seedling height
The number of yellow leaves
Basal stem
width (cm)
Root length
Dry weight of stem and leaves (mg)
Dry weight
of root
20 PS-16 4.40±0.17 a 14.40±1.30 a 0.27±0.04 b 0.35±0.01 a 9.48±1.35 a 51.27±1.62 a 18.40±0.66 a
PS-18 4.33±0.15 a 14.94±0.18 a 0.40±0.05 a 0.33±0.02 a 7.98±0.48 b 46.60±1.25 b 15.23±0.90 b
BS 4.43±0.23 a 15.48±0.51 a 0.33±0.05 a 0.33±0.02 a 7.73±0.22 b 46.20±1.15 b 15.16±0.91 b
25 PS-16 5.37±0.31 a 19.17±0.63 a 0.67±0.10 b 0.40±0.01 a 11.89±0.28 a 94.60±7.29 a 38.53±2.86 a
PS-18 5.29±0.02 a 19.94±0.18 a 1.25±0.10 a 0.36±0.01 b 9.65±0.12 b 76.60±1.25 b 29.77±3.06 b
BS 5.23±0.12 a 19.80±0.82 a 1.27±0.07 a 0.36±0.01 b 9.43±0.46 b 80.20±4.42 b 30.83±2.91 b
30 PS-16 5.77±0.11 a 21.70±0.53 a 0.81±0.10 b 0.45±0.03 ab 12.13±0.76 a 132.33±10.97 ab 59.20±2.59 b
PS-18 5.63±0.12 a 21.69±0.13 a 1.22±0.10 a 0.40±0.01 bc 11.05±0.48 ab 117.67±4.62 b 51.17±5.01 c
BS 5.50±0.20 a 21.61±0.64 a 1.18±0.06 a 0.38±0.01 c 10.18±0.25 b 119.00±13.53 b 51.17±2.90 c
35 PS-16 6.37±0.12 a 23.43±0.90 a 1.40±0.11 bc 0.47±0.00 a 14.67±0.71 a 149.00±8.19 a 69.20±2.59 a
PS-18 6.03±0.12 b 23.83±0.42 a 2.21±0.13 a 0.42±0.01 b 11.83±0.31 b 122.33±4.47 b 58.23±6.60 b
BS 5.97±0.12 b 23.95±0.08 a 1.91±0.51 ab 0.40±0.01 b 10.10±0.17 c 129.00±13.53 b 58.17±3.15 b
Seedling age (A)
167.39** 314.73** 123.23** 55.76** 74.43** 247.82** 349.38**
Sowing method (M)
5.36** 2.33 25.69** 21.19** 55.94** 17.45** 20.02**
机插秧龄×播种方法A × M 1.05 0.53 2.43 1.7 4.46** 1.17 0.98

Fig. 2

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on the percentage of seedlings with tillering buds in seedling population Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. Values are mean±SD (n = 3). Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters are significantly different at the 0.05 probability level among treatments."

Fig. 3

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on absolute visible light radiation intensity of seedling population Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. A: 20 d seedling age; B: 25 d seedling age; C: 30 d seedling age; D: 35 d seedling age."

Table 2

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on machine transplanting characters in rice"

机插秧龄 Seedling age (d) 播种方法
Sowing method
Number of
seedling transplanted per hill
漏秧率Missing hill percent (%) 2~3株苗比率
Ratio of hills with 2-3 seedling
transplanted (%)
Degree of root injury (%)
Ratio of seedling injury (%)
秧苗存活率 Seedling
survival rate
20 PS-16 2.47±0.14 a 3.11±1.95 b 78.89±3.85 a 24.19±2.75 b 6.20±1.55 a 97.92±3.61 a
PS-18 2.43±0.03 a 4.78±2.50 b 76.67±8.82 a 36.09±4.20 a 9.63±3.39 a 92.16±2.24 a
BS 2.45±0.14 a 13.33±3.33 a 36.67±6.67 b 38.01±4.39 a 7.44±0.83 a 85.52±2.09 b
25 PS-16 2.51±0.08 a 3.89±2.55 b 77.78±5.09 a 25.99±3.05 b 13.70±1.95 ab 93.27±6.31 a
PS-18 2.54±0.02 a 4.86±1.46 b 73.33±3.33 a 46.13±4.28 a 15.56±1.92 a 88.09±4.24 ab
BS 2.56±0.05 a 16.67±3.33 a 44.44±11.71 b 48.30±4.59 a 10.19±2.08 b 83.68±1.88 b
30 PS-16 2.43±0.15 a 3.67±0.58 b 74.44±9.18 a 39.87±3.42 b 12.75±2.53 c 94.76±9.07 a
PS-18 2.48±0.13 a 3.39±3.25 b 73.89±2.55 a 56.13±4.28 a 26.72±3.04 b 70.88±7.70 b
BS 2.43±0.12 a 16.79±6.16 a 57.22±8.39 b 51.38±2.85 a 36.82±7.76 a 69.39±7.23 b
35 PS-16 2.28±0.13 a 3.89±1.92 b 76.11±5.09 a 49.32±8.32 a 12.91±1.73 b 94.76±5.02 a
PS-18 2.32±0.05 a 4.17±2.20 b 74.44±4.19 a 49.47±6.83 a 34.62±6.29 a 74.21±4.48 b
BS 2.28±0.10 a 15.97±2.51 a 52.78±6.94 b 51.63±5.23 a 41.62±11.26 a 72.72±5.92 b
机插秧龄Seedling age (A) 8.51** 0.35 0.85 26.42** 41.99** 12.28**
播种方法Sowing method (M) 0.14 63.14** 66.66** 26.48** 23.86** 33.87**
机插秧龄×播种方法A × M 0.16 0.37 2.41 3.37 8.86** 2.66*

Fig. 4

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on growth duration of rice Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. A: duration days from sowing to heading; B: duration of rejuvenation period; C: duration days from rejuvenation to heading. Values are mean ± SD (n = 3). Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters are significantly different at the 0.05 probability level among treatments."

Fig. 5

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on the number of tillers at 10 days after machine transplanting, the number of tillers at tillering peak stage, and productive tiller percentage Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. A: the tiller number of rice population at 10 days after machine transplanting; B: the tiller number of rice population at tillering peak stage; C: the productive tiller percentage of rice population. Values are mean ± SD (n = 3). Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters are significantly different at the 0.05 probability level among treatments."

Fig. 6

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on leaf area index, plant height, and dry matter accumulation Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. A: leaf area index at heading stage; B: plant height; C: dry matter accumulation at heading stage; D: dry matter accumulation at maturing stage. Values are mean ± SD (n = 3). Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters are significantly different at the 0.05 probability level among treatments."

Table 3

Effects of different seedling ages and seed sowing methods on yield and yield component of rice"

Seedling age (d)
Sowing method
Number of
productive tillers
(×105 hm-2)
Number of spikelet
per panicle
Filled grain rate (%)
1000-grain weight (g)
(t hm-2)
20 PS-16 23.61±2.00 a 242.02±3.88 a 85.30±1.39 a 22.98±0.51 a 11.20±0.99 a
PS-18 23.57±1.42 a 241.91±1.41 a 84.16±1.31 a 22.79±0.28 a 10.94±0.68 a
BS 21.18±0.81 a 237.03±7.28 a 84.95±1.56 a 22.63±0.14 a 9.66±0.76 a
25 PS-16 23.51±1.59 a 244.03±10.00 a 84.66±4.64 a 22.25±0.68 a 10.82±1.21 a
PS-18 23.16±0.37 a 242.04±8.27 a 82.40±1.73 a 22.90±0.28 a 10.58±0.21 a
BS 21.81±1.68 a 238.10±6.20 a 82.76±2.18 a 22.66±0.40 a 9.75±1.02 a
30 PS-16 22.53±0.47 a 247.10±5.20 a 82.34±1.98 ab 22.43±0.33 b 10.29±0.61 a
PS-18 21.70±0.67 a 243.47±1.63 a 82.93±1.91 a 22.73±0.30 ab 9.83±0.46 a
BS 20.21±0.68 b 239.48±5.95 a 78.91±1.21 b 23.09±0.21 a 8.83±0.33 b
35 PS-16 22.15±1.23 a 239.91±1.81 a 79.89±1.23 a 22.91±0.18 ab 9.72±0.33 a
PS-18 21.07±0.51 ab 237.54±6.17 a 81.47±5.23 a 22.61±0.08 b 9.22±0.57 ab
BS 19.69±0.63 b 237.74±1.24 a 78.61±3.61 a 23.18±0.16 a 8.54±0.65 b
机插秧龄Seedling age (A) 6.10** 1.30 5.57** 3.18* 7.81**
播种方法Sowing method (M) 12.47** 2.46 1.43 2.28 10.80**
机插秧龄×播种方法A × M 0.23 0.18 0.72 1.56 0.13
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