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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (9): 2366-2376.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13056


Effects of nitrogen application rate on grain filling characteristics and endogenous hormones in summer maize

ZHANG Zhen-Bo1(), QU Xin-Yue1, YU Ning-Ning1, REN Bai-Zhao1,2, LIU Peng1,2, ZHAO Bin1,2, ZHANG Ji-Wang1,2,*()   

  1. 1. College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China
    2. Shandong Maize Technology Innovation Center, Laizhou, 261400, Shandong, China
  • Received:2021-09-16 Accepted:2022-01-05 Online:2022-09-12 Published:2022-07-15
  • Contact: ZHANG Ji-Wang E-mail:1486693491@qq.com;jwzhang@sdau.edu.cn
  • About author:First author contact:

    ** Contributed equally to this work

  • Supported by:
    China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA(CARS-02-21);Shandong Central Guiding the Local Science and Technology Development(YDZX20203700002548);Shandong Agricultural Application Technology Innovation Project(SD2019ZZ013)


To explore the effects of nitrogen rate on grain filling characteristics and endogenous hormone content and balance in summer maize, Denghai 518 (DH518) was used as the experimental material. The experiment was conducted from 2018 to 2019. Four nitrogen rates were set under field conditions of no nitrogen rate (N0), lower nitrogen rate (N1: N 129 kg hm-2), appropriated nitrogen rate (N2: N 184.50 kg hm-2), and excessive nitrogen rate (N3: N 300 kg hm-2). The results showed that with the increase of nitrogen rate, the days of maximum grain filling (Tmax) was gradually shortened, the weight of maximum grain filling rate (Wmax), and the maximum grain filling (Gmax) was gradually increased, the active grain filling stage (P) was prolonged, and the grain dehydration rate was improved. So the grain filling characteristics were improved, and the gain dry weight and yield were increased significantly. However, the grain filling characteristics deteriorated and the yield was reduced when nitrogen was applied excessively. When the endogenous hormone content reached the peak value, compared with N0 treatment in two years, the contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 in N2 were significantly increased by 66.35% and 88.99%, 7.45% and 14.60%, 24.73% and 32.26%, respectively, while ABA content decreased significantly by 15.57% and 10.95% in two years. And the contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 were decreased in N3 treatment compared with N2 treatment, but ABA content was increased. The correlation analysis of grain filling characteristics and endogenous hormone content showed that Wmax was significantly positively correlated with ZR/ABA, but negatively correlated with ABA. P was positively correlated with IAA/ABA and GA3/ABA. So, the appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer (N2, 184.50 kg hm-2) can coordinate the endogenous hormone content and balance of the grain, thereby promoting grain filling and increasing yield.

Key words: summer maize, nitrogen fertilizer, grain filling characteristics, endogenous hormone

Table 1

Effects of nitrogen application rate on grain filling parameters in summer maize"

Growth curve
parametric equation
Correlation coefficient
(g 100-
(g 100-
kernel-1 d-1)
Ro 百粒重
100-kernel weight (g)
(kg hm-2)
2018 N0 y = 27.13/(1+54.35e-0.15x) 0.9960 26.38 13.57 1.03 39.61 0.15 27.84 7537 d
N1 y = 28.66/(1+32.56e-0.15x) 0.9897 23.97 14.33 1.04 41.29 0.15 28.99 9615 c
N2 y = 35.25/(1+22.62e-0.13x) 0.9924 24.94 17.62 1.10 47.99 0.13 31.82 11,521 a
N3 y = 35.65/(1+24.04e-0.13x) 0.9917 24.37 17.82 1.16 45.98 0.13 31.51 10,604 b
2019 N0 y = 27.59/(1+69.16e-0.15x) 0.9969 27.49 13.80 1.06 38.93 0.15 27.06 8218 d
N1 y = 28.43/(1+60.14e-0.15x) 0.9978 26.91 14.22 1.08 39.41 0.15 27.91 11,568 c
N2 y = 29.59/(1+34.91e-0.14x) 0.9932 25.79 14.80 1.02 43.55 0.14 28.90 12,359 a
N3 y = 28.01/(1+47.32e-0.15x) 0.9961 25.60 14.00 1.05 39.83 0.15 27.70 12,187 b

Fig. 1

Effects of different nitrogen content on grain dry weight in summer maize (100 kernels) N0: no nitrogen application; N1: a small amount of nitrogen application (N 129 kg hm-2); N2: an appropriate amount of nitrogen application (N 184.50 kg hm-2); N3: excessive nitrogen application (N 300 kg hm-2); 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 represent tasseling stage, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after tasseling, respectively."

Fig. 2

Effects of different nitrogen content on grain volume in summer maize (100 kernels) Treatment are the same as those given in Fig. 1."

Table 2

Effects of different nitrogen content on grain water content in summer maize"

授粉后天数Days after pollination
10 d 20 d 30 d 40 d 50 d
2018 N0 88.84 a 70.60 a 53.84 a 39.26 a 33.55 a
N1 87.42 b 70.78 a 55.83 a 38.34 ab 31.25 b
N2 87.07 b 65.52 b 50.16 b 33.42 c 29.34 c
N3 86.84 b 61.84 c 49.54 b 35.23 bc 29.87 c
2019 N0 90.48 a 65.33 b 52.95 a 46.93 a 36.43 b
N1 90.35 a 63.90 bc 51.19 b 42.23 b 37.10 a
N2 87.85 b 62.62 c 51.50 b 42.33 b 34.19 c
N3 89.81 a 67.06 a 51.60 b 43.05 b 35.09 c

Table 3

Effects of nitrogen content on grain dehydration rate in summer maize"

授粉后天数Days after pollination
10-20 d 20-30 d 30-40 d 40-50 d
2018 N0 1.82 c 1.68 a 1.46 c 0.57 ab
N1 1.66 c 1.50 a 1.75 a 0.71 a
N2 2.16 b 1.54 a 1.67 b 0.41 b
N3 2.50 a 1.23 b 1.43 c 0.54 ab
2019 N0 2.52 ab 1.24 b 0.60 b 1.05 a
N1 2.65 a 1.27 b 0.90 a 0.51 c
N2 2.52 ab 1.11 b 0.92 a 0.81 b
N3 2.28 b 1.55 a 0.86 a 0.80 b

Fig. 3

Effects of nitrogen application rate on IAA content in summer maize grains N0: no nitrogen application; N1: a small amount of nitrogen application (N 129 kg hm-2); N2: an appropriate amount of nitrogen application (N 184.50 kg hm-2); N3: excessive nitrogen application (N 300 kg hm-2). VT+10, VT+20, VT+30, VT+40, and VT+50 represent 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after tasseling, respectively."

Fig. 4

Effects of nitrogen application rate on ZR content in summer maize grains Treatment are the same as those given in Fig. 3."

Fig. 5

Effects of nitrogen application rate on ABA content in summer maize grains Treatment are the same as those given in Fig. 3."

Fig. 6

Effects of nitrogen application rate on GA3 content in summer maize grains Treatment are the same as those given in Fig. 3."

Table 4

Correlation analysis of grain filling parameters and yield in summer maize"

相关性Correlation Wmax Gmax P 百粒重100-kernel weight 产量Yield
Wmax 1
Gmax 0.82* 1
P 0.94** 0.58 1
百粒重100-kernel weight 0.97** 0.70 0.97** 1
产量Yield 0.35 0.16 0.41 0.33 1

Table 5

Correlation analysis of grain filling parameters and total hormone content in summer maize"

脱落酸ABA 赤霉素GA3 玉米素核苷/脱落酸
Wmax 0.72* 0.80* 0.57 0.70 0.46 0.61 0.44 -0.62
Gmax 0.23 0.41 0.28 0.23 -0.01 0.09 -0.04 0.13
P 0.90** 0.89** -0.08 0.85** 0.66 0.80** 0.64 -0.80*
百粒重100-kernel weight 0.79* 0.90** 0.10 0.77* 0.51 0.66 0.47 -0.68
产量Yield 0.56 0.26 -0.76* 0.57 0.80* 0.68 0.81* -0.73*
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