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    12 September 2022, Volume 48 Issue 9
    • REVIEW
      A critical review on the principles and procedures for cultivar development and evaluation
      YAN Weikai
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2137-2154.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11105
      Abstract ( 218 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (890KB) ( 385 )   Save
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      Plant breeding plays an indispensable role in meeting the increasing need for food and comfort of the mankind in a changing climate. Numerous concepts and procedures aiming at improving breeding efficiency have been put forward, such as various strategies for dealing with genotype by environment interaction, stability analyses, mega-environment analyses, experimental designs and analyses, biplot analyses, and selection indices. In addition, genomic selection has evolved into a stage that plant breeders must consider and cannot ignore. It is of practical importance to understand the relationships among these concepts and procedures, their usefulness, drawbacks, and pitfalls, as well as their place in the theoretical framework of plant breeding and genotype evaluation. Based primarily on personal research and experience, this article attempted to develop a systematic narrative on the principles, key concepts, and analytic procedures related to cultivar development and evaluation, with demonstrations using real-world data.

      CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Precise characterization and analysis of maize germplasm resources for resistance to Fusarium ear rot and Gibberella ear rot
      DUAN Can-Xing, CUI Li-Na, XIA Yu-Sheng, DONG Huai-Yu, YANG Zhi-Huan, HU Qing-Yu, SUN Su-Li, LI Xiao, ZHU Zhen-Dong, WANG Xiao-Ming
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2155-2167.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13055
      Abstract ( 135 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (4294KB) ( 106 )   Save
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      Ear rot is a severe disease in maize production in China, which often leads to a considerable decline in yield and quality. The development and utilization of resistant cultivars is an economical and effective method for controlling ear rot. Resistant resources are the material basis for resistance breeding. The methods for precise identification of maize germplasm resistance to ear rot were optimized and improved. Correlation analysis between silk channel inoculation and ear injection inoculation (traumatic inoculation) for screening of maize resistance to ear rot was performed and correlation coefficients (r) were not less than 0.90, indicating high correlation between maize ear rot resistance identified by silk channel and ear injection inoculation. The precise evaluation of 690 maize accessions resistance to Fusarium ear rot (FER, caused by Fusarium verticillioides) was conducted with silk channel inoculation at six different environments in Changping of Beijing and Xichang of Sichuan from 2018 to 2020. A total of 35 maize resources with stable FER resistance, such as H446, YCF, Liao 2309, Jizi 1055, Y1723, XF8-3, Tie 97085 and so on, were screened out, accounting for 5.07% of total accessions. Correlation coefficients of maize resistance to FER between any two sites among six different environments varied from 0 to 0.48. The r-values between two sites in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were 0.03, 0.20, and 0.15, respectively. The r-values between pairwise annual comprehensive FER resistance among three years were 0.20, 0.30, and 0.35, indicating that the resistance reaction of 690 accessions to FER exhibited obvious differences among different environments. During 2018-2020, 690 maize resources were precisely identified for resistance to Gibberella ear rot (GER, caused by Fusarium graminearum) with silk channel inoculation at six different environments in Shenyang of Liaoning and Xichang of Sichuan. Correlation coefficients of GER resistance in 690 maize resources between any two sites among six environments ranged from 0 to 0.39. The r-values between two sites in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were 0.05, 0.25, and 0.29, respectively, indicating that the environments had a relatively great influence on GER resistance in maize. The r-values between pairwise annual comprehensive GER resistance among three years were 0.14, 0.20, and 0.13, indicating considerable differences in annual comprehensive resistance. Seventeen inbred lines (H446, MC7528, Y1632, Y1679, Jizi 1055, Tie 97085, and so on) with stable resistance to GER at diverse environments were identified. The r-value of 0.52 between FER and GER resistance in 690 maize germplasm exhibited moderate correlation. The six-point experimental data for FER and GER resistance indicated three maize inbred lines (H446, Jizi 1055, and Tie 97085) expressed stable resistance to both FER and GSR, which were precious resources for breeding ear rot resistant varieties or improvement of cultivar resistance.

      Genome-wide association study of root biomass related traits at seeding stage under low phosphorus stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
      KE Hui-Feng, ZHANG Zhen, GU Qi-Shen, ZHAO Yan, LI Pei-Yu, ZHANG Dong-Mei, CUI Yan-Ru, WANG Xing-Fen, WU Li-Qiang, ZHANG Gui-Yin, MA Zhi-Ying, SUN Zheng-Wen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2168-2179.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14152
      Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (6168KB) ( 79 )   Save
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      Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient element for plant growth and development. Low phosphorus stress is one of the important factors restricting the growth and development of cotton. In this study, 419 core accessions of upland cotton were used as test materials. Phenotypic identification of six root biomass related traits at the seedling stage in two environments were carried out. Genome-wide association study was used to screen the significantly associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and candidate genes with 3.66 million SNPs. The results showed that there were extensive genetic variations in root biomass traits of cotton under low P stress, among which the coefficient of variation of root shoot ratio was the largest (45.30%). A total of 393 SNPs were significantly associated with root biomass traits, and these loci mainly distributed in chromosome D02 (75), A08 (64) and A07 (35), among which a total of 28 SNPs were detected in two traits or environments at least. 13 candidate genes were further screened, among which Gh_A08G1889 was detected in the RSR under low phosphorus conditions in E1 environment (LP-RSR-E1), and A08:99606874 (A/C) was located in the exon of this gene, leading to non-synonymous mutation (Val/Leu). Moreover, the gene encoding protein GID1C (Gibberellin receptor GID1C) can interact with DELLA protein to participate in the GA metabolic pathway, which can control the growth and development of plant roots and respond to environmental stress. Gh_D08G2527 was detected in both root dry weight (RDW) and total dry weight (TDW) in E2 environments (LP-RDW-E2 and LP-TDW-E2). The DREB3 (Dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 3) transcription factors encoded by this gene were involved in the response process of environmental stress in a variety of crops, and DREB could specifically combine with DRE to induce the expression of environmental stress response genes and produce plant stress resistance. The results of qRT-PCR revealed that the relative expression of Gh_D08G2527 in low phosphorus tolerant varieties was significantly higher than that in low phosphorus sensitive varieties under low phosphorus treatment. These results of this study provide theoretical reference and genetic resources for further understanding the molecular mechanism of low phosphorus stress in cotton.

      Mining harvest index loci based on QTL mapping and genome-wide association study in rapessed (Brassica napus L.)
      ZHANG Chao, YANG Bo, ZHANG Li-Yuan, XIAO Zhong-Chun, LIU Jing-Sen, MA Jin-Qi, LU Kun, LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2180-2195.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14159
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      Harvest index (HI) is an important agronomic trait, and the HI of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) remains much lowerer than that of other major crops, indicating there is large scope for improvement of this trait. It is important to explore the genetic mechanism of rapeseed harvest index for its genetic improvement. In this study, QTLs for HI using the 186 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) in the three environments (2016, 2017, and 2018) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) were detected based on the high-density genetic linkage map. A total of 12 HI QTLs located on chromosomes A03, A05, A06, A07, A09, C04, and C05_random were detected, with the explained phenotypic variation of individual QTL range from 1.27% to 14.20%. GWAS for HI was performed using 588 resequencing natural populations established by our previous study. A total of 6 SNPs associated with HI were detected in three years (2016, 2017, and 2019) and BLUP, which located on chromosomes A09, C01, and C03. The S9_25882060 on chromosome A09 detected by the environment in 2019 overlapped with S9_25961704, and was close to S9_24834640 on chromosome A09 detected by the environment in 2016. In addition, 2016HI (S9_24834640) detected in 2016 was located in the interval region of q2017HI-9. Among these 18 loci, one locus was overlapped with reported HI-related QTLs, and six loci were contiguous to reported yield-related QTLs. Combining the results of transcriptome sequencing data of our laboratory, 36 primary candidate genes were selected and these genes involved in the photosynthesis, transmembrane transport, storage components synthesis, transcriptional regulation and so on. These results provide important theoretical basis for genetic improvement of HI in rapeseed.

      Dissection of haplotypes, geographical distribution and breeding utilization of WAPO1 associated with spike development in wheat
      DING Pu-Yang, ZHOU Jie-Guang, ZHAO Cong-Hao, TANG Hua-Ping, MU Yang, TANG Li-Wei, DENG Mei, WEI Yu-Ming, LAN Xiu-Jin, MA Jian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2196-2209.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11078
      Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (7951KB) ( 103 )   Save
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      Wheat is one of the most important crops, and spike is an important trait affecting yield. WAPO1, encoding an F-box protein, is an ortholog of rice APO1 in wheat. In this study, superior haplotypes of WAPO1 were identified and their genetic effects, geographical distribution, and breeding utilization were further analyzed. The SNP (G/T) in F-box region was identified by using the developed KASP marker and 115 bp insertion/deletion of promoter was identified to analyze the haplotypes by the reported InDel marker in Chinese wheat landraces. In addition to the previously identified three haplotypes (H1: 140G+115deletion, H2: 140T+115insertion, and H3: 140G+115insertion), we identified a new and fourth haplotype (H4: 140T+115deletion) and proved that H2 and H4 were superior haplotypes, which could significantly increase spikelet number per spike in wheat. The KASP marker was also used to identify the superior haplotypes of Chinese wheat varieties/lines, Sichuan wheat varieties and world wheat varieties, and to explore their distribution and breeding utilization. The results reveal that the superior haplotypes are widely selected and bred in China and the world.

      Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a bacterial blight resistance major QTL qBB-11-1 in high-quality rice ‘Yuenong Simiao’
      XUE Jiao, LU Dong-Bai, LIU Wei, LU Zhan-Hua, WANG Shi-Guang, WANG Xiao-Fei, FANG Zhi-Qiang, HE Xiu-Ying
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2210-2220.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12037
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      Bacterial blight is the most devastating bacterial disease to rice, which seriously endangers food security of China and even the world. Mining new resistance genes is an important measure to improve rice resistance to bacterial blight. Yuenong Simiao, was the main rice cultivar with good grain quality and disease resistance in South China. In this study, Yuenong Simiao (YN) and Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) were used as parental materials to construct recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and backcross populations. We carried out inoculation identification and gene mapping analysis. Genetic analysis showed that the resistance of YN was controlled by incomplete dominant resistance genes of bacterial blight. Combined the resistance phenotype of recombinant inbred lines with genome resequencing, a resistance QTL qBB-11-1 was identified at the end of the long arm of chromosome 11. Substitution mapping revealed that qBB-11-1 was located between InDel markers P89 and P54 with a physical distance of about 63 kb. There were six candidate genes in this region, and the resistance gene to bacterial blight in YN may be a new gene. It is of great representative significance to explore and utilize the resistance genes of YN in rice breeding for bacterial blight resistance in South China.

      Breeding of FHB-resistant wheat line Bainong 4299 by gene pyramiding
      ZHANG Yi-Duo, LI Guo-Qiang, KONG Zhong-Xin, WANG Yu-Quan, LI Xiao-Li, RU Zhen-Gang, JIA Hai-Yan, MA Zheng-Qiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2221-2227.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11085
      Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (5786KB) ( 7 )   Save
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      Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease in wheat production. Wheat FHB resistance is controlled by multiple genes and has complicated resistance mechanisms. Type I (resistance to invasion) and type II (resistance to expansion) are two main resistance types of wheat against FHB. Combining both types of FHB resistance in breeding is vitally important for the resistance durability and stability of cultivars. In fine mapping and cloning of type I resistance QTL Fhb4 and Fhb5 and type II resistance QTL Fhb1 in wheat landrace Wangshuibai, functional/tightly-linked molecular markers for them had been obtained. In this study, a new wheat line named Bainong 4299 was bred after introduction of these QTL from NMAS022 with the help of these markers and using modern wheat variety Bainong 4199 as the recipient parent. Compared with Bainong 4199, Bainong 4299 increased type I resistance by at least 73% to 74% and type II resistance by 83% to 88% increase (in terms of the number of diseased spikelets per spike) in two field trials. Moreover, its yield potential had moderate elevation. In conclusion, this study provided another successful illustration of marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of FHB QTL in improving wheat FHB resistance. Bainong 4299 had the potential to become a new FHB resistance cultivar.

      Genetic diversity of phenotypic traits in 177 sweetpotato landrace
      YAO Zhu-Fang, ZHANG Xiong-Jian, YANG Yi-Ling, HUANG Li-Fei, CHEN Xin-Liang, YAO Xiao-Jian, LUO Zhong-Xia, CHEN Jing-Yi, WANG Zhang-Ying, FANG Bo-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2228-2241.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14166
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      The genetic diversity of germplasm resources is the basis for the breeding of new varieties. Sweetpotato landraces have many elite genes, however, many traits of sweetpotato landraces have not been utilized. To effectively utilize the genetic diversity of sweetpotato landraces in China, the phenotypic differences of sweetpotato landraces collected in different periods were analyzed. 177 sweetpotato landraces were analyzed. The results showed that the diversity index (H') of 11 phenotypic traits was 0.42-2.08, and three quantitative traits had the coefficient of variation of 18.40%-46.83%, indicating rich genetic diversity in most traits. Cluster analysis revealed that 177 sweetpotato landraces were divided into two clusters based on 11 traits. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the sweetpotato landraces collected in 2000-2009 and 2010-2019 were mainly distributed in cluster 3 and cluster 4, while the sweetpotato landraces collected in the other three periods were relatively scattered. Correlation analysis showed that these traits were not independent, but correlated with each other. The phenotypes of sweetpotato landraces collected in different periods were significantly different. The “skin color of storage root, predominant flesh color, diameter of stem, length of the longest vine, number of base branches” changed the most among 11 traits in different collection periods. In descriptive traits, the storage root flesh color that accounted for the most landraces collected in the five stages was “white, yellow, light yellow, orange yellow, light yellow”. In terms of quantitative traits, the stem diameter decreased significantly from 2010 to 2019, the branch number had an increasing trend in five periods, and the longest vine length became significantly shorter after 2000. This study provides an important reference for the protection and utilization of sweetpotato germplasm resources.

      Cloning of TaPIP1 gene and its potential function in anther dehiscence in wheat
      TAN Zhao-Guo, YUAN Shao-Hua, LI Yan-Mei, BAI Jian-Fang, YUE Jie-Ru, LIU Zi-Han, ZHANG Tian-Bao, ZHAO Fu-Yong, ZHAO Chang-Ping, XU Ben-Bo, ZHANG Sheng-Quan, PANG Bin-Shuang, ZHNAG Li-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2242-2254.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11079
      Abstract ( 114 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (7533KB) ( 54 )   Save
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      Hybrid wheat breeding is one of the important ways to improve wheat yield. The development and dehiscence of anthers in photoperiod-temperature sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) wheat affect the seed production efficiency and yield of hybrid wheat directly. Anther dehiscence is closely related to dehydration. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane intrinsic proteins that efficiently transport water and specific small molecules. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) play an important role in water absorption and efflux in plant cells. In order to understand the roles of PIP in anther dehiscence of PTGMS. In this study, TaPIP1 was cloned from the anther of PTGMS line BS366. The gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 879 bp, encoding a total of 292 amino acids. There were cis-responsive elements such as gibberellin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and light in the promoter region of TaPIP1. The promoter region of TaPIP1 contained elements of gibberellin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and light. TaPIP1 belonged to MIP superfamily, and had a typical NPA conserved domain, subcellular localication in the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. The interaction between miRNAs and TaPIP1 was predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and the results showed that TaPIP1 may be regulated by tae-miR1131 and tae-miR408 that related to the antioxidant capacity of plants. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPI) and qRT-PCR experiments revealed that TaPIP1 could interact with heat shock protein 90 (TaHSP90), participating in the regulation of anther cell wall turgor under the combined stress of high temperature and drought, thus regulating anther dehiscence.

      QTL mapping of seed storage tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      HUANG Yi-Wen, SUN Bin, CHENG Can, NIU Fu-An, ZHOU Ji-Hua, ZHANG An-Peng, TU Rong-Jian, LI Yao, YAO Yao, DAI Yu-Ting, XIE Kai-Zhen, CHEN Xiao-Rong, CAO Li-Ming, CHU Huang-Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2255-2264.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12033
      Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (3321KB) ( 56 )   Save
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      Rice seed storability is great significance in seed production and grain storage. In this study, 15 three-line hybrid rice restorer varieties were screened by artificial aging method, and 5 varieties with good storage tolerance (namely Fan 11, Fan 12, Fan 31, Fan 32, and Fan 38) were obtained. A Double Haploid (DH) population including 154 lines was constructed using F1 derived from the crossing between storage tolerance variety, Fan 38, and japonica restorer line, Fan 26. The parents and DH lines were sequenced using 2bB-RAD Reduced-Representation Genome Sequencing, and a genetic linkage map of SNP marker was constructed. QTLs related to storage tolerance after 10 days and 15 days artificial aging for were analyzed, respectively. A total of 6 QTL loci related to rice storage tolerance were detected on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 11, and 12, with LOD values ranging from 3.4509 to 6.8036, explaining phenotypic variation of 6.1575%-12.9979%, and the additive effect ranged from -6.7586% to 6.1235%. The qSI-12 locus could be detected under both 10-day and 15-day aging conditions. qSI-5a and qSI-6 were detected only after 10 days of artificial aging, while qSI-3, qSI-5b, and qSI-11 were detected only after 15 days of artificial aging. In addition, 32 pairs of epistatic interaction sites were detected. These results enriched the genetic resources for the breeding of storage tolerance varieties, and laid a foundation for further fine mapping of QTLs related to storage tolerance.

      Cloning and functional verification of GhIQM1 gene of cotton in response to Verticillium wilt
      LI Ming-Jiang, LEI Jian-Feng, ZULIPIYE·Tuoheniyazi , DAI Pei-Hong, LIU Chao, LIU Xiao-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2265-2273.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14109
      Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (3309KB) ( 43 )   Save
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      Cotton is an important economic crop in China, and Verticillium wilt is the main disease in cotton production, which seriously endangers cotton yield and fiber quality. In this project, GhIQM1, encode a Ca2+-independent calmodulin-binding protein in cotton, was screened out by transcriptome analysis. The gene was up-regulated by Verticillium dahliae and salicylic acid treatment in cotton. The function of GhIQM1 was explored in cotton in response to Verticillium wilt using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The results showed that disease index (DI), the symptoms of Verticillium wilt, the degree of browning of vascular tissue, and the relative fungal biomass pathogen accumulation in vivo in the GhIQM1-silenced plants (TRV:GhIQM1) were significantly lower than those in the TRV:00 cotton plant. The qRT-PCR results revealed that the gene expression level of NPR1, NPR3, and PR5, involved in the salicylic acid pathway, were significantly higher than the control after inoculation of Verticillium dahliae. The above results indicate that the GhIQM1 negatively regulates the resistance of cotton to Verticillium wilt through suppressing SA pathway.

      2b-RAD based maturity associated molecular marker identification in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
      HUI Zhi-Ming, XU Jian-Fei, JIAN Yin-Qiao, BIAN Chun-Song, DUAN Shao-Guang, HU Jun, LI Guang-Cun, JIN Li-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2274-2284.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14138
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      Potato maturity is a quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes and it is one of the major agronomic characteristics for selecting suitable varieties in different agro-ecological zones. In this study, the maturity of the segregating population derived from Zhongshu 18 (♀) × Zhongshu 5 (♂) was evaluated in 2018 and 2019. Respectively, 30 offsprings with extremely late or early maturity were selected and used to construct early and late maturing genomic pool. Three molecular markers (SCARA2-2, SCARA4-21, and SCARA5-16) linked to maturity were identified by simplified genome 2b-RAD (2b-restriction site-associated DNA) sequencing. The maturity phenotypic association rate of the three-marker-combination for the late and early maturity genotype verification reached 87.5% and 93.0%, respectively. Thus, these molecular markers are valuable for markers assisted selection in potato maturity breeding.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Characteristics of grain yield and nitrogen absorption and utilization of indica/japonica hybrid rice Yongyou 2640 under different nitrogen application rates
      ZHOU Qun, YUAN Rui, ZHU Kuan-Yu, WANG Zhi-Qin, YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2285-2299.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12070
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      The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of grain yield and nitrogen (N) absorption, distribution, utilization, and loss in indica/japonica hybrid rice under different N application rates. In 2018 and 2019, an indica/japonica hybrid rice cultivar Yongyou 2640 (YY2640), a high-yielding japonica inbred rice cultivar Lianjing 7 (LJ-7, CK 1) and a high-yielding inbred indica rice cultivar Yangdao 6 (YD-6, CK2) were grown in the field, with six N rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 kg hm-2) and an 15N tracer micro-plot experiment. With the increase in N application rates, the grain yield of each test cultivar was increased first and then was decreased, and the highest grain yield was at the N rate of 400 kg hm-2 for YY2640 and 300 kg hm-2 for both check cultivars. At the same N rate, the grain yield of YY2640 was higher than that of either LJ-7 or YD-6. The 15N tracer experiment showed that when the rate of N application was less than 400 kg hm-2 for YY2640 and less than 300 kg hm-2 for LJ-7 and YD-6, the application of N increased the fertilizer-N accumulation in panicles at maturity stage, the accumulation of fertilizer-N in plants, residual-N in the soil, the contribution rate of fertilizer-N to aboveground plant-N accumulation, and the loss fertilizer-N into environment for all the test cultivars, whereas the contribution rate of soil-N to the plant-N accumulation, fertilizer-N absorption and utilization rate, and soil-N residue rate were decreased. At the same N rate, the amount of fertilizer-N accumulation in plants especially in panicles, the contribution rate of fertilizer-N to aboveground plant-N accumulation, fertilizer-N absorption and utilization rate were higher for YY2640 than for the two check cultivars. In contrast, the loss amount, loss rate, and the residue rate in the soil of fertilizer-N were lower for YY2640 than for the two check cultivars. Overall, 21.0%-35.7%, 6.7%-23.7%, and 42.3%-72.6% of fertilizer-N were absorbed by plants, remained in soil and lost to ecosystem, respectively. At the same N rate, compared with inbred rice cultivars, the indica/japonica hybrid rice cultivar YY2640 exhibited higher grain yield, N uptake, utilization, and less N loss. Under the conditions of the present experiment, N application rate of YY2640 for the synergistic increase of yield and N use efficiency was 300 kg hm-2, and the grain yield could reach 13.0 t hm-2.

      Hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of wheat powdery mildew based on feature band selection and machine learning
      FENG Zi-Heng, LI Xiao, DUAN Jian-Zhao, GAO Fei, HE Li, YANG Tian-Chong, RONG Ya-Si, SONG Li, YIN Fei, FENG Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2300-2314.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11089
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      Powdery mildew seriously harms wheat plant growth and restricts grain yield formation. In this regard, accurate monitoring powdery mildew is of great significance for the precise prevention and control and ensuring national food security. During the booting, anthesis and gain filling stages of wheat, wheat canopy spectrum data were obtained using a ground based hyperspectrometer, and the original spectrum was pretreated including first derivative, second derivative, logarithmic transformation, reciprocal transformation, and continuous removal method. The characteristic bands of five transformed spectral data and the OR data were extracted based on the combination of the CARS algorithm and the SPA algorithm. Finally, powdery mildew disease index (mDI) as a wheat monitoring model was established using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), Ridge regression (RR), and Gaussian process regression (GPR). The results showed that the FD method gave the best comprehensive performance in Pearson correlation, two-band optimized combination, and machine learning technique, and it was a better preprocessing technique for processing of disease spectrum data. After spectral data transformation, the CARS-SPA combined algorithm could extract the characteristic bands more effectively, and the characteristic bands were 411, 450, 476, 543, 561, 594, 624, 671, 726, 780, 835, and 950 nm, respectively. Comparing all spectral preprocessing models and different machine learning methods, GPR model performed the best, followed by RR and PLSR methods. FD-GPR combined model generated the highest estimation accuracy, the averaged R2, RMSE, and MAE in the modeling set and the verification set under FD-GPR combination model were 0.805, 2.532, and 2.164 respectively, compared with the OR-GPR combined model. The averaged R2 increased by 12%, and the RMSE and MAE decreased by 19.6% and 17.6%, respectively, indicating that the GPR model had a good estimation ability to monitor wheat powdery mildew. In conclusion, using the FD method to preprocess the spectral data, the CARS-SPA combined algorithm to extract the characteristic bands, and the GPR method to build the estimated model, can improve the remote sensing monitoring accuracy of wheat powdery mildew. The research results provide ideas and methods for remote sensing monitoring of crop disease.

      Application of weeding bast fiber film in rice seedling field and its effect on rice
      WU La-Mei, YANG Hao-Na, WANG Li-Feng, LI Zu-Ren, DENG Xi-Le, BAI Lian-Yang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2315-2324.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12054
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      The objective of this study is to clarify the weed control effect and safety for rice weeding of herbicides mulching on bast fiber film, and to provide effective weed control measures for mechanized-transplanting cultivation. To study the effect of herbicides mulching on bast fiber film on the emergence and seedling growth of barnyard grass and rice, petri dish, plot experiment, weed control, and rice yield were conducted. Bioassay showed that the seed germination of barnyard grass and rice were inhibited by penoxsulam, bensulfuron-methyl, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, and pretilachlor within 96 hours, and the germination inhibition rate of barnyard grass was higher than that in rice. Seedlings of barnyard grass and rice were poisoned to varying degrees by high doses of penoxsulam, bensulfuron-methyl, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl treated in 96 hours, it was mainly manifested in inhibition of root and bud growth and reduction of fresh weight. Barnyard grass and rice all died at high doses of pretilachlor. On this basis, to study the weed control effect and rice safety of penoxsulam (15 g a.i. hm-2), bensulfuron-methyl (30 g a.i. hm-2), and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (15 g a.i. hm-2) mulched on bast fiber film, field experiments were carried out in 2018 and 2019. The results revealed that the control effect of herbicide mulching on weeds in seedling field was 80%-90%, which was equivalent to pretilachlor. On the safety of rice, three herbicides mulching on bast fiber film could promote the height and fresh weight of rice seedlings. Compared with the control group, the 100-grain weight and the yield per hectare were increased. The rate of yield increase was 0.57%-2.13%, 0.55%-1.70%, and 2.87%-6.21% in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively, which were equivalent to pretilachlor treatment. Three herbicides mulching on bast fiber film effectively control weeds in rice seedling field, which is safety for seedlings in a reasonable dose range and does not reduce rice yield. It has a broad application prospect in centralized seeding cultivation.

      Effects of exogenous molybdenum on yield formation and nitrogen utilization in rice
      CHEN Zhi-Qing, FENG Yuan, WANG Rui, CUI Pei-Yuan, LU Hao, WEI Hai-Yan, ZHANG Hai-Peng, ZHANG Hong-Cheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2325-2338.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12043
      Abstract ( 74 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (370KB) ( 47 )   Save
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      To explore the effects of nano-molybdenum (Nano-Mo) and ionic-molybdenum (Ionic-Mo) on rice yield formation and nitrogen utilization, pot experiments were conducted at nitrogen fertilizer application level of 0, 180, 225, 270, and 315 kg N hm-2 using Nanjing 9108 as the test object. Rice yield, yield composition, dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation, and utilization were analyzed. Results showed that the application of Nano-Mo and Ionic-Mo could effectively increase rice yield compared with non-molybdenum treatments. Rice yields of Nano-Mo treatments were significantly higher than those of Ionic-Mo treatments at the same N application level. Moreover, the same trend was also observed in LAI and the accumulation of dry matter in the late stage of rice growth. The application of Nano-Mo could improve the dry matter formation in the late stage of rice growth by increasing the SPAD value, photosynthetic potential, and net photosynthetic rate of the flag leaf after heading. Nano-Mo application promoted the synthesis of dry matter and the accumulation in the grain in the late stage of rice growth, and ultimately increased rice yield. In the same level of nitrogen fertilizer application, compared with non-molybdenum treatments Nano-Mo and Ionic-Mo application both increased the nitrogen concentration and nitrogen accumulation in rice stalks, leaves and grains, and promoted the partial productivity of nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen agronomic utilization rate, nitrogen physiological utilization rate, and nitrogen absorption and utilization.

      Responses of photosynthetic characteristics and gene expression in different wheat cultivars to elevated ozone concentration at grain filling stage
      CAO Ji-Ling, ZENG Qing, ZHU Jian-Guo
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2339-2350.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11065
      Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (589KB) ( 56 )   Save
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      Elevated ground-level ozone (O3) concentration, caused by anthropogenic activities, possesses species-specific or cultivars-specific impacts on plant growth and quality. In this study, a field experiment was conducted using two wheat (Tritcium aestivum L.) cultivars (Yannong 19 and Yangmai 16) with different sensitivities to O3 with two O3 levels (ambient, +50%) in the Chinese free air O3 concentration enrichment platform. The light-response curve, photosynthetic pigment, soluble sugar contents, and photosynthetic gene expression levels were investigated. Results showed that O3 significantly decreased the apparent quantum yield, maximum net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents. However, the contents of total soluble sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose were significantly increased under elevated O3 concentration. The qRT-PCR revealed that the relative gene expression levels of psaA, psbA, and rbcL were significantly decreased by elevated O3 concentration. There were differences in photosynthetic characteristics between two wheat cultivars. Yannong 19 had larger changes in photosynthetic characteristics and the relative chloroplast gene expression levels of psaA, psbA, and rbcL than that of Yangmai 16. This finding can provide theoretical basis for the differential mechanism of photosynthetic response of different wheat varieties and the breeding of wheat tolerant varieties under ozone pollution environment.

      Differential response of different Radix pseudostellariae cultivars to continuous cropping stress and its intraspecific intercropping effects
      LIN Zhi-Min, QIN Xian-Jin, WU Hong-Miao, PANG Zi-Qin, LIN Wen-Xiong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2351-2365.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14145
      Abstract ( 70 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (4542KB) ( 30 )   Save
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      It is an important pathway to promote the sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicine agriculture to explore the environment-friendly technology to alleviate the continuous cropping obstacles of medicinal plants. In this study, ISSR molecular marker technique was used to identify 8 cultivars of R. pseudostellariae from different authentic production areas in China, which proved to have obvious molecular polymorphism. Those identified cultivars were then used as experimental materials. High pressure gas chromatography (HPLC), high-through sequencing (HTS), Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and crop physiology technology were used to explore the environmental adaptability of the medicinal plant varieties and their response to continuous cropping in the main producing area of R. pseudostellariae in Zherong, Fujian province during 2017-2019. Based on the results, two representative varieties of R. pseudostellariae were selected for intraspecific intercropping practice to study the effects of intraspecific intercropping on the growth of consecutive cropping R. pseudostellariae and its underlying mechanism of microbial flora in the rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the growth performance of these varieties was different grown in authentic production area of R. Pseudostellariae in Zherong, Fujian province. Three cultivars, such as Zhengshen 1 (ZSⅠ), Kangbing 1 (KB), and Qiantaizishen 1 (QT) had the highest medicinal yield, the reverse was true in the case of Jiangsujurong (JR) and Xuanshen 1 (XS) cultivars in newly cropping condition. Compared with that of the newly planted, the fresh weight of plant height, root length, and maximum root circumference and aboveground and underground parts decreased significantly at the seedling stage, respectively, thus resulting in shortened root tuber, decreasing single root tuber weight at the mature stage, which was considered as the main reasons for the significant decrease in the yield of R. pseudostellariae after monoculture for two years. In terms of medicinal quality, in the comparison with those of the newly planted, R. pseudostellariae, the contents of main active components, such as total polysaccharides and heterophyllin B were decreased significantly, the reverse was true in the contents of total saponins in all used cultivars after monoculture for two years, of which ZSⅡcultivar stood out in the case. The results also suggested that it was the best way to alleviate the replanting diseases, consequently increased the medicinal yield and quality using a rotation mode with nonlocal cultivars or an intraspecific intercropping pattern by different cultivars. Further analysis showed that the intraspecific intercropping facilitation resulted from the improvement of rhizosphere soil microbial diversity in the cropping system, that is, it could significantly decrease pathogens such as Fusarium, oxysporum and increase beneficial bacteria such as Pseudomonas. spp, thus, improving the microbial structure and its functional diversity in rhizosphere soil under the intercropping system. Therefore, it is the key to realize the sustainable development of TCM agriculture to excavate the potential synergistic effect of intraspecific intercropping with multiple varieties of medicinal plants and construct the corresponding cultivation techniques in the cropping system.

      Effects of nitrogen application rate on grain filling characteristics and endogenous hormones in summer maize
      ZHANG Zhen-Bo, QU Xin-Yue, YU Ning-Ning, REN Bai-Zhao, LIU Peng, ZHAO Bin, ZHANG Ji-Wang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2366-2376.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13056
      Abstract ( 137 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (509KB) ( 126 )   Save
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      To explore the effects of nitrogen rate on grain filling characteristics and endogenous hormone content and balance in summer maize, Denghai 518 (DH518) was used as the experimental material. The experiment was conducted from 2018 to 2019. Four nitrogen rates were set under field conditions of no nitrogen rate (N0), lower nitrogen rate (N1: N 129 kg hm-2), appropriated nitrogen rate (N2: N 184.50 kg hm-2), and excessive nitrogen rate (N3: N 300 kg hm-2). The results showed that with the increase of nitrogen rate, the days of maximum grain filling (Tmax) was gradually shortened, the weight of maximum grain filling rate (Wmax), and the maximum grain filling (Gmax) was gradually increased, the active grain filling stage (P) was prolonged, and the grain dehydration rate was improved. So the grain filling characteristics were improved, and the gain dry weight and yield were increased significantly. However, the grain filling characteristics deteriorated and the yield was reduced when nitrogen was applied excessively. When the endogenous hormone content reached the peak value, compared with N0 treatment in two years, the contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 in N2 were significantly increased by 66.35% and 88.99%, 7.45% and 14.60%, 24.73% and 32.26%, respectively, while ABA content decreased significantly by 15.57% and 10.95% in two years. And the contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 were decreased in N3 treatment compared with N2 treatment, but ABA content was increased. The correlation analysis of grain filling characteristics and endogenous hormone content showed that Wmax was significantly positively correlated with ZR/ABA, but negatively correlated with ABA. P was positively correlated with IAA/ABA and GA3/ABA. So, the appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer (N2, 184.50 kg hm-2) can coordinate the endogenous hormone content and balance of the grain, thereby promoting grain filling and increasing yield.

      Effects of HgCl2 on photosynthetic characteristics and its physiological mechanism of rice leaves in vitro feeding
      WANG Quan, WANG Le-Le, ZHU Tie-Zhong, REN Hao-Jie, WANG Hui, CHEN Ting-Ting, JIN Ping, WU LI-Quan, YANG Ru, YOU Cui-Cui, KE Jian, HE Hai-Bing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2377-2389.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12057
      Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (3535KB) ( 39 )   Save
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      As a special inhibitor of aquaporin, HgCl2 can effectively quantify the contribution of aquaporin and leaf structure to photosynthesis, which is of great significance for understanding the potential ways to improve crop photosynthesis. However, the concentration and duration of HgCl2 inhibiting aquaporin in leaves are still unclear. In this study, rice varieties Y liangyou 900 and Huiliangyou 898 were used as materials to feed rice leaves in vitro with HgCl2 solution (the remainder of leaf age was 2), and different treatment concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, and 500 µmol L-1), and different treatment times (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 h) were set. The results showed that different concentrations and treatment times had no significant effect on the relative water content of leaves (P > 0.05). With the increase of concentration, the SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance of leaves decreased obviously. Compared with the control, the net photosynthetic rate decreased to the lowest value (62.33%) when the concentration was 100 µmol L-1 for 2 h, and the net photosynthetic rate tended to be stable with the extension of treatment time. When the concentration was less than 100 µmol L-1, the net photosynthetic rate decreased continuously with the increase of treatment time, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde content increased significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that HgCl2 solution could damage the living leaves when the concentration was less than 100 µmol L-1 and the treatment time was longer. Compared with in vivo measurement, the steady value of net photosynthetic rate of leaves in vitro decreased by about 15%-20%, so the correction coefficient of measured net photosynthetic rate of leaves in vitro multiplied by 1.25-1.33 might accurately reflect the photosynthetic index of rice leaves in vivo measurement. In addition, 100 µmol L-1 HgCl2 significantly reduced the expression of aquaporin gene in rice leaves. Therefore, the optimal combination of HgCl2 to effectively and safely inhibit aquaporin in rice was 100 µmol L-1 for 2 h.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Preparation of highly specific wheat ATG8 antibody and its application in the detection of autophagy
      LI Yong-Bo, CUI De-Zhou, HUANG Chen, SUI Xin-Xia, FAN Qing-Qi, CHU Xiu-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2390-2399.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11070
      Abstract ( 66 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (14326KB) ( 49 )   Save
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      Autophagy is an evolutionarily highly conserved lysosomal/vacuolar degradation pathway, which is of great significance for the body to adapt to various biotic or abiotic stresses and maintain its normal growth and development. Autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8) is the gold standard for detecting autophagy. At present, the lack of specific wheat ATG8 antibody has led to slow progress in the research of wheat autophagy. In this study, an 18-amino acid polypeptide of wheat ATG8 protein sequence was artificially synthesized as an antigen to immunize rabbits, and a highly specific wheat ATG8 polyclonal antibody was successfully obtained. The antibody can not only recognize the ATG8 protein bands in roots, leaves, and seeds of wheat, but also can detect autophagy structures in roots and leaves, and autophagy structures in wheat grains were detected for the first time. Besides eight typical types of ATG8a-h antibody found in wheat, a typical new ATG8 protein was detected by wheat ATG8 antibody developed in this study, These results provide the best methodological basis for further study on the regulation mechanism of plant autophagy and excavation of excellent genes.

      Variation of ear temperature after anthesis and its relationship with yield in wheat
      WANG Yun-Qi, GAO Fu-Li, LI Ao, GUO Tong-Ji, QI Liu-Ran, ZENG Huan-Yu, ZHAO Jian-Yun, WANG Xiao-Ge, GAO Guo-Ying, YANG Jia-Peng, BAI Jin-Ze, MA Ya-Huan, LIANG Yue-Xin, ZHANG Rui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2400-2408.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11075
      Abstract ( 134 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (504KB) ( 89 )   Save
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      The wheat temperature is an important parameter to reflect the ecological and physiological state of wheat. A series of studies have been carried out on the temperature of wheat from the perspective of canopy temperature, but the relationship between the temperature of wheat ear after anthesis and its yield is still unclear. In the present study, six varieties with different drought resistance were selected as the research objects. The ear temperature of these varieties at flowering stage, 7, 14, 21, 28 days after flowering and mature stage was investigated, and the contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain weight per ear, and yield of each variety were determined. The results showed that flag leaf SPAD value of strong drought resistance varieties was significantly higher than that of weak drought resistance varieties at flowering stage. The lowest value of strong drought resistant varieties was lower than that of weak drought resistant varieties, and the occurrence time of strong drought resistant varieties and medium drought-resistant varieties was delayed about a week. The contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain weight per ear, and yield of strong drought resistance varieties were significantly higher than those of medium drought-resistant varieties and weak drought resistance varieties. The flag leaf SPAD value at flowering stage and ear temperature at seven days after anthesis was positively correlated with yield and yield factors, while the ear temperature after anthesis was negatively correlated with yield and yield factors, and the correlation of strong drought resistant varieties was slightly higher than that of weak drought resistant varieties. Together, the ear temperature can be used as a reference index for breeding drought resistant and high yield varieties. This study not only enriches the theory of drought resistance and high yield of wheat, but also innovates the physiological breeding method of wheat varieties.

      High-resolution paddy rice mapping using Sentinel data based on GEE platform: a case study of Hunan province, China
      SANG Guo-Qing, TANG Zhi-Guang, MAO Ke-Biao, DENG Gang, WANG Jing-Wen, LI Jia
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(9):  2409-2420.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12066
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      Accurate acquisition of large-scale paddy rice cultivation spatial distribution is essential for adjusting the agricultural production structure and ensuring food security. Selecting Hunan Province as the study area, on the basis of the prior knowledge of spectral and polarization characteristics of rice growing period, a high-resolution remote sensing extraction model of rice planting area has been developed using decision tree algorithm based on Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform and Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 MSI data. The results showed that the developed decision tree algorithm could accurately map the rice planting area in cloudy and rainy regions. The overall accuracy was 93.97%, the kappa coefficient was 0.908, and the F1-score of both single cropping rice and double cropping rice exceeded 91%. This model can provide a reference for mapping paddy rice planting area in cloudy and rainy hilly region. Moreover, the paddy rice distribution was significantly affected by topography and temperature. It was mainly distributed in the area with the elevation below 200 m, slope less than 6° and annual average temperature greater than 17℃. The double cropping rice was concentrated in Yueyang, Changde, and Yiyang cities, while the single cropping rice is sparsely distributed relatively.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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