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Acta Agron Sin ›› 2011, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (12): 2233-2240.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.02233


Effects of Controlled-Release Urea on Yield and Photosynthesis Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Different Soil Fertility Conditions

WANG Yong-Jun1,2,SUN Qi-Zhuan2,YANG Jin-Sheng2,3,WANG Kong-Jun2,DONG Shu-Ting2,YUAN Cui-Ping1,*,WANG Li-Chun1,*?   

  1. 1 Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130033, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology / College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, China; 3Shandong Denghai Seed-Breeding Co. Ltd, Laizhou 261448, China
  • Received:2011-02-22 Revised:2011-07-25 Online:2011-12-12 Published:2011-09-29
  • Contact: 袁翠平, E-mail: cpyuan2004@126.com, Tel: 0431-87063044; 王立春, E-mail: wlc1960@163.com, Tel: 0431-87063168

Abstract: Conventional fertilizers have played an important role to increase the yield during the production of maize in China. However, a great deal of conventional fertilizers utilization with low nutrient use efficiency not only leads to enormous waste of resource, but also causes the related environmental risk. Fortunately, controlled-release fertilizers with high nutrient use efficiency and low nutrient loss ratio are essential for increasing crop yield, nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency, and reduction of potential environmental risk. Additionally, soil fertility affects grain yield and fertilization utilization efficiency remarkably in practice. Obviously, it is essential to identify the optimum controlled-release urea (CRU) rate in different fields. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to explore the effects of controlled-release urea on yield and photosynthesis characteristics of maize under different soil fertility conditions from 2006 to 2007. In the trial, two types of controlled-release urea, CRU30 and CRU60 with 30 d and 60 d release durations, were used compared with the conventional urea (U) under two soil fertility conditions. All six treatments were supplied with N 5.43g pot-1, P2O5 2.10 g pot-1 and K2O 5.24 g pot-1 as base fertilizer. Biomass above ground, harvest index (HI), leaf area (LA), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content and nitrogen content were investigated. Biomass above ground was increased significantly by CRU, but the increasing effects were different to CRU30 and CRU60. Under low soil fertility conditions, the yield increase effect was CRU30>CRU60>U (P<0.05), and the dry matter weight in CRU30 treatment was 18.9% higher than that in U treatment. Correspondingly, under high soil fertility conditions, that was CRU60>CRU30>U (P<0.05), and the dry matter weight in CRU60 treatment was 18.29% higher than that in U treatment. In addition, CRU enhanced the dry matter distribution to grain and partial factor productivity from applied nitrogen (PFPN) significantly under two soil fertility conditions. Among all treatments for dry matter distribution after anthesis and PFPN, the effect of CRU30 was the highest under low soil fertility condition, however, the effect of CRU60 was the highest under high soil fertility condition. CRU improved the dry matter accumulation and partitioning to grain after anthesis, especially enhanced the biomass above ground per plant, grain number per ear and 1000-kernel weight remarkably because the treatments of CRU30 and CRU60 kept the LA, Pn, chlorophyll content and nitrogen content at a higher level after anthesis. Accordingly, the controlled-release urea with short release duration is suggested to be utilized as the base fertilizer under low soil fertility conditions, however, that with long release duration under high soil fertility conditions in practice.

Key words: Soil fertility, Controlled-release urea, Maize (Zea mays L.), Dry matter production, Photosynthesis characteristics

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