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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (4): 691-700.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02038


Effects of controlled-release urea on nitrogen uptake characteristics and yield of double-cropping rice around Dongting Lake area

TIAN Chang1(), JIN Tuo1,2, ZHOU Xuan3, HUANG Si-Yi1, WANG Ying-Zi4,*(), XU Ze5, PENG Jian-Wei1, RONG Xiang-Min1, XIE Gui-Xian1   

  1. 1National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, Hunan, China
    2Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China
    3Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, Hunan, China
    4College of Horticulture, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, Hunan, China
    5Agricultural and Rural Bureau of Changsha County, Changsha 410100, Hunan, China
  • Received:2020-05-24 Accepted:2020-09-13 Online:2021-04-12 Published:2020-10-05
  • Contact: WANG Ying-Zi E-mail:chtian12@126.com;83075688@qq.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Project of China(2017YFD0200703);Joint Funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(U19A2050);Hunan Natural Science Foundation Project(2019JJ50233);Hunan Natural Science Foundation Project(2019JJ50337);Key Project of Hunan Provincial Education Department(20A250)


The application of slow- and controlled-release fertilizer in rice production plays an important role in promoting the zero growth of fertilizer use and the sustainable development of agriculture in China. In this study, six consecutive years from 2013 to 2018 of controlled-release urea application in double-cropping rice in Hunan province were used to analyze the relationship between N uptake rate and N utilization in the above part of early- and late- rice in the main growth period by controlled-release urea application around the Dongting Lake district, and to explore the reasons for the sustained and stable yield increase of controlled-release urea on rice. The results showed that there was an obvious peak of N uptake rate in each stage of early rice by different N treatments, while N uptake in controlled-release urea (CRU) treatment was relatively delayed. And N accumulation was mainly from panicle initiation stage to heading stage, accounting for 35.31%-42.33%, followed by tillering stage to young panicle differentiation stage and heading stage to milk stage. Two obvious peaks of N uptake rates occurred in late rice from tillering stage to panicle initiation stage and from heading stage to milk stage, and the peak value was the highest at 1.0 CRU treatment. Large amount of N uptake from tillering stage to young panicle differentiation stage and heading stage to milk stage accounted for 35.92%-40.52% and 23.05%-24.58% of total amount of the whole growing period, respectively. Controlled-release urea could also significantly increase the yield of double-cropping rice, especially in early- and late- rice were treated with 0.9 CRU and 0.8 CRU respectively, and the yield increase of late rice was better than that of early rice with reduced application of controlled-release urea, and the N absorption efficiency, N agronomic efficiency and N partial productivity of early- and late- rice were significantly improved. The yield of early- and late-rice treated by CRU was significantly positively correlated with N accumulation and effective panicle number at panicle initiation stage, heading stage, milk stage and waxen stage, and the yield of late rice was significantly positively correlated with panicle length. The N accumulation of early and late rice at the panicle initiation stage was significantly negatively correlated with the agronomic and physiological rates of N fertilizer. The N partial productivity was significantly or significantly negatively correlated with the N accumulation of early rice at the panicle initiation stage, heading stage, milk stage and waxen stage, and significantly negatively correlated with the N accumulation at the heading stage of late rice. Therefore, application of controlled-release urea delayed the N uptake rate and N accumulation in the aboveground part of rice, which was beneficial to the later reproductive growth and seed setting, and could significantly improve the yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of double-cropping rice. Combined with N absorption characteristics and grain yield of double-cropping rice, it was suggested that controlled release urea with a short release period should be used for early rice around the Dongting Lake area or applied with quick-availability N fertilizer to achieve further increase in yield level.

Key words: controlled-release urea, cropping, nitrogen uptake characteristics, production

Fig. 1

Dynamics of nitrogen accumulation for early- and late-rice at different growth stages CK: no nitrogen control; U: conventional fertilization (commercial urea); 1.0 CRU: controlled-release urea; 0.9 CRU: nitrogen reduction 10% of controlled-release urea; 0.8 CRU: nitrogen reduction 20% of controlled-release urea."

Fig. 2

Incremental proportion of accumulative nitrogen in double-cropping rice Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 1."

Fig. 3

Nitrogen uptake rate of above-ground in double-cropping rice Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 1."

Table 1

Average grain yield and its components in double-cropping rice from 2016 to 2018"

Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
Plant height
Spike length
Effective spike
Grains per spike
1000-grain weight (g)
Seed-setting rate (%)
Early rice
CK 4295.3±253.3 c 70.3 a 17.7 a 293.3 b 81.6 a 23.9 a 79.7 a
U 5076.8±245.9 b 71.9 a 18.2 a 322.8 a 74.2 a 23.1 a 78.5 a
1.0 CRU 5488.3±40.0 a 70.3 a 18.3 a 335.1 a 75.2 a 23.4 a 80.3 a
0.9 CRU 5804.8±152.3 a 69.5 a 17.9 a 339.0 a 74.5 a 23.7 a 80.3 a
0.8 CRU 5607.9±100.3 a 70.6 a 18.2 a 334.0 a 82.5 a 23.6 a 83.6 a
Late rice
CK 4967.0±238.5 c 71.2 a 19.7 a 265.7 b 83.1 a 27.1 a 79.9 a
U 5999.5±192.0 b 76.0 a 21.0 a 335.7 a 89.1 a 26.9 a 83.2 a
1.0 CRU 6370.8±125.2 ab 80.4 a 22.3 a 350.0 a 96.7 a 27.4 a 85.1 a
0.9 CRU 6729.3±301.8 a 80.0 a 22.4 a 362.3 a 87.3 a 27.5 a 84.0 a
0.8 CRU 6762.0±372.2 a 76.6 a 22.4 a 381.7 a 92.4 a 26.9 a 83.4 a

Table 2

Nitrogen use efficiencies in double-cropping rice average from 2016 to 2018"

NHI (%)
NUE (%)
ANUE (kg kg-1)
PNUE (kg kg-1)
PFPN (kg kg-1)
Early rice
CK 64.31 a
U 60.96 a 20.73 b 5.21 b 24.35 a 28.64 d
1.0 CRU 55.78 b 37.52 a 7.95 ab 21.27 a 33.85 c
0.9 CRU 59.94 ab 42.28 a 11.18 a 26.42 a 40.65 b
0.8 CRU 60.08 ab 41.10 a 10.94 a 26.66 a 48.37 a
Late rice
CK 63.41 a
U 59.45 b 21.57 c 5.74 b 26.91 a 27.59 d
1.0 CRU 56.42 b 34.02 b 7.80 ab 22.92 a 33.33 c
0.9 CRU 57.78 b 36.90 ab 10.88 ab 29.45 a 39.33 b
0.8 CRU 65.00 a 37.75 a 12.46 a 32.90 a 46.73 a
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