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    12 April 2021, Volume 47 Issue 4
      Molecular detection of G1 marker for orange rust resistance and analysis of candidate resistance WAK gene in sugarcane
      WANG Heng-Bo, CHEN Shu-Qi, GUO Jin-Long, QUE You-Xiong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  577-586.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04131
      Abstract ( 437 )   HTML ( 38 )   PDF (7876KB) ( 315 )   Save
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      Sugarcane orange rust is an important fungal disease caused by Puccinia kuehnii Butler, which could lead to a reduction in sugarcane production and sugar content and cause serious losses to the sugarcane industry in worldwide. In this study, the molecular marker G1 was used to detect orange rust resistance genes in cultivars, ancestral species and the related genus of Saccharum in the world. The representative amplified bands were cloned, sequenced, functionally annotated, and clustered, and the origin and evolution of resistance genes was then analyzed. The results showed that 83 and 34 were detected with G1 marker, accounting for 66.9% and 67.4% in 124 Chinese and 46 foreign sugarcane cultivars, respectively. Among 34 sugarcane ancestral species and the related genus of Saccharum, 17 were detected by G1 marker, accounting for 50%, of which the highest percentage (100%) was in Saccharum spontaneum. Functional annotation revealed that G1 target gene encoded a wall-associated receptor-like kinase (WAK), and three proteins with high similarity were identified from the haploid proteome database of sugarcane cultivars. These proteins all contain the extracellular domain, transmembrane domain and intracellular domain with kinase activity of typical cell wall receptor structures. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences clearly showed the origin and evolution of the candidate resistance WAK genes. Specifically, the WAK genes amplified by G1 marker could be divided into three groups. The first group is from S. spontaneum and Saccharum robustum. The second group is from S. robustum, Saccharum officinarum and Narenga porphyrooma. The third group is from S. spontaneum, S. robustum, Saccharum sinense and cultivars. These results provided an important support for breeding of sugarcane cultivars resistant to orange rust, and lay a foundation for further analysis of molecular mechanism of resistance genes.

      Construction of a high-density genetic map using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of pink petal trait in Brassica napus L.
      ZHOU Xin-Tong, GUO Qing-Qing, CHEN Xue, LI Jia-Na, WANG Rui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  587-598.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04115
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      Petal color is an important ornamental trait in B. napus, and the breeding and improvement of petal color have become the main goal in breeding and genetic research. To date, the research about interval location of pink petal trait in B. napus is very less yet. In this study, the genetic basis of petal phenotype was examined in the 62 (yellow petal) and 77 (pink petal) parents as well as 114 individuals comprising the doubled haploid (DH) mapping population. This DH population was examined using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) with 6065 high-density polymorphism single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to construct a genetic linkage map comprised of 3253 polymorphic markers. The genetic map spanned 1766.06 cM, with an average distance of 0.54 cM between markers. The complete interval mapping method identified two quantitative trait loci (QTL) for petal color located on chromosomes A07 and C03, respectively. Synteny analysis showed that some homologous genes in the interval of B. napus were located in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Also, eight genes related to flower color were analyzed between inbred line 77 and inbred line 62, the splice junctions of BnaA07g15980D and BnaA07g17500D were belong to intron retention type in pink petal of 77 parent. This study lays a foundation for further research on fine mapping of pink petal trait and molecular marker-assisted selection in Brassica napus L.

      Key genes mining of DNA methylation involved in regulating drought stress response in potato
      LI Peng-Cheng, BI Zhen-Zhen, SUN Chao, QIN Tian-Yuan, LIANG Wen-Jun, WANG Yi-Hao, XU De-Rong, LIU Yu-Hui, ZHANG Jun-Lian, BAI Jiang-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  599-612.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04152
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      When plants are subjected to water stress, they will make a rapid response to drought stress through DNA methylation. In order to study how DNA methylation affects the transcriptional expression of genes under drought stress in potato, comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out on two potato varieties with different drought resistances, which were planted under mannitol simulated drought and 5-azadC treatments. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by Fold-change > 2 and corrected P < 0.01. Then DEGs were subjected to GO enrichment analysis. The results showed that these DEGs were enriched in the oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting these GO term-related genes were also regulated by DNA demethylation, responded to drought stress in different drought-tolerant potatoes. The common 1345 DEGs both responding to drought stress and DNA demethylation were functionally enriched by KEGG pathway. The results showed that plant MAPK signal pathway, plant hormone signal transduction pathway, plant glutathione metabolism pathway, glycolysis and glutathione metabolism pathway and inositol phosphate metabolism pathway were related to plant drought resistance. It was suggested that the sensitivity of these pathway-related genes responding to drought stress were regulated by DNA methylation in Atlantic and Qingshu 9. The cis-acting elements and methylated CpG islands were analyzed in the 1500 bp promoter region of DEGs. The results showed that the methylation level of ABRE and CAAT-box acting elements in the promoter region of GST gene involved in plant glutathione metabolism were reduced through DNA demethylation under drought stress. Then the expression was activated in response to drought stress. Therefore, DEGs under drought and DNA demethylation treatments could be analyzed using comparative transcriptomic, and then the genes related to DNA methylation involved in regulating drought stress response in potato could be found. These results provide a new idea for further studying the epigenetic mechanism of drought stress response in potato.

      Identification and expression analysis of microRNA during peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) pod development
      HU Dong-Xiu, LIU Hao, HONG Yan-Bin, LIANG Xuan-Qiang, CHEN Xiao-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  613-625.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04144
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      “Aerial flower and subterranean fruit” is a distinct feature in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). To dissect this character at post-transcription level, small RNA sequencing was performed to identify microRNAs in peanut pod shell and seed during eleven developmental stages. Sequencing analysis identified 212 known microRNAs, including 197 conserved and 15 specific microRNA. In addition, 112 novel microRNAs from 62 novel microRNA precursors were identified. Among the known and new microRNAs, 67 microRNAs and their target genes showed differentially expressed patterns during peanut pod development. Expression trend analysis revealed stage-specific and tissue-specific expression of microRNA and their target genes during pod shell and seed development, implying that microRNAs probably played a role in peanut pod development. To validate expression profiles from small RNA sequencing, quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed using 28 microRNAs and 30 target genes, revealing consistent expression profiles with sequencing results. The data regarding microRNA and their target genes generated in this study would contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of plant fruit development under darkness and to crop improvement.

      QTL mapping and candidate genes screening of earliness traits in Brassica napus L.
      LI Shu-Yu, HUANG Yang, XIONG Jie, DING Ge, CHEN Lun-Lin, SONG Lai-Qiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  626-637.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04145
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      Currently, the research on earliness traits of rapeseed mainly focused on flowering time. Although there was a significant positive correlation between the flowering period and the growth period, it was not completely consistent. There are few reports on the genetic studies and QTL mapping of traits related to rapeseed growth and development after flowering. We carried out phenotypic survey (flowering time, flowering period duration, silique period duration etc.) and QTL mapping with the DH population constructed by ‘Huaqianzao’ and ‘Global’ as material. A total of 30 QTL loci for earliness traits were detected. Among them, 12, 5, 4 and 9 QTL loci were detected in the flowering time, flowering period duration, silique period duration and full growth period, respectively, explaining 5.8%-22.4% phenotypic variance. The 2, 4, and 1 QTL confidence intervals of full growth period were found overlap in part or in whole with flowering time, flowering period duration and silique period duration respectively. The 29 candidate genes were screened, which affected the earliness traits by regulating flowering or silique development in rapeseed growth and development processes. Therefore, in the study of earliness traits, we could consider flowering time and silique development process at the same time, which not only helps to advance the maturity period, but also reduces the adverse effects of early flowering.

      Responsive features of SiPRR37 to photoperiod and temperature, abiotic stress and identification of its favourable allelic variations in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.)
      JIA Xiao-Ping, LI Jian-Feng, ZHANG Bo, QUAN Jian-Zhang, WANG Yong-Fang, ZHAO Yuan, ZHANG Xiao-Mei, WANG Zhen-Shan, SANG Lu-Man, DONG Zhi-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  638-649.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04139
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      In this study, the clock gene SiPRR37 was cloned from the foxtail millet variety Yangu 11, and bioinformatics analysis, tissue specific expression analysis, diurnal expression patterns analysis under four different photo-thermal combinational conditions and responsive characteristics analysis to five abiotic stresses such as NaCl, ABA, PEG, low temperature and Fe were performed to reveal the mechanisms that SiPRR37 participated in regulating of photo-thermal interaction and coped with abiotic stresses. Mutation sites of SiPRR37 were detected by re-sequencing of 160 millet materials, which were used for haplotype analysis to explore the effect of SiPRR37 on main agronomic traits. The results showed that the CDS length of SiPRR37 gene was 2247 bp, which encoded 748 amino acids and contained REC and CCT domains. The phylogenetic analysis based on PRR37 proteins showed that foxtail millet had the closest relationship with broomcorn millet, sorghum and maize. Promoter prediction analysis found that various responsive elements to light, temperature, auxin, GA, ABA, MeJA, drought and salt stresses were detected in promoter region of SiPRR37. The decreasing order of relative expression level of SiPRR37 was root, panicle neck, panicle, parietal leaf, secondary parietal leaf and stem. Under four photo-thermal combinational conditions, SiPRR37 gave only one expression peak during the light period, and regardless of high temperature (27℃) or low temperature (22℃), the expression peak advanced under short-day condition compared to long-day condition, regardless of long-day or short-day, the expression peak advanced at low temperature (22℃) compared to high temperature (27℃). The expression of SiPRR37 was inhibited by NaCl and low temperature (15℃) stresses, induced by PEG-simulated drought stress and Fe stress. SiPRR37 participated in ABA signaling transduction process. The 10 SNPs in CDS region of SiPRR37 divided 160 millet materials into 19 haplotypes, of which Hap_7, Hap_10 and Hap_19 were favorable haplotypes for improving panicle traits. SiPRR37 exhibited circadian expression, and was regulated by photoperiod and temperature simultaneously. SiPRR37 participated in the responses of foxtail millet to salt stress, low temperature stress, drought stress and Fe stress. At the same time, SiPRR37 was correlated with heading stage and multiple panicle traits, showing certain application potential in high-yield molecular-assisted breeding of foxtail millet.

      Genome-wide association study of 1000-seed weight in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
      ZHANG Chun, ZHAO Xiao-Zhen, PANG Cheng-Ke, PENG Men-Lu, WANG Xiao-Dong, CHEN Feng, ZHANG Wei, CHEN Song, PENG Qi, YI Bin, SUN Cheng-Ming, ZHANG Jie-Fu, FU Ting-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  650-659.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04136
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      Thousand-seed weight (TSW) is one of the important component of seed yield. In this study, a collection of 496 representative rapeseed accessions were genotyped by the high-throughput 60K SNP array for TSW in three environments (14NJ, 15TZ, 16TZ). The genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TSW was performed via the MLM (Mixed linear model) and GLM (General linear model). The results showed that the broad sense heritability of TSW was 63.12% in three environments. Six and 61 loci were detected with MLM and GLM, which explained 28.92% and 47.08% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Combining the common loci between two models, 62 significant loci were obtained and accounted for 47.31% of the phenotypic variance. These loci were distributed on all chromosomes of the genome, with the largest number of 9, 8, and 7 loci detected on Chromosome A07, A03, and C06, respectively. The most significant locus Bn-scaff_17526_1-p1066214 was detected on C09, and accounted for 5.55% and 15.26% of the phenotypic variance in MLM and GLM, respectively. Among them, 21 loci overlapped with previously reported QTLs, of which 8 loci were verified by at least two populations. The remaining 41 loci were newly detected, and many of them had high effects and were detected in multiple environments, such as Bn-A03-p560769, Bn-scaff_15743_1-p599416 and Bn-scaff_15743_1-p590955. Besides, 11 candidates orthologous to documented Arabidopsis seed weight genes, like DGAT, EOD3, AGL61, WRI1, DA2, and RAV1, were found near our GWAS loci. The results are helpful for analyzing the genetic basis of TSW of rapeseed and lay a foundation for studying the regulation mechanism and guiding the genetic improvement of TSW.

      Retrospective evaluation of cotton varieties nationally registered for the Northwest Inland cotton growing regions based on GYT biplot analysis
      XU Nai-Yin, ZHAO Su-Qin, ZHANG Fang, FU Xiao-Qiong, YANG Xiao-Ni, QIAO Yin-Tao, SUN Shi-Xian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  660-671.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04135
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      The Northwest inland cotton growing regions (NICR) is currently the most important cotton producing area in China. The scientific classification and comprehensive evaluation of national cotton varieties over the years in this cotton area is beneficial to the rational utilization of national cotton varieties resources and the improvement of cotton production efficiency. According to the national registration bulletins of cotton cultivars, up to 37 cotton cultivars in this region were registered in the national level from 2003 to 2019. These cultivars were evaluated and classified using genotype by yield-trait (GYT) biplot analysis based on their levels in combine with lint cotton yield and other important characteristics including pre-frost yielding rate (PFR), fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire, fusarirum wilt index (FWI), and verticillium wilt index (VWI). Results showed that the 37 cotton cultivars can be clustered into three types with distinct trait profiles. Type I consisted of 17 cotton cultivars, namely Xinluzao 13, Zhongmiansuo 49, Xinluzao 21, Ba 13222, Xin 46, Tianyun 0769, Z1112, Xinshi K18, J206-5, Xinshi K21, Hemian A9-9, Chuangmian 508, H33-1-4, Jinke 20, Xin K28, Chuangmian 512, and J8031, showing high levels of combinations between yield and other target traits, and was the most suitable for cotton production in the region. Type II was characterized by poor performance in FWI, and moderate yielding ability and fiber quality traits, and was of limited application in this area. Type III was characterized by an excellent performance in FWI but poor performance on the other traits, and cultivars of this type may be useful for sources of disease resistance. Cultivars Chuangmian 512, J8031, Xin K28, H33-1-4, Jinke 20, Xinluzao 13, and Chuangmian 508 were selected for their high superiority index, such as high levels of combination between yield and other traits, while Xinlumian 1, Xinluzao 33, Chuangmian 501, and Xinluz 51 were inferior in this context. The GYT biplot analysis in this study differed from traditional index selection in that it was based on the combinatoin level of yield and other traits rather than on the levels of individual traits. In GYT biplot the various yield-trait combinaitons tended to be positievly correlated, allowing for easy visualizationand objective selection of cultivars based on multiple traits. Compared with the more traditional genotype by trait (GT) biplot, GYT biplot normally explained more of the total variation and achieve higher goodness of fit. In addition, the method used in this study could be applied to other regions and crops in this reasearch topic.

      Cloning of potato heat shock transcription factor StHsfA3 gene and its functional analysis in heat tolerance
      TANG Rui-Min, JIA Xiao-Yun, ZHU Wen-Jiao, YIN Jing-Ming, YANG Qing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  672-683.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04114
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      During potato cultivation in the field, various adverse environmental stresses would affect its growth status. Heat stress in summer always results in the decline of tuber yield and quality. Therefore, it is of great significance to reveal the response mechanism of potato to heat stress and explore heat resistant genes for potato breeding. The activity of HsfA3 (heat shock transcription factor A3) affects the expression of numerous functional genes and plays an important role in response to heat stress. In order to investigate the structure and function of potato HsfA3, the StHsfA3 gene was isolated from potato cultivar Désirée by RT-PCR. The full-length cDNA of StHsfA3 was 1506 bp encoding 501 amino acids. StHsfA3 was predicted to be a hydrophilic protein with an estimated molecular weight of 55.23 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.9. The vector of StHsfA3-pBA002 was constructed and transformed into potato plants. Totally five independent transgenic potato plants overexpressing HsfA3 were obtained. The detection of relative water content (RWC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content showed that the RWC was significantly increased while MDA content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants compared with the non-transgenic plants under heat stress, suggesting that StHsfA3 played a positive regulatory role in enhancing the heat resistance of potato. Furthermore, the expression levels of StHsfA3, StHsp26-CP, and StHsp70 were determined by qRT-PCR in different potato plants. The results exhibited that the expression levels of StHsp26-CP and StHsp70 in the transgenic lines overexpressing StHsfA3 were significantly higher than that in non-transgenic plants, indicating that StHsfA3 might act in synergy with StHsp26-CP and StHsp70 to increase the heat tolerance of the transgenic plants.

      Development and application of functional marker for high nitrogen use efficiency and chilling tolerance gene OsGRF4 in rice
      SUN Ping-Yong, ZHANG Wu-Han, ZHANG Li, SHU Fu, HE Qiang, PENG Zhi-Rong, DENG Hua-Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  684-690.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02035
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      The use of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) to breed rice with high nitrogen-use efficiency is one of the most effective methods to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer quantity and to develop the green and sustainable agriculture. The gene growth-regulating factor 4 (OsGRF4) encodes a growth regulatory factor protein, and the mutation in the coding region from the nucleotides TC to AA in 487 and 488 substituted the amino acid serine for lysine, which resulting in enhancing nitrogen-use efficiency, increasing grain yield, and improving chilling tolerance in rice. In order to improve the selection efficiency of OsGRF4 in rice breeding, an allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) marker combination, PF+DMR+PR and PF+XMR+PR, was developed based on the single nucleotide polymorphism in the functional region of the OsGRF4 alleles. The functional marker was used to identify genotypes of different varieties and an F2 population derived from Chuandali/Jusuidao. The three different genotypes of OsGRF4 locus could be accurately distinguished, which was further confirmed by sequencing. This functional marker is simple to operate and low-cost, and could provide a technical support when using MAS to breed new rice varieties of high nitrogen-use efficiency, high yields, and increased chilling tolerance.

      Effects of controlled-release urea on nitrogen uptake characteristics and yield of double-cropping rice around Dongting Lake area
      TIAN Chang, JIN Tuo, ZHOU Xuan, HUANG Si-Yi, WANG Ying-Zi, XU Ze, PENG Jian-Wei, RONG Xiang-Min, XIE Gui-Xian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  691-700.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02038
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      The application of slow- and controlled-release fertilizer in rice production plays an important role in promoting the zero growth of fertilizer use and the sustainable development of agriculture in China. In this study, six consecutive years from 2013 to 2018 of controlled-release urea application in double-cropping rice in Hunan province were used to analyze the relationship between N uptake rate and N utilization in the above part of early- and late- rice in the main growth period by controlled-release urea application around the Dongting Lake district, and to explore the reasons for the sustained and stable yield increase of controlled-release urea on rice. The results showed that there was an obvious peak of N uptake rate in each stage of early rice by different N treatments, while N uptake in controlled-release urea (CRU) treatment was relatively delayed. And N accumulation was mainly from panicle initiation stage to heading stage, accounting for 35.31%-42.33%, followed by tillering stage to young panicle differentiation stage and heading stage to milk stage. Two obvious peaks of N uptake rates occurred in late rice from tillering stage to panicle initiation stage and from heading stage to milk stage, and the peak value was the highest at 1.0 CRU treatment. Large amount of N uptake from tillering stage to young panicle differentiation stage and heading stage to milk stage accounted for 35.92%-40.52% and 23.05%-24.58% of total amount of the whole growing period, respectively. Controlled-release urea could also significantly increase the yield of double-cropping rice, especially in early- and late- rice were treated with 0.9 CRU and 0.8 CRU respectively, and the yield increase of late rice was better than that of early rice with reduced application of controlled-release urea, and the N absorption efficiency, N agronomic efficiency and N partial productivity of early- and late- rice were significantly improved. The yield of early- and late-rice treated by CRU was significantly positively correlated with N accumulation and effective panicle number at panicle initiation stage, heading stage, milk stage and waxen stage, and the yield of late rice was significantly positively correlated with panicle length. The N accumulation of early and late rice at the panicle initiation stage was significantly negatively correlated with the agronomic and physiological rates of N fertilizer. The N partial productivity was significantly or significantly negatively correlated with the N accumulation of early rice at the panicle initiation stage, heading stage, milk stage and waxen stage, and significantly negatively correlated with the N accumulation at the heading stage of late rice. Therefore, application of controlled-release urea delayed the N uptake rate and N accumulation in the aboveground part of rice, which was beneficial to the later reproductive growth and seed setting, and could significantly improve the yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of double-cropping rice. Combined with N absorption characteristics and grain yield of double-cropping rice, it was suggested that controlled release urea with a short release period should be used for early rice around the Dongting Lake area or applied with quick-availability N fertilizer to achieve further increase in yield level.

      Effects of delayed sowing and planting date on starch RVA profiles of different indica hybrid rice in the sub-suitable region of ratoon rice
      YANG Fan, ZHONG Xiao-Yuan, LI Qiu-Ping, LI Shu-Xian, LI Wu, ZHOU Tao, LI Bo, YUAN Yu-Jie, DENG Fei, CHEN Yong, REN Wan-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  701-713.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02037
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      In order to explore the effect of sowing and planting date on the RVA profiles characteristics of indica hybrid rice, a two-factor split plot design with two indica hybrid rice varieties (Chuanyou 6203 and Yixiangyou 2115) and two sowing and planting date was conducted in Longchang and Qianwei in Sichuan province. The results showed that ecological condition, sowing and planting date, variety, and the interaction between sowing and planting date with ecological condition and variety had marked impact on the starch RVA profiles characteristic values of indica rice. In the sub-suitable region of ratoon rice, delayed sowing and planting date decreased the temperature, sunshine hours, and rainfall during grain filling period of rice, which resulted in the reduction in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cool viscosity and breakdown viscosity, but increased in setback viscosity and peak time. Compared to ratoon rice, late sowing and planting date treatment increased peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity, and decreased cool viscosity, setback viscosity, consistence viscosity, peak time, and pasting temperature. The effect of sowing and planting date on the RVA spectrum of starch was different with ecological condition. Sowing and planting date leaded to greater variation in peak viscosity, setback viscosity, and breakdown viscosity in Qianwei compared with that of Longchang. Compared with Chuanyou 6203, sowing and planting date had greater influence on the peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity of Yixiangyou 2115. Overall, the starch RVA profiles characteristics of delayed sowing and planting date treatment was closer to the ratoon rice, which resulted in better cooking and eating quality of rice.

      Seedling root characteristics and drought resistance of wheat in Shanxi province
      ZHAO Jia-Jia, QIAO Ling, WU Bang-Bang, GE Chuan, QIAO Lin-Yi, ZHANG Shu-Wei, YAN Su-Xian, ZHENG Xing-Wei, ZHENG Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  714-727.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01048
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      Wheat root morphology at the seedling stage is the basis of root distribution at the adult stage. It is closely related to stress resistance and yield. A comprehensive understanding of the root system characteristics at seedling stage and drought resistance is of great significance for the excellent germplasm utilization and early screening of drought resistance. Using 239 wheat varieties (lines) from Shanxi province, the root traits at seedling stage and their response to water stress were evaluated. The results showed that under normal growth, Shanxi wheat had a great variation in root traits at seedling stage, with the greatest variation in landraces. The maximum root length (MRL) tended to decrease slightly with the years, while other root traits were first increased and then decreased. There were differences among the root traits in response to water stress. The total root length (TRL) is the most sensitive to water, followed by root surface area (RSA), root volume (RV) and root biomass. The maximum root length (MRL) and the average number of roots (RN) were insensitive. The drought resistance of seedling roots showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing with the years. Landraces and varieties released from 1970 to 1979 had moderately resistance to water stress, varieties released from 1980 to 1999 had lower drought resistance, and varieties released after 2000 had the better resistance, of which the dryland varieties were the best resistance. Correlation analysis of the seedling root characteristics and yield related traits suggested that the maximum root length, total root length, root volume and root biomass were significantly positively correlated with 1000-kernel weight and yield under rain-fed conditions, and the maximum root length and root biomass were also significantly positively correlated with adult plant drought resistance. The present study suggests that the maximum root length and root biomass at the seedling stage can be used as early generation selection parameters for drought resistance and yield in dryland breeding in semi-arid areas.

      Growth, physiological, and heavy metal accumulation traits at seedling stage under heavy metal stress in castor (Ricinus communis L.)
      LYU Dong-Mei, ZHU Guang-Long, WANG Yue, SHI Yu, LU Fa-Guang, REN Zhen, LIU Yu-Qian, GU Li-Feng, LU Hai-Tong, Irshad Ahmad, JIAO Xiu-Rong, MENG Tian-Yao, ZHOU Gui-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  728-737.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04146
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      Agricultural ecology environment and human health are seriously threated by aggravating agricultural non-point source and heavy metals pollution. It is of great significance to explore the cumulative effect of crops on heavy metal pollution and its physiological mechanism. A castor (Ricinus communis L.) variety Zibi 5 was used to study the accumulation effect of heavy metals and associated physiological mechanism under heavy metals treatments (Cu, Zn and Cd at 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg L-1 concentrations). The results showed that seedling growth, physiological traits and heavy metals accumulation significantly affected by heavy metal treatments. Plant height was increased to the maximum with 60 mg L-1 and then decreased. However, root length, fresh weight and dry weight were all decreased under heavy metal treatments. In general, SOD activity was decreased at low treatment concentration but increased at high treatment concentration, the highest activity was showed at 120 mg L-1 under Cu and Zn treatments at 10 DAS (days after sowing), which were 45.5% and 31.8% higher than that under CK, respectively. POD activity was first decreased and then increased on 10 DAS, but significantly increased in both 25 DAS and 45 DAS, as well as prominently increased with prolonged the growth periods. Soluble protein was only significantly increased under 120 mg L-1 Cu treatment, and increased by 18.8%, 66.7%, and 83.3% at each growth stage, respectively. MDA content was significantly increased with the increase of treatment concentration and significantly decreased with prolonged the growth periods, and MDA content was significant higher under Cd treatment than that under Cu and Zn treatments. The accumulation contents of Cu, Zn, and Cd in castor plant were gradually increased with the increase of treatment concentration, and the maximum accumulation was at 120 mg L-1 concentration. Among of them, the accumulation of treatment concentration increased, and the maximum accumulation showed at 120 mg L-1 concentration. Among them, the accumulation of Zn was the highest, followed by Cd. The accumulation content of heavy metals in each organ was shown as root > stem > leaf. This study suggested that castor has a certain tolerance to heavy metals, which was increased the antioxidase activity to alleviate heavy metals stress. The castor has organ specificity in heavy metals accumulation. It is an effective approach to plant castor to repair soil pollution by heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, and Cd.

      Effects of planting density on lodging resistance and grain yield of spring maize stalks in Guizhou province
      ZHENG Ying-Xia, CHEN Du, WEI Peng-Cheng, LU Ping, YANG Jin-Yue, LUO Shang-Ke, YE Kai-Mei, SONG Bi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  738-751.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03044
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      The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of spring maize stalk characteristics and yield and their relationship under the dense planting conditions, and it provides theoretical basis and practical guidance for high yield of spring maize dense planting in Guizhou province. The field experiments were carried out to study the effect of planting density on spring maize stalk morphology and mechanical properties, empty stalk rate, lodging rate and grain yield using Guizhou's widely planted maize variety Xianyu 1171 and Xinzhongyu 801 with six density 3×104, 4.5×104, 6.0×104, 7.5×104, 9.0×104, 10.5×104 plants hm-2 from 2018 to 2019. The results were as follows: (1) Plant height and ear height of spring maize increased first and then decreased with the increase in density; the third node length increased the most after densification, the third node's dry weight per stem length, puncture strength and flexural strength, the seventh nodal thickness, dry weight and cross-sectional area decreased the most; the density had no significant effect on the flatness of the cross-sectional area of the stem. Compared with the varieties, Xianyu 1171 internode length, the 3rd and 5th internode dry weight and the 3rd node puncture strength were significantly higher than Xinzhongyu 801. The 7th node dry weight, internode thickness, dry weight per stem length, the cross-sectional area, cross-sectional flatness and flexural strength of internodes were significantly lower than that of Xinzhongyu 801. (2) Lodging rate and empty shot rate increased with the increase in density. After densification, the lodging rate of Xianyu 1171 was significantly higher than that of Xinzhongyu 801, and the rate of empty shot was significantly lower than that of Xinzhongyu 801. (3) The yield increased first and then decreased with the increase in density. Xianyu 1171 and Xinzhongyu 801 had the highest yields at 93,000 plants hm-2 and 86,000 plants hm-2, respectively. After densification, the yield of Xianyu 1171 was higher 10.28% than that of Xinzhongyu 801, and the number of effective panicles and grains per panicle were higher. (4) Correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that plant height, ear height and lodging rate were significantly positively correlated, and internode thickness and dry matter per stalk length had a significant positive effect on corn stalk bending resistance. The yield was closely related to stalk traits, and plant height had the greatest positive effect on yield. It can be seen that the lodging resistance and grain yield of different spring maize stalks were different in response to density. After the densification of Xinzhongyu 801, the internodes of the stalks were short and thick, the dry weight per stalk length was larger, and the lodging resistance ability was stronger. Because Xianyu 1171 had a lower empty stem rate than Xinzhongyu 801 under high density, it had a higher effective ear number and grain number per ear, the yield was higher under high density. Considering the culm traits and yield, the suitable density of Xianyu 1171 and Xinzhongyu 801 in Guizhou were 90,000 plants hm-2 and 85,000 plants hm-2, respectively.

      Effect of exogenous plant growth regulators on carbon-nitrogen metabolism and flower-pod abscission of relay strip intercropping soybean
      LUO Kai, XIE Chen, WANG Jin, WANG Tian, HE Shun, YONG Tai-Wen, YANG Wen-Yu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  752-760.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04129
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      Maize shading inhibited the growth of soybean at the seedling stage, reduced the number of soybean flowers and pods, and decreased the yield of soybean under maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system. To explore the effect of exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs) on flowering, pod setting, and yield of soybean is important for relay strip intercropping soybean production. Field experiments were used one-factor randomized block design to investigate the effect of foliage spraying 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA), diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DTA-6) and uniconazole (S3307) at the beginning of flowering stage on abscission of flowers and pods, leaf carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and yield formation in relay strip intercropping soybean. The results demonstrated that spraying PRGs improved the sucrose synthetase (SS), sucrose phosphate synthetase (SPS) and invertase (Inv) activities in soybean leaves. Exogenous PGRs increased soluble sugar content in stems, leaves, and pods of soybean at the beginning of grain-filling stage, promoted soluble sugar transport from stem and leaves to pods. Exogenous PGRs increased carbon and nitrogen content and decreased the C:N ratio in soybean leaves at the beginning of podding stage. PGRs increased the carbon content, decreased nitrogen content, and increased the C:N ratio in soybean leaves at beginning of grain-filling stage. Foliar spraying PGRs increased the number of flowers and pods, reduced the abscission pod number, and decreased the ratio of pods abscission and flowers-pods abscission, the effect of DTA-6 treatments was better than others. The pods per plant and yield of soybean in 2018 and 2019 under DTA-6 treatment were increased by 25.4%, 41.3% and 32.9%, 37.6% as compared with CK, respectively. Foliar spraying PGRs increased the activities of SPS, SS, and Inv enzymes in soybean leaves, coordinated the carbon-nitrogen metabolism in soybean organs, promoted the soybean flowering and pod-setting, decreased the abscission of pods, increased the pods per plant and yield of relay strip intercropping soybean, the production increasing effect of DTA-6 were better than others.

      Transcription characteristics of wheat glutamine synthetase isoforms and the sequence analysis of their promoters
      WANG Xiao-Chun, WANG Lu-Lu, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, QIN Bu-Tan, YU Mei-Qin, WEI Yi-Hao, MA Xin-Ming
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  761-769.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01046
      Abstract ( 372 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3530KB) ( 294 )   Save
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      As a key enzyme for nitrogen assimilation in wheat, glutamine synthetase is grouped into two classes: cytosolic GS and chloroplastic GS (TaGS2), and cytosolic GS includes TaGS1, TaGSr, and TaGSe. In order to study the expression characteristics and regulatory mechanisms of GS isozymes in chromosome A, B, and D of heterohexaploid wheat, transcripts of TaGS isoforms were analyzed based on the third-generation sequencing technology transcriptome analysis, and 12 promoters of TaGS isozymes of Yumai 49 were cloned based on Chinese Spring genome, and the sequence of the promoters were analyzed. The results showed that TaGS1 was mainly transcribed on chromosome 6B, TaGSe and TaGSr on chromosome 4D, and TaGS2 on chromosome 2D. Furthermore, the distance from initiation codon ATG to initiation site of transcript for each promoter of TaGS was distinct. Promoter element analysis showed that the promoter of TaGS1 in 6B had more W-box, AC-I, ABRE, as-1, and methyl jasmonic response elements, the promoter of TaGSe in 4D had more stress response elements (MYB, MBS, LTR, etc.) and auxin response element, the promoter of TaGSr in 4D had more WRE3 and transcript factor response elements, the promoter of TaGS2 in 2D had more A-box, WRE3, ARE, and an AT enrichment region. In summary, the number, type and order of cis-elements of different promoters of TaGS isozymes were distinct, which provided the foundation for further study on the regulation mechanism of TaGS isozymes.

      Identification of SNP core primer and establishment of high throughput detection scheme for purity identification in maize hybrids
      WANG Rui, SHI Long-Jian, TIAN Hong-Li, YI Hong-Mei, YANG Yang, GE Jian-Rong, FAN Ya-Ming, REN Jie, WANG Lu, LU Da-Lei, ZHAO Jiu-Ran, WANG Feng-Ge
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  770-779.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03031
      Abstract ( 339 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1156KB) ( 205 )   Save
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      Purity is one of the most important indexes of maize seed quality, especially for inbred seedlings in hybrids which is a key factor affecting field yield. A new high-throughput and economical technology named KASP (Kompetitive allele specific PCR) is suitable for seed purity detection. This study was based on 12 sets of triplet samples of hybrids with their parents and 335 SNP fingerprint data which was nationally approved as standard samples of maize hybrids. Sixty candidate loci were selected from 384 SNP basic loci, and the success rate of transformation from chip to KASP primers was 95%. Considering comprehensive elements including parental complementary rate, polymorphism and other indicators such as stability and genotyping effect of primers, 20 core primers were finally determined for purity identification of maize hybrids. The results showed these core primers were able to effectively identify the purity of 99.7% of tested samples. The purity of tested sample Jingke 968 was identified by searching SNP-DNA fingerprint database and selecting parental complementary primers. One inbred seedling and two off-types were detected in 110 individuals, and the purity value was 97.3%. Meanwhile, a high-throughput purity detection scheme was established based on the core primers of purity identification for batch samples, which is fast, accurate, high-throughput and low-cost, providing more options of purity identification for government regulatory agencies and enterprises.

      Identification of StIgt gene family and expression profile analysis of response to drought stress in potato
      QIN Tian-Yuan, LIU Yu-Hui, SUN Chao, BI Zhen-Zhen, LI An-Yi, XU De-Rong, WANG Yi-Hao, ZHANG Jun-Lian, BAI Jiang-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(4):  780-786.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04122
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      Drought stress is one of the main abiotic stress factors affecting potato yield and quality. The root growth, development and architecture play an important role in potato drought resistance. The Igt gene family is a functional gene family that are ubiquitous in plants, and has significant effects in regulating root architecture and improving plant stress resistance. In this study, the potato double haploid ‘DM-v4.03’ high-quality genome was used as a reference, and members of the StIgt gene family were identified and analyzed on a genome-wide scale. Phylogenetic trees, chromosomal location, conservative protein domains, gene structure and cis element prediction were carried out by bioinformatics software. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of StIgts in response to drought stress were analyzed based on the transcriptome sequencing results of potato tetraploid lines under different drought conditions. The results showed that a total of 10 StIgt family members were identified in potato, of which StIgt1 was obtained and cloned by our research group. Except for the unknown position information of StIgt1, the remaining genes are unevenly distributed on chromosome 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, and 11. StIgts proteins range in length from 110 to 283 amino acids and have molecular weights ranging from 13.136 kD to 32.542 kD. The predicted isoelectric point is 3.82 to 9.86. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the gene family can be divided into three subfamilies. The gene structure, protein conserved domains and cis-acting elements differ significantly among three subfamilies. The expression profile analysis under drought stress showed that StIgt6, StIgt7, StIgt9 and StIgt10 responded to the early drought stress which rapidly up-regulated at two hours of drought treatment. These results provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the evolutionary relationship of the StIgt gene family and further studying the functional characteristics of its members.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548