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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (2): 320-331.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02045


Advantages of small grain male sterile lines in seed production for a new combination Zhuoliangyou 141 through the mixed-sowing manner

ZHOU Jie-Qiang1(), ZHANG Gui-Lian1,2, DENG Hua-Bing1,2, MING Xing-Quan1, LEI Bin1, LI Fan1, TANG Wen-Bang1,2,*()   

  1. 1College of Agronomy, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, Hunan, China
    2Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Rice and Rapeseed Breeding for Disease Resistance, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, Hunan, China
  • Received:2020-07-02 Accepted:2021-06-16 Online:2022-02-12 Published:2021-07-21
  • Contact: TANG Wen-Bang E-mail:crackzjq@163.com;tangwenbang@163.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0100303);the Major Scientific and Technological Special of Hunan Province(2018NK1020);the Key Research and Development Program of Hunan Province(2017NK2013)


Traditional hybrid breeding is backward, low benefit, and high cost, which restricts the promotion and application in hybrid rice. However, Small Grain TMS lines are easy to be mechanically separated after mixed-sowing and mixed-harvesting. Their application will promote the realization of complete Mechanization of Hybrid Rice Seed Production, leading to the reduction of cost and the improvement of seed production efficiency. In this study, we investigated the agronomic characteristics and outcrossing rates suitable for Mechanization of Hybrid Rice Seed Production, using the Small Grain male sterile line Zhuo 201S, Large Grain restorer line R141, and their combination Zhuoliangyou 141 as materials for mixed-sowing and large-scale seed production practice. The results demonstrated that compared with the control TMS C815S, Zhuo 201S plants were shorter, exhibiting longer and more erect ear, fewer glume opening, lower percentage of panicle enclosure and germination on ears. Moreover, Zhuo 201S plants were resistant to smut disease but sensitive to “920” treatment and had weak seed-shattering characteristic. However, R141 plants were tall and insensitive to environmental temperature with large amount of pollen and a long florescence. Both Zhuo 201S and R141 had good outcrossing characteristics. The grain thickness of Zhuo 201S and R141 was 1.71 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. The 1000-grain weight of Zhuo 201S and R141 was 14.00 g and 28.20 g, respectively. Due to the significant difference in grain sizes, the hybrid F1 seeds could be easily separated with the male parent seeds through a special sieve with narrow and long apertures. The percentage of male parent seeds mixed in hybrid seeds was 0 while the hybrid seed loss rate was 2.31%, suggesting that the seed purity met the standards for Mechanization of Hybrid Rice Seed Production. Compared with the traditional seed production mode, the basic seedling of male parent was reduced by 85%, the capacity of female parent was increased by 20%, the seed production yield was increased by 21.37%, and the comprehensive benefit of seed production was increased by 31.4%. Zhuoliangyou 141 was endowed with the advantages suitable for mechanized production by mix-sowing, with excellently agronomic traits and outcrossing properties along with huge difference in grain size from its parents. Therefore, the whole process of Zhuoliangyou 141 mechanized seed production had a broad application prospect.

Key words: rice, small grain sterile line, Zhuoliangyou 141, mixed sowing seed production, advantage

Table 1

Outcrossing characteristics of male parent R141"

单株穗数 PPP 每穗粒数
始花时间 ST 盛花时间 FLT 花粉密度
(×104 m-2)
R141 115.7±2.4 a 28.30±1.8 a 9.2±0.8 b 209.4±10.4 a 6.0±0.7 a 10.0±1.1 a 10:50 11:05 108.0±8.9 a
华占Huazhan 109.4±2.1 b 23.90±1.2 b 10.6±0.7 a 162.3±8.7 b 4.0±0.5 b 6.0±0.6 b 10:15 11:40 80.2±7.3 b

Fig. 1

Relationship between pollen quantity and temperature in restorer lines"

Fig. 2

Dynamic variations of Zhuo 201S at heading and flowering stages"

Fig. 3

Dynamic variations of Zhuo 201S at different flowering time"

Table 2

Stigma size and exsertion rate of Zhuo 201S"

exposure rate (%)
exposure rate (%)
exposure rate
卓201S Zhuo 201S 1.21±0.12 b 0.40±0.01 b 0.49±0.03 b 0.15±0.01 b 53.56±1.33 a 34.08±1.03 a 87.64±1.96 a
C815S (CK) 1.25±0.08 a 0.46±0.02 a 0.57±0.02 a 0.20±0.01 a 55.40±1.46 b 29.60±0.87 b 85.00±1.24 b

Table 3

Stigma vigour of Zhuo 201S (%)"

Aug. 11
Aug. 12
Aug. 13
Aug. 14
Aug. 15
Aug. 16
Aug. 17
Aug. 18
卓201S Zhuo 201S 73.1±1.7 a 60.1±1.3 a 52.7±0.8 a 47.0±0.4 a 39.8±0.4 a 12.0±0.4 a 10.0±0.4 a 8.8±0.4 a 2.2±0.1 a
C815S (CK) 68.6±1.9 b 48.9±1.1 b 30.0±0.6 b 21.0±0.6 b 11.2±0.4 b 7.9±0.4 b 3.7±0.4 b 0 b 1.5±0.1 b

Table 4

Agronomic traits of R141 and Zhuo 201S"

PLH (cm)
PL (cm)
RWG (%)
卓201S Zhuo 201S 60.5±1.9 a 27.6±0.6 a 直立 Erect 5.1±0.5 b 48.7±0.1 a
C815S 68.3±2.1 b 24.2±0.4 b 弯曲 Bend 15.7±0.8 a 40.6±0.2 b
R141 115.7±2.4 a 28.3±0.8 a 弯曲 Bend 44.9±0.2 b
华占 Huazhan 109.4±2.1 b 23.9±0.2 b 弯曲 Bend 47.2±0.3 a
卓201S Zhuo 201S 22.4±1.6 a 0.1±0 b 0 b 0.2±0.1 b 较难落粒Not easy shattering
C815S 19.7±1.2 b 12.9±1.1 a 23.9±2.2 a 2.7±0.1 a 易落粒 Easy shattering
R141 35.6±2.4 a
华占 Huazhan 28.7±1.9 b

Table 5

Grain traits of R141 and Zhuo 201S"

Grain length (mm)
Grain width (mm)
Length-width ratio
1000-grain weight (g)
Restorer line
R141 6.61±0.13 a 2.23±0.03 a 3.04±0.04 b 28.22±0.62 a
华占 Huazhan 6.54±0.21 a 2.01±0.04 b 3.42±0.03 a 23.64±0.43 b
Sterile line
卓201S Zhuo 201S 5.82±0.11 a 1.71±0.04 b 3.32±0.03 a 14.01±0.33 b
C815S 5.63±0.16 a 1.96±0.02 a 2.95±0.03 b 23.42±0.56 a

Fig. 4

Basic seedlings of Zhuo 201S and R141 under different seed production modes"

Fig. 5

Dynamic variations of pollen density of R141 under different seed production modes"

Table 6

Comparison of yield characters of different seed production modes"

EP (m2)
SSR (%)
GW (g)
TY (kg hm-2)
AY (kg hm-2)
混播制种MSP 7.33±1.17 b 409.30±1.33 a 149.10±10.21 b 51.60±78 b 14.50±06 a 6843.00±12.45 a 5785.50±04.03 a
传统制种TSP 13.47±1.49 a 272.60±3.12 b 168.50±12.36 a 53.90±25 a 14.50±08 a 5383.50±96.23 b 4603.50±79.65 b

Table 7

Comparison of benefit between mechanized mixed sowing seed production (MSP) and traditional seed production (TSP)"

(kg hm-2)
(Yuan hm-2)
传统制种TSP 移栽Transplanting 需要Yes 父母本分收
Parents separate harvesting
74.40±3.21 a 3382.50±96.33 b 67,650
机械化制种MSP 父母本机械混合直播
Parent-mixed direct seeding
无需No 机械混收
Mechanical harvesting
Increased by 20.00%
70.30±2.98 b 4105.50±106.76 a 82,110 1464
Yuan hm-2
增加效益TAB 4500
Yuan hm-2
Yuan hm-2
Yuan hm-2
14,460 Yuan 31.40%

Table 8

Practice of mixed sowing seed production in Zhuoliangyou 141"

SSR (%)
GW (g)
TY (kg hm-2)
AY (kg hm-2)
2018 三亚Sanya 5492.2±252.3 152.4±10.5 70.6±6.5 13.9±0.6 5473.5±304.1 5073.3±268.4
2019 长沙Changsha 5217.8±289.4 152.4±9.4 55.3±5.8 14.1±0.4 4133.7±248.4 3574.1±200.5
2019 怀化Huaihua 4257.0±205.3 155.4±11.4 72.3±6.2 13.8±0.6 4398.1±268.3 3658.1±197.4

Fig. 6

Practice of mechanized mixed sowing seed production A: field picture of seedling stage of hybrid seed production for Zhuoliangyou 141 with mixed and direct seeding way; B: field picture at booting stage of hybrid seed production for Zhuoliangyou 141 with mixed and direct seeding way; C: field picture at full heading stage of hybrid seed production for Zhuoliangyou 141 with mixed and direct seeding way; D: field picture at mature stage of hybrid seed production for Zhuoliangyou 141 with mixed and direct seeding way; E: comparison of grain types between Zhuo 201S and the restorer line R141, the grains with red arrow shows R141 seed, the 1000-grain weight of Zhuo 201S is 14.10 g, the grain thickness of Zhuo 201S is 1.71 mm, the 1000-grain weight of R141 is 27.80 g, the grain thickness of R141 is 2.32 mm; E: the long and narrow mesh sieve used in sorting machine; F: seeds of hybrid rice Zhuoliangyou 141 (left) and restorer line R141 (right) after sorting."

Fig. 1

SField picture of Zhuoliangyou 141"

Table 1

SPerformance of Zhuoliangyou 141 in 2017 and 2018 national regional test"

Yield (kg hm-2)
GP (d)
PLH (cm)
PL (cm)
SSR (%)
GW (g)
Rice quality
Zhuoliangyou 141
9531 138.0 247.5 118.5 26.0 241.5 78.4 23.3 优质二级
The second class stand of fine quality rice
Fengliangyou 4
9132 135.6 220.5 126.0 25.2 192.1 83.9 27.9 优质三级
The third class stand of fine quality rice
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