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    12 September 2009, Volume 35 Issue 9
      Bayesian Statistics-Based Multiple Interval Mapping of QTL Controlling Endosperm Traits in Cereals
      WANG Ya-Min,TANG Zai-Xiang,LU Xin,XU Chen-Wu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1569-1575.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01569
      Abstract ( 3128 )   PDF (413KB) ( 3722 )   Save
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      The endosperm of plants is a major source of food, feed and industrial raw materials. The genetic analysis of endosperm traits poses numerous challenges due to its complex genetic composition and unique physical and developmental properties. Modern molecular techniques and statistical methods have greatly improved the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits. In recent years, Bayesian statistics-based analyzing methods have been developed for mapping QTL underlying diploid quantitative traits, but these methods have not been effective to the mapping of triploid endosperm characters. On the basis f Bayesian statistics and quantitative genetic model of triploid endosperm traits, a Bayesian multiple interval method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits was proposed. This method used the DNA molecular marker genotypes of each plant in F2 segregation population and the single endosperm observation of a few endosperms of each plant as data set to analyze endosperm QTL. After constructing the multiple-QTL model, the Bayesian estimates of multiple QTL position and effects were obtained through MCMC algorithm implementing via Gibbs and Metropolis-Hastings sampling. The validation of the statistical procedure was verified through chromosome level simulation studies. The results showed that the proposed Bayesian method can estimate the multiple QTL positions and effects as well as distinguish the two dominance effects.

      Construction of SSH Library with Different Stages of Seeds Development in Brassica napus L.
      PENG Qi,HU Yan,DU Pei-Fen,XIE Qing-Xuan,RUAN Ying,LIU Chun-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1576-1583.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01576
      Abstract ( 3444 )   PDF (462KB) ( 3748 )   Save
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      Mechanism of fatty acid metabolic is a significant research topic in rapeseed molecular breeding. There are six hundreds genes and ESTs associated with fatty acid metabolism, 14% of which are conformed to participate in acrylic-fatty acid metabolism, 86% of which are speculated on sequences similarity and conservative domain with other species. But compared to the situation in Arabidopsis thaliana, molecular regulation mechanism of fatty acid metabolism in rapeseed has been less reported. In harvested rapeseed seeds, there is difference in seed fatty acid components among different varieties or the same variety grown under different ecological conditions. To further explore the molecular mechanism of fatty acid metabolic regulation of Brassica napus L., we investigated the assimilation product transition during the seed development. The starch reached a peak content at 20 days after pollination (20DAP) and was used up quickly after 20DAP, immediately the fatty acids content rapidly increased from 30DAP to 35DAP. According to the results, 20DAP developing seeds and 35DAP developing seeds were chosen for suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), which is an effective tool for picking out specific expression genes among different samples. Two libraries, 20DAP SSH library derived from 20DAP seed cDNA as tester and 35DAP seed cDNA as driver and 35DAP library from 20DAP seed cDNA as driver and 35DAP seed cDNA as tester were constructed. The two SSH libraries had a high quality with high suppression subtractive efficiency after tested by PCR and RT-PCR. A total of 489 clones were randomly selected from the two libraries for sequencing and 452 high quality sequences tags were obtained. Blast analysis and functional annotation showed that most of the genes in 20DAP SSH library were relative to carbohydrate metabolism, while those in 35DAP library relative to fatty acid metabolic regulation. Significantly, 5 function-unknown genes in 20DAP library and 7 in 35DAP library were found out. In summary, this work adds an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of starch-to-oil transition and at the same time the different genes, especially the function-unknown genes shed light on studies of molecular mechanism of fatty acid metabolic regulation in seeds of Brassica napus L.
      Mapping of a Novel Semi-Sterile Pollen QTL in Rice
      ZENG Bo,LI Min,YANG Zu-Yong,TAN Chen-Ju,DONG Hua-Lin,YU Si-Bin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1584-1589.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01584
      Abstract ( 2904 )   PDF (272KB) ( 3219 )   Save
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      Hybrid sterility has been an obstacle in utilization of potential heterosis in inter-subspecific hybrids of indica and japonica.In order to understand the genetic basis of pollen sterility of indica-japonica hybrid, we identified a line (IL37) with semi-sterility from a set of chromosomal segment substitution lines, of which each contained a single or few substitution segments from a japonica variety Nipponbare in the genetic background of indica variety Zhenshan 97B. The graphical genotype analysis of the line (IL37) by using 160 polymorphic SSR revealed that there were three chromosomal segments from the japonica with the similar genetic background of Zhenshan 97B. Its derived F2 and F3 segregation populations were planted respectively in Wuhan and Hainan, and evaluated for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring pollen fertility and spikelet fertility via single-marker analysis and interval mapping. One new QTL of pollen sterility was detected at the interval RM262–RM475 on chromosome 2, explaining the phenotypic variation of 13.9%. The results suggest that japonica substitution segment carrying the QTL is a major cause of the semi-sterility in IL37. Further fine mapping and identification of candidate genes in the QTL region would facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of pollen sterility in rice.

      Genetic Composition of Elite Soybean Dultivar Hefeng 25
      GUAN Rong-Xia,QIN Jun,HU Jing-Shen,CHEN Wei-Xiu,CHANG Ru-Zhen,LIU Zhang-Xiong,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1590-1596.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01590
      Abstract ( 3111 )   PDF (431KB) ( 3197 )   Save
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      Elite soybean cultivar Hefeng 25, derived from a cross of Hefeng 23×Ke 4430-20, has an accumulated planting area of 13 million hectares and the longest planting history of soybean cultivars. The objective of this study is to evaluate the genetic composition of Hefeng 25 and the relationship of Hefeng 25 with the parents. Four hundred and sixty-three SSR markers were used to screen Hefeng 25 and its parents Hefeng 23 and Ke 4430-20. Of the 463 SSR markers 177 were monomorphic between Hefeng 23 and Ke 4430-20 and 57 loci were detected in Hefeng 25 with new alleles mutated not from the parents. The genetic contribution of Hefeng 23 and Ke 4430-20 to Hefeng 25 was 39.4% and 48.3%, respectively based on molecular information. Analysis of each linkage group revealed that large portions of loci on linkage groups G, E, and L were inherited entirely from one parent. Especially on linkage group G, all loci were inherited from Ke4430-20. The loci on linkage group L inherited from Hefeng 23 were 2.3 fold of that from Ke4430-20. Detailed analysis showed that QTLs for yield and disease resistance may relate to these loci. These analyses suggested that breeders may select recombination events with agronomic favorable alleles of two parents. In order to evaluate the effect of SSR mutation on soybean seed purity, we screened Hefeng 25 seed samples from 12 different seed companies at 207 SSR loci including 57 mutated loci. Hybrid alleles were observed only in 4 seed samples at 13 SSR loci. The result indicated that most of the mutated loci were purified during the breeding process. The elite genotype and high seed purity of Hefeng25 may be the most important factors for its long-term utilization in soybean production.

      Investigation Based on cdna-aflp Approach for Differential Expressed Genesis Responding to Deficient-Pi in Wheat
      GU Jun-Tao,BAO Jin-Xiang,WANG Xiao-Ying,GUO Cheng-Jin,LI Xiao-Juan,LU Wen-Jing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1597-1605.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01597
      Abstract ( 3634 )   PDF (331KB) ( 4007 )   Save
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      To date, differential expression genes in response to deficient-Pi stress have been identified and well studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, and totally 612 up-regulated and 254 down-regulated genes with various functions were reported. However, there is no similar report in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, seedlings of wheat cultivar Shixin 828 with high phosphorus use efficiency were treated with 20 µmol L-1 Pi for 1 to 144 h, and the differential expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with up-regulated and down-regulated patterns were investigated based on cDNA-AFLP approach after deficient-Pi treatment for short term (1–6 h), medium term (12–48 h), and long term (72–144 h). A total of 142 nonredundant ESTs with up-regulated pattern were identified, in which 23, 53, and 66 ESTs expressed in treatments of short, medium, and long term, respectively. Simultaneously, 94 nonredundant ESTs with down-regulated pattern were detected in treatments of short (17), medium (39), and long term (38). These ESTs were classified into several functional groups with BLAST in GenBank. Except for 44 function-unknown ESTs with the up-regulated pattern, the remained up-regulated ESTs conferred functions of signal transduction, transcription regulation, metabolism, stress response, development, transport, and lipid metabolism. Besides the above functions, protein synthesis and protein degradation were also observed in the down-regulated ESTs. Some genes of transcription factors (such as the transcription factor genes with high homologous to rice OsPTF1 and Arabidospsis ZAT10), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK1a), calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK1A), and protein kinase (such as serine/threonine kinase), high-affinity phosphate transporter (PHT3 and PT2), peroxidase (such as peroxidase 73) and glutathione (glutathione S-transferase) were specifically up-regulated under deficient-Pi condition. This suggested that they might play important roles in promoting adaptation to deficient-Pi environment.
      Effect of Allelic Variation and Expression Quantity at Glu-1 Loci on Size Distribution of Glutenin Polymer in Common Wheat
      ZHANG Ping-Ping,MA Hong-Xiang,YAO Jin-Bao,HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1606-1612.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01606
      Abstract ( 2839 )   PDF (144KB) ( 2816 )   Save
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      The size distribution of glutenin polymers is a key factor in determining gluten strength and end-use quality, while the relationship with the quality and quantity of subunits at Glu-1 loci has been not studied in detailed. Twenty-three spring genotypes (Trial I) and twenty-one winter genotypes (Trial II) were used to study the effect of allelic variation and expression quantity at the Glu-1 loci on the size distribution of glutenin polymers. The results showed that the size distribution of glutenin polymers was significantly affected by allelic variation and subunits in expression quantity at the Glu-1 loci based on flour protein content, especially on total expressions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). In Trail I, low expression of HMW-GS was presented, significantly additive effects were observed at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci (P < 0.01) for SDS-unextractable polymeric protein (UPP) and percent SDS-unextractable polymeric protein in total polymeric protein (%UPP). The contribution of individual glutenin subunit could be ranked as 7OE+8* > 7+9 > 17+18 > 7+8 and 5+10 > 2+12 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Higher %UPP was observed in those allelic compositions with subunit 5+10 than with 2+12. The expression of HMW-GS was highly positively correlated with UPP (r = 0.79–0.93). While in Trial II, high expression of HMW-GS was presented, significantly additive effects were only observed at Glu-D1 loci (P < 0.05) for %UPP. The contribution of individual glutenin subunit ranked as 5+10 > 2+12 and 4+12 at Glu-D1 loci for %UPP, and no significant difference was observed among allelic compositions for the size distribution of polymers. The expression of HMW-GS was positively correlated with UPP (r = 0.42–0.86, P < 0.05 or 0.01). In conclusion, gluten strength and end-use quality can be improved by selection of high quality subunits in combination with high expression in breeding program.

      Molecular Identification of a Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene from Common Wheat Cultivar Brock
      LI Gen-Qiao,FANG Ti-Lin,ZHU Jie,GAO Liang-Liang,LI Shan,XIE Chao-Jie,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1613-1619.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01613
      Abstract ( 2951 )   PDF (417KB) ( 3014 )   Save
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      Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most important diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Common wheat cultivar Brock introduced from UK is highly resistant (IT: 0;) to powdery mildew prevalent isolate E09 at the seedling and adult plant stages in North China. Genetic analysis using an F2 segregating population and F2:3 lines, derived from a cross between susceptible common wheat lines Xuezao and resistant common wheat line 3B529 (Jing 411*7//Nongda 015/Brock, F6), indicated that a single dominant gene, temporarily designated MlBrock, was responsible for the resistance of 3B529. By bulked segregant and molecular marker analyses, three polymorphic SSR markers (Xcfd81, Xcfd78, and Xgwm159) and two SCAR markers (SCAR203 and SCAR112) were found to belinked to MlBrock. Among these markers, Xcfd81 and SCAR203 were cosegregated with MlBrock, and SCAR112, Xcfd78, and Xgwm159 were linked to MlBrock with genetic distances of 0.5, 5.5, and 12.7 cM, respectively. According to the available physical bin mapping result of MlBrock cosegregated SSR marker Xcfd81 and SCAR203 in Chinese Spring, MlBrock was further located on chromosome bin 0–0.63 of 5DS. According to the infection-type of E09 Bgt isolate and mapping results, MlBrock might be powdery mildew resistance gene Pm2. The molecular markers developed in this study are useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and gene pyramiding of powdery mildew resistance genes in wheat breeding programs.

      Cloning and Expression Analysis of cMDH Gene Related to Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Wheat  with Aegilops kotschyi Aytoplasm
      ZHANG Long-Yu,LI Hong-Xia,ZHANG Gai-Sheng,WANG Jun-Sheng,HAN Yan-Fen,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1620-1627.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01620
      Abstract ( 3400 )   PDF (654KB) ( 4149 )   Save
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      Male sterility withAegilops kotschyi cytoplasmhas a great application potential in hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding for its stable sterility and broad-spectrum of restoring gene resources. To furtherreveal the genetic mechanism of male sterile with Ae. kotschyi cytoplasm, we employed a male sterile line ms (Kots)-90-110(A) and its near isogenic line BC4F1 (fertility restored by rk5451) to construct sterile and fertile cDNA libraries by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in binucleate stage of anther development. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed EST sequences revealed that one EST highly similar to cytosolic malate dehydrogenases gene was identified from the fertile SSH-cDNA library. Then, The EST sequence was used as a querying probe to blast the Genbank databases. Based on the assembled homologous cDNA sequence, both cDNA and DNA sequences encoding a cytosolic malate dehydrogenases were isolated and characterized by PCR and sequence analysis. Furthermore, expression characteristics of the gene between male sterile and fertile anthers were analyzed via real-time PCR. In this study, the cDNA sequence was 1213 bp in length and the open reading frame encoded a peptide of 333 amino acids. The DNA sequence was 2908 bp in length, which contained seven extrons and six introns. According to expression analysis, the expression of this gene in fertile anthers was much higher than that in sterile anthers at binucleate and trinucleate stage during anther development. The trend of MDH activity was consistent with the quantitative results between fertility and sterility. Therefore, the gene is conjectured to be an early expression gene and its down-regulated expression may affect energy supply during stamen growth in sterile line anthers resulting in male sterility in wheat.
      Differential Expression of Rice Two-Component Elements Genes under Drought Stress
      PAN Ya-Jiao,WANG Di,ZHU Ling-Hua,FU Bin-Ying,LI Zhi-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1628-1636.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01628
      Abstract ( 2874 )   PDF (475KB) ( 3244 )   Save
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      In order to explore the temporal and spatial expression patterns of rice two component system (TCS) genes under drought stress and the relationship between expression of TCS genes and drought resistance ability, a whole rice genome microarray was used to analyze the expression profile of rice TCS genes under drought in different organs at different developmental stages and among rice lines with different drought resistance abilities. Results showed that the TCS genes were expressed in a temporal-spatial specific manner under drought stress in rice, behaved with great difference among the expression patterns of different rice organs and quite similar patterns within same tissues; type-A response regulator (RR) genes which may act as negative regulator of cytokinin signaling were mostly repressed by drought, while type-B RR genes which may play a role in positive regulation of cytokinin signaling were mostly induced by drought, these changes were supposed to be related with the enhancement of CK signaling under drought stress, this suppose was confirmed by the down regulation of ethylene receptor genes under drought from cross-talk of different plant hormones signaling; the HisKinase genes (HK5 and HK3) which is homolog with CK receptor genes (AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1) in Arabidopsis were induced by drought, while HK6 which is homolog with AHK5 (cytokinin-independent 2, CKI2)was drought repressed, these results provided a further confirmation of above suppose. The analysis of TCS genes expression profiling in drought resistant introgression lines and IR64 under drought stress did not find significant difference among the expression patterns of different rice lines, this maybe indicates that the TCS genes were related to drought responsiveness, but their effect to the enhancement of drought resistance still need further research.

      Gene Differential Expression at Seedling Stage in Four Cotton Combination Hybridized by CRI-12 and Its Pedigree-Deerived Lines
      ZHU Xin-Xia,ZHU Yi-Chao,AI Ni-Jiang,LIU Ren-Zhong,ZHANG Tian-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1637-1645.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01637
      Abstract ( 3232 )   PDF (304KB) ( 2646 )   Save
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      CRI-12, an Upland cotton variety with high yield, elite fiber quality and disease resistance, is characterized by its high heritability, combining ability and genetic stability. CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines were used to develop high heterosis cotton hybrids such as Zhongmiansuo 28, CRI-29, XZM2, and Jimian 18. The roots and leaves at seedling stage of these hybrids and their corresponding parents were sampled for cDNA-AFLP analysis and validation by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results were as follows: (1) CIR-12 played a predominant role in the heterosis of vegetative growth in CRI-28, CRI-29, and Jimian18 at seedling stage. (2) Four differential expression types were detected between the hybrid and its parents: I. Up expression only showed in hybrid but not in both parents; II. Dominant expression showed in one of the parents but not in F1 and another parent, including the expression pattern in female parent and hybrid not in male parent, and the expression pattern in male parent and hybrid not in female parent; III. The gene silenced in one of the parents, including the expression pattern in male parent not in hybrid and female parent and the expression pattern in female parent not in hybrid and male parent, IV. Down expression showed in both parents but not in F1. The tendency of proportion in four types was consistent and showed a high ratio in dominant expression and silencing in single parent, but a low ratio in down expression in roots and leaves of hybrids. The type expressed only in one parent and F1 or only in one parent played main role in heterosis. Differential expression genes in leaves and roots accounted for 29.20–46.09% and 15.65–22.49%, respectively. The differential expression genes in leaves were more than those in roots, indicating that some genes play larger roles for heterosis than these in roots. (3) Genes co-expressed between hybrids and high value parent CRI-12 and/or its derived lines were much more than those between hybrids and the relative low value parents, indicating that CIR-12 plays a predominant role in the expression of genes responsible for heterosis in CRI-28, CRI-29, and Jimian18 at seedling stage. (4) Differentially expressed genes in the four hybrids accounted for 27.00–34.56% of total genes detected. Further analysis revealed that the main modes of gene action involved in hybrids were additive and dominant effects accounting for 79.52–83.79%, and the effect of over-dominance accounting for 3.30–7.17%, under-dominance effects accounting for 2.62–4.14% and low-parent dominance effects accounting for 5.65–13.03%. All possible modes of gene action co-existed supported the hypothesis of multiple gene mechanisms contributed to heterosis. (5) Over-dominance effect in CRI-28 which express high parent heterotic is 7.17%, higher than that in three other middle heterotic crosses at three earlier growing stages, which suggesting the differential expression type expressed only in F1 play an important role in heterosis of vegetative growth.

      Construction of  Genetic Linkage Map of Burley Tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Genetic Dissection of Partial Traits
      CAI Chang-Chun,CHAI Li-Guang,WANG Yi,XU Fang-Sen,ZHANG Jun-Jie,LIN Guo-Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1646-1654.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01646
      Abstract ( 3081 )   PDF (383KB) ( 3081 )   Save
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      The agronomic traits and chemical components are very important factors affecting yield and tobacco leaf quality. Dissecting genetic control of these traits can facilitate the breeding of new tobacco cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objective of this study was to identify QTLs controlling partial agronomic traits and chemical components in burley tobacco. A double haploid (DH) population of burley tobacco was used to construct a molecular marker genetic linkage map. The DH population was derived from a cross between high quality cultivar Burley37 with high nicotine content and Burley21 with low nicotine content. The mapping population was planted in main production region of burley tobacco in Hubei province for two years to obtain repetitive phenotype data. On the basis of this map, QTLs for four chemical components including nicotine (NIC), total nitrogen (TN), total sugar (TS), total potassium(TK) of air-cured central tobacco leaf and six agronomic traits including plant height (PH), stalk circumference (LS), distance between nodes (PT), number of total leaf (LN), length of central leaf (L) and width of central leaf (W) were analyzed by using software Windows QTL Cartographer Ver. 2.5. The results showed that a total of 112 AFLP loci and six SRAP loci assembled into 22 linkage groups (A1–A22) composed the whole linkage map spanning 1 953.6 cM with an average distance of 20.5 cM between adjacent loci. There were 25 distortion-segregation loci (17.0%) mainly clustering in linkage groups A1, A11, and A14. A total of eleven main QTLs including seven QTLs influencing chemical components and the other remaining four QTLs conferring agronomic traits were detected. Out of them, two (btnic1 and btnic2) QTLs were detected for NIC, two (bttn1 and bttn2) for TN, three (btts1, btts2, and btts3) for TS, one (btph) for PH, one (btls) for LS, one (btpt) for PT and one (btl) for L. However, no QTL was detected for TK, LN and W. The 11 main QTLs explained 12.3% to 26.4% of phenotypic variation of traits detected. Additionally, btnic1 and bttn1 respectively controlling NIC and TN showed a good co-segregation, indicating that there could be a certain unknown biological relationship between nicotine biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in tobacco leaf. The present study would provide a better understanding for the genetic control and further fine mapping of chemical components and agronomic traits in burley tobacco.

      SNP in Tobacco Mitochondrial Gene atp6 and Its Correlation with CMS
      ZHAO Ting,ZHU Teng-Yi,LIU Qi-Yuan,ZHANG Mei-Liang,JIANG Hai-Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1655-1661.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01655
      Abstract ( 3052 )   PDF (506KB) ( 3014 )   Save
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      The cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of higher plants has great significance for the use of heterosis in crop production and the researches of cytoplasmic heredity and the interaction between cytoplasm and nucleolus. The mitochondrial genome is considered as the carrier of sterility gene of cytoplasm, its mutation and recombination are closely related to CMS. ATP synthase participates in the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation and provides energy for the plant growth and development. The atp6 gene is one of the subunits of ATP synthase in mitochondria. The base mutation of DNA sequence of atp6 gene results in the abnormal synthesis of amino acids, causing the dysfunction of ATP synthase and the shortage of energy in plant cells. So the normal physiological function of cells is difficulty to be maintained, which results in the male sterility in higher plant.Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a frequent sort of genetic variation in organism genome DNA and this genetic variation is generally the direct reason of the changes of biologic traits. To better use the male-sterile lines to breed tobacco varieties, we investigated the molecule mechanism of tobacco CMS. The atp6 is a significant candidate gene carried by chondriosome related to CMS in higher plants. In this study, using specific primers designed, the mitochondrial atp6 gene was distinctively amplified by PCR from seven tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) CMS lines (named as MS Yunyan 85, MS Zhongyan 90, MS K346, MS K326, MS G28, MS Nordel, and MS Jingyehuang) and their corresponding maintainer lines. Six nucleotide variations at A-59C, T-92C, T-185G, T-253C, T-418C, and T-768C in mitochondrial atp6 gene of CMS were detected by sequencing directly and comparing the sequences of atp6 gene. Four nucleotide variations at 59, 92, 185 and 418 resulted in the changes of amino acids coded by the changed nucleotide.The rest two nucleotide variations at 253 and 768 didn’t cause the changes of amino acids, which was a synonymy mutation. The 59 AC mutation of atp6 gene was detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with a total of 222 individual tobacco plants, indicating that all the mitochondrial atp6 gene fragments of maintainer lines plants could be entirely digested by Bst1107 I and showed 2 bands in the electrophoresis pattern of atp6 gene, while these of 96% CMS plants displayed 3 bands in the electrophoresis pattern of atp6 gene could be partly digested by Bst1107 I due to the mutation of AC at 59. So the A-59C SNP site in atp6 gene exhibited a significant correlation with the tobacco CMS.
      Leaf Stay-Green Traits in Chinese Maize Inbred Lines and Their Relationship with Grain Yield
      LIU Kai-Chang,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHAO Hai-Jun,WANG Qing-Cheng,LI Zong-Xin,LIU Xia
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1662-1671.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01662
      Abstract ( 3353 )   PDF (252KB) ( 3415 )   Save
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      Leaf stay-green trait is one of the major targets in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. Although sugar concentration in culm, green leaf number, leaf area, and chlorophyll content at maturity have been used to evaluate the stay-green trait of maize in earlier studies, there is no a common criterion. To further study the evaluation system for stay-green in maize and disclose the relationship of stay-green with grain yield, we sampled 75 inbred lines from common parents of Chinese maize cultivars. At silking stage and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 d after silking, the leaf area (LA), leaf area duration (LAD), relative leaf area, and relative green-leaf area (RGLA) were measured. The results showed that the changes of RGLA after silking accorded with the equation of y = aeb-cx/ (1+eb-cx). On the basis of correlation analysis, the green leaf number, chlorophyll content at physiological maturity, and mean decreasing rate of RGLA (Vm) were selected as the key indices to discriminate the stay-green and non-stay-green maize genotypes. According to relative green leaf area at physiological maturity (MRGLA), the maximum decrease rate of RGLA (Vmax), and the mean decreasing rate of RGLA (Vm), the 75 inbred lines were classified into stay-green and non-stay-green two types with Hiechical clustering analysis. The stay-green type was composed of 12 inbred lines with the following common characteristics: MRGLA of more than 60%, Vm of 0.687% d-1, no significant decrease of RGLA during the whole growing period (67.07% at maturity), and high green leaf number (8.8 leaves) and chlorophyll content (4.43 mg dm-2) at physiological maturity. The non-stay-green type, consisting of 63 inbred lines, was further categorized with quick-leaf-senescence (50 inbred lines) and slow-leaf-senescence (13 inbred lines) subgroups. In the quick- and slow-leaf senescence subgroups, the RGLA at maturity, Vm, green leaf number at maturity, and chlorophyll content at maturity were 17.75% and 33.55%, 1.89% d-1 and 1.44% d-1, 3.2 and 6.2, and 2.06 mg dm-2 and 3.17 mg dm-2, respectively. At physiological maturity, the RGLA was positively correlated with LAD (r= 0.8861, P < 0.01) and yield per plant (r = 0.8221, P < 0.01). The LAD and yield per plant were 20.02–23.87% and 50.44–59.38% higher in the stay-green type than in the non-stay-green type, respectively. Thus, the stay-green type had higher yield potential due to larger green leaf area, higher chlorophyll content and photosynthesis efficiency as well as longer photosynthesis duration.

      Fartilizer-Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Its Physiological Mechanism under Site-Specific Nitrogen Management in Rice
      LIU Li-Jun,YANG Li-Nian,SUN Xiao-Lin,WANG Zhi-Qin,YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1672-1680.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01672
      Abstract ( 3588 )   PDF (406KB) ( 3601 )   Save
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      Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is one of the most important factors affecting grain yield in rice. High N inputs and low use efficiency is a main problem in rice production in China. Site-specific N management (SSNM) has been considered as a new technique which could increase N use efficiency in rice. However, its underlying mechanism is not understood. In this study, one indica hybrid Shanyou 63 and two japonica cultivars Wuyujing 3 and Yangjing 9538 were field-grown, and two treatments, SSNM and farmers’ fertilizer practice (FFP), were conducted. The results showed that SSNM reduced N rate by 48.1–63.0% and increased grain yield by 0.1–9.3% when compared with FFP. Recovery efficiency and agronomic efficiency of fertilizer-N under SSNM were increased by 31.4–56.8% and 143.6–166.0%, respectively, as compared with those under FFP. The peak of N uptake appeared during the peirod from panicle initiation to heading. The N uptake during this period and its ratio to total N uptake during the whole growth stage were significantly higher under SSNM than under FFP. The amount of N uptake after heading under SSNM was also much higher than that under FFP. From panicle initiation, root weight and activity (especially root activity per stem) under SSNM were higher than those under FFP. SSNM also significantly increased the activities of glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and Fd-glutamate synthase in leaves at the panicle initiation and heading stages. Photosynthetic rate of the flag leaves was also obviously greater under SSNM than under FFP. These results indicated that SSNM could promote root growth, increase matter production and nutrient uptake during the mid and late growth periods, leading to higher fertilizer-N use efficiency in rice.

      Quantitative Relationship between Hyper-spectral Red Edge Position and Canopy Leaf NitrogenConcentration in Rice
      TIAN Yong-Chao,YANG Jie,YAO Xia,ZHU Yan,CAO Wei-Xing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1681-1690.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01681
      Abstract ( 3136 )   PDF (513KB) ( 3701 )   Save
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      Real-time and non-destructive monitoring of crop nitrogen status is needed for precision management and dynamic regulation in rice fertilization. This research made a systematic analysis on the characteristics of the first-derivative reflectance spectra in red edge area, and the quantitative relationships between red edge position (REP) with different algorithms and canopy leaf nitrogen concentrations in the conditions of different nitrogen rates and rice varieties in different seasons of field-grown rice. The results showed that spectrum in red edge area was significantly affected by nitrogen levels and varietal types, and “three-peak” feature could be observed with the first derivative spectrum in this area. Traditional REP (the maximum value of the fist derivative spectra in 670–780 nm range) was not sensitive to canopy leaf nitrogen concentration because of the three-peak feature, but the REPs based on inverted Gaussian fitting, linear four-point interpolation, linear extrapolation and adjusted linear extrapolation generated continuous REP data, and could be used to estimate canopy leaf nitrogen concentration. Besides, REP from a three-point Lagrangian interpolation with three first-derivatives bands (695, 700 and 705 nm) also had a good relationship with canopy leaf nitrogen concentration. Comparison of these REPs based on different approaches indicated that the adjusted linear extrapolation method (755FD730+675FD700) / (FD730+FD700) gave the best prediction of canopy leaf nitrogen concentration, with relative simple algorithm, and thus is a good REP parameter for monitoring canopy leaf nitrogen concentration in rice.

      Effect of Plant Growth Substances on Morphological and Anatomical Structure of Leaf and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Soybean
      FENG Nai-Jie,ZHENG Dian-Feng,ZHAO Jiu-Xiang,ZU Wei,DU Ji-Dao,ZHANG Yu-Xian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1691-1697.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01691
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      Many soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] morphological and physiological regulations responding to plant growth substances have been reported. Related researches showed that plant growth substances could effectively control lodging, increase leaf area index, promote photosynthesis, reduce productive abscission and improve yield and quality in soybean production. Plant growth substances thorough adjusting inner hormone control soybean’s whole process of growth and development, at the same time possibly affect the structure of soybean organs, including root, stem, leaf, and productive organs, on which there are a little report. Microtechnique and ultramicrotechnique have triumphantly applied in the researches on the changes of fibre texture and ultrastructure in plant caused by nutrient elements and environment factors, which provides availibity to research the effects of plant growth substances on the structure of soybean organs. The present study was carried out in an attempt to compare anatomical structure and photosynthetic characteristics of cultivar Kennong 4, Treated with three plant growth substances In the field of experiments on trail farm of Heilongjiang August-First Land Reclamation University in 2006. The selected secure plant growth substances Diethyl anlinoethyl (DTA), Ckolirte chloride (Cc), and SOD simulation material (SODM), were applied by leaf-spraying at the beginning of blossom stage (R1). 30 days later, at the beginning seed stage (R5), the functional leaves were sampled to compare fibre texture and ultrastructure by microtechnique and ultramicrotechnique. Photosynthetic characteristics, such as leaf index, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic potential and photosynthetic rate, were measured every 10 days after the treatments.The results indicated that the plant growth substances caused the changes of both anatomical structure of leaf and photosynthetic characteristics. Under light microscope, we found that, compared with control, DTA, CC, and SODM increased palisade tissue thickness and ratio of palisade/spongy of leaf. The tight degree of palisade tissue arrangement,was different in treatment showing the order of SODM> DTA> CC> CK. DTA, CC, and SODM increased the number of chloroplast single cell, granule lamella and starch grains in chloroplast, while reduced the number of osmophilic globuli in the chloroplast. SODM, DTA increased granule number in chloroplast significantly. In the investigation of photosynthetic characteristics, we found that, compared with control, DTA, SODM, and CC increased the contents of Chl a, Chl b, Chl(a+b) in leaf and the ratio of Chl b/a. DTA, SODM, and CC advanced the time to maximum leaf area index and leaf area duration (LAD), increased total LAD and photosynthetic rate during grain filling period under water stress. From above, we drew a conclusion that plant growth substances could at least partially regulate the structure of soybean organs, fibre texture and ultrastructure of soybean leaf, which is helpful to promote photosynthesis, showing the consistency between anatomical structure and physiological function.
      Effects of  Seedlings Number per Hill on Grain Yield and Quality in Different Panicle Types of Mechanical Transplanted Japonica Rice
      QIAN Yin-Fei,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,WU Wen-Ge,CHEN Ye,LI Jie,GUO Zhen-Hua,ZHANG Qiang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1698-1707.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01698
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      Field experiment was conducted under the rice-wheat two-ripe systems at the Lixia River area during the year 2006–2007, three mid-season japonica rice cultivars including Yanjing 9 (small panicle type), Huaidao 9 (medium panicle type) and 9 you 418 (large panicle type) were adopted to investigate the effects of five planting densities on yield and quality of mechanical-transplanted rice. Results showed that with the increase of seedlings per hill, the final panicles per plant increased while the number of grains per panicle, the grain filling rate and the 1000-grain weight decreased; and the yield of three cultivars increased firstand then decreased. The highest yield was obtained when rice was transplanted with 4 seedlings per hill for small panicle type, with 3 seedlings per hill for medium panicle type and with 2 seedlings per hill for large panicle type. With the increasing of seedlings per hill, the chalkiness degree, the chalkiness rate and the amylose content increased while the milled rice qualities and the protein content decreased, and the gel consistency became longer. Among all of the RVA profiles, the peak viscosity, hot viscosity, breakdown, the final viscosity and the pasting temperature increased first and then decreased. The setback decreased first and then increased.Considering the grain yield together with quality, we suggest that for the coordination of high-yielding and high quality rice transplanting should be with 4 seedlings per hill for small panicle type rice, 3 seedlings per hill for medium panicle type rice and with 2 seedlings per hill for large panicle type.
      Yield Performance and Resources Used Efficiency of Winter Wheat and Summer Maize in Double Late-Cropping System
      FU Xue-Li,ZHANG Hui,JIA Ji-Zeng,DU Li-Feng,FU Jin-Dong,ZHAO Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1708-1714.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01708
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      The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation is the main crop system in North China plain. In recent years, with continuous increase of air temperature, the double late-cropping system (late sowing for winter wheat and late harvested for summer maize) has of importance for whole-year high yield in this area. Proper scheme of light and heat in the double late-cropping system can provide high resource use efficiency (RUE) and high yields of both wheat and maize. To quantitatively analyze the yield performance and the effect of “double late” we need, two cultivars of winter wheat and two cultivars of summer maize in field experiments in Wen county and Jiaozuo of Henan province in 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 respectively. The dry matter production, grain yield, yield performance quantitative parameters, and energy (light and accumulated temperature) used efficiency were investigated in the double late-cropping system and compared with those in traditional cropping system (control). The results showed that the whole-year yield was 21 891–22 507 kg ha-1 in the double late-cropping system with 442–2 575 kg ha-1 more than that in control. In wheat cropping season, the yield of FS230 was slightly reduced with no significant difference form that of the control, but the yield of Yumai 49 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by 291–305 kg ha-1. In the maize cropping season, yield increased by 747–2 700 kg ha-1, which highly compensated the yield loss of winter wheat. In the yield performance quantitative parameters, although the mean leaf area index, spike number, and grain number per spike of winter wheat decreased in the double late-cropping system, the mean net assimilation rate, harvest index, and grain weight were significantly (P < 0.05) promoted. Similarly, the mean leaf area index, harvest index, growth duration, and grain weight of maize significantly increased in the double late-cropping system. The light and temperature use efficiency were 2.22%–10.86% and 0.47%–11.56% higher in the double late-cropping system than in control. The results imply that the double late-cropping system has good performances on grain yield and resource use efficiency. The high whole-year yield and high production efficiency in double late-cropping system are mainly subject to the cropping season of maize, a C4 plant with high photosynthetic efficiency. Thus, based on late sowing, early-maturing wheat cultivars are suggested to be used in the double cropping system in North China, resulting in longer grain-filling period of the following maize crop and ultimately higher yield.

      Accumulation and Transportation Characteristics of Dry Matter after Anthesis in Different Mung Bean Cultivars
      GAO Xiao-Li,SUN Jian-Min,GAO Jin-Feng,FENG Bai-Li,WANG Peng-Ke,CHAI Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1715-1721.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01715
      Abstract ( 2777 )   PDF (327KB) ( 2823 )   Save
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      The dry matter accumulation is the basis for yield formation in crops, and its transportation determines the nutrient flow and seed yield. In order to find out the internal mechanisms of yield-formation of mung bean, investigated the accumulation, distribution and transportation characteristics of dry matter in the above-ground organs consisting of stalks, leaves, pod shells and seeds during flowering to maturing by using mung bean high-yielding cultivars Jilü 2 and An 9910, and low-yielding cultivars Chifeng and Tailai in the summer-sowing areas. The results showed that the change of dry matter accumulation in both of plant and seeds presented the “S” curves after anthesis, the key stage for yield formation of plant biomass and seeds was at 16–31 days after anthesis, the main source organ of grain-filling was the leaves at flowering nodes on the main stem with the biggest contribution to grain yield. Significant differences were observed between different genotypes, the accumulation and transportation capacities of the high-yielding cultivars (Jilü 2 and An 9910) were greater than those of the low-yielding cultivars, especially for the accumulation of dry matter in the leaves at the flowering node on the main stems, so higher yield and harvest index were achieved in the high-yielding cultivars. Therefore, the major practice to achive higher yield in the mung bean production should be to choose the cultivars with multi-pods and bigger grain, to enhance the field management after anthesis to maintain longer function duration of leaves at flowering nodes on the main stem, and to remove the invalid branches to improve the transportation and distribution of dry matter as well.
      Effect of Plant Distrbution in Population on Dry Matter Accumulation,Pantitioning and Yield in Summer Soybean
      QI Lin,YANG Guo-Min,ZHOU Xun-Bo,CHEN Yu-Hai,GAO Hui-Jun,LIU Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1722-1728.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01722
      Abstract ( 2664 )   PDF (303KB) ( 2884 )   Save
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      The experiment was carried out in 2007–2008. The five plant distribution patterns under the same plant density were A: 18 cm×18 cm, B: 27 cm×12 cm, C: 36 cm×9 cm, D: 45 cm×7.2 cm, E: 54 cm×6 cm in row spacing (cm) ×plant spacing (cm), respectively. The results showed that the average leaf area index in A and B treatments was 30% and 25% significantly higher than that in E treatment respectively in the whole growing period access two years. Compared with in E treatment the dry matter accumulation in A and B treatments was increased significantly by 30%, 19% at the whole growing stage in two years, respectively, C, D, and E treatments had no significant difference between each other. The number of pods and pods per branch in A, B, and C treatments were significantly higher than these in E treatment at the whole growing stage in two years, respectively, while there was no significant difference between D and E treatments. A and B treatments were 11%, 10% significantly higher than E treatment in average yield in the two years, respectively, while there was no significant difference between C, D, and E treatments. The leaf area index (LAI) decreased with the increase of row spacing that caused fierce competition for resources, and thus the reduction in dry matter accumulation and distribution, and eventually led the yield to decline. These results indicate that summer soybean population with relatively uniform plant distribution leads to rational dry matter distribution, and higher yield. A and B treatments had no significant difference but B treatment was better for cultivation and management in the actual production process, suggesting that B treatment is the best plant distribution for a population.

      QTL Mining for Sheath Blight Resistance Using the Backcross Selected Introgression Lines for Grain Quality in Rice
      LI Fang,CHENG Li-Rui,XU Mei-Rong,ZHOU Zheng,ZHANG Fan,SUN Yong,ZHOU Yong-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1729-1737.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01729
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      QTLs for disease scale (DS), relative lesion height (RH) and plant height (PH) were mapped using the four introgression lines selected against grain quality from the four introgression populations between two elite varieties, IR64 and Teqing as recurrent parents and two tall varieties, Tarom Molaii and Binam with high grain quality and sheath blight resistance (SBR) as donors. DS had high significant positive correlation with RH, and both of them were significantly negatively correlated with PH. DS, RH and PH presented wide segregations even in the relative small (2860) introgression populations, including some semidwarf plants segregated with overparent SBR. Ten, eight, eight and six QTLs for the three traits were identified in IR64/Tarom Molaii, Teqing/Tarom molaii, IR64/Binam and Teqing/Binam, respectively by one   way ANOVA analysis. The two donor alleles at most QTLs reduced DS and RH as well as increased PH. No any a common QTL for each of the three traits was detected in the populations of the same donor in the two different background, indicating there was a obvious genetic background effect on expression of SBR- and PH-QTLs. QTLs linked to the same marker loci between PH and DS, and PH and RH accounted for 38% and 52% of total QTLs for the two traits, respectively, indicating SBR had tight relationship with PH and both of them shared some linked loci. As compared with the previous QTL mapping results of grain quality in the same populations, most QTLs for grain quality and SBR distributed in different chromosome regions and showed independently inherited. Efficiency, influencing factors and its application in breeding of QTL mapping for non-target traits using introgression lines selected against the target trait were deeply discussed, and importance of selective introgression lines in QTL mining and breeding use was also emphasized.

      Relationships of Mixolab Parameters with Farinograph,Extensograph Parameters,and Bread-Making Quality
      ZHANG Yan,WANG Yan-Fei,CHEN Xin-Min,WANG De-Sen,Humieres G D,FENG Jian-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1738-1743.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01738
      Abstract ( 3698 )   PDF (272KB) ( 3085 )   Save
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      Bread-making quality based on dough properties is routinely measured with various equipments to predict quality of wheat cultivar. It is critical to clarify the association between the newly available Mixolab parameters and dough characteristics determined by Farinograph, Extensograph, and bread-making quality. Forty-one breeding lines were used to measure parameters of Mixolab, Farinograph, Extensograph and bread-making quality, and to determine the associations between parameters of Mixolab and Farinograph and Extensograph and the reliability of predicting bread-making quality using these parameters. These results indicated that parameters of Farinograph and Extensograph could be predicted by Mixolab C1 (development time), stability, C2 (protein weakening during heating) and time C4 (time to come setback of starch pasting), accounting for 74–90% of the variation. Mixolab C2 could be used in prediction of loaf volume, bread appearance, structure, and total score, accounting for 52%, 73%, 70%, and 68% of variation, respectively. For bread texture and elasiticity, the Mixolab stability, C2, parameters of starch pasting properties, such as time C3, C4, C5, and T°C5, were more important parameters. The effects of protein property and starch quality on bread baking quality were explained well with Mixolab parameters, thus, Mixolab was particularly applicable to determine wheat quality property. Because of the different contributions to the evaluations of bread volume, texture, and structure, Mixolab, Farinograph, and Extensograph are suggested to be used according to experimental purposes.
      Coordination between Source and Sink in Super Early and  Late Rice
      YUAN Xiao-Yue,PAN Xiao-Hua,SHI Qing-Hua,WU Jian-Fu,QI Ying-Xue
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1744-1748.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01744
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      In order to clarify the super higher yield mechanism of super early and late rice, we studied the source and sink characteristics under field conditions. Compared with non-super rice cultivars (control cultivar), the total sink capacity, ratio of grain-leaf area and ratio of grain-vascular bundle of super rice were higher, and positively and significantly correlated with grain yield. During filling stage, the ratio of source increase to sink of super early and late rice was slightly higher than that of control cultivars, but in the mid-late filling stage (10–25 d after heading) of early rice and the early filling stage (0–10 d after heading) of late rice, the ratio was significantly larger than that of control cultivars. The initialgrain-filling rate and mean grain-filling rate of super early and late rice were higher than those of controlcultivars, and positively and significantly correlated with filled grain rate and yield respectively. The degradation rates of root activity of super early and late rice after heading were lower than those of control cultivars, while the temperature depression (difference between air temperature and leaf temperature) was higher than that of controlcultivarsexcept early rice Zhuliangyou 819 and late rice Ganxin 688. The degradation rate of root activity and the temperature depression were negatively and positively, correlated with grain yield, respectively. The results suggested that larger total sink capacity and better coordination between source and sink should be the important mechanism for super higher yield in super early and late rice cultivars.
      Cloning and Expression of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Genesis TaCPK1A and TaCPK10 in Response to Deficient-Pi in Wheat
      LU Wen-Jing,LI Rui-Juan,LI Xiao-Juan,GUO Cheng-Jin,GU Jun-Tao,XIAO Kai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1749-1754.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01749
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      Two expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) genes responding to deficient-Pi were identified from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Shixin 828 by subtractive suppression cDNA library and cDNA-AFLP approaches. The genes, TaCPK1A and TaCPK10, contained the conserved domains of plant CDPK, were 2 129 bp and 1 696 bp in full length open reading frames of 1599 bp and 1 281 bp, encoding 532 and 426 amino acids,respectively. Phylogenetic analysis implied different ancestors of TaCPK1A and TaCPK10 because of their low identity of sequence. Under low-Pi condition, the expression level of TaCPK1A in roots was strongly inducible and reached the highest at 24 h after treatment, but that in leaves was induced in 1 h of treatment and maintained stably afterwards. The expression of TaCPK10 in roots and leaves both showed a pattern of low–high–low with the peak at 1 h of treatment,and then decreased to the level before treatment. No responses of TaCPK1A and TaCPK10 were observed to low-N and low-K stresses. Therefore, it is suggested that CDPK playsan important role in mediating phosphate-starvation signal in wheat. There are at least two phosphorylation reaction pathways for transduction of low-Pi signal, in which CDPKs are involved.
      Physico-Chemical Properties of A-and B-Type Starch Granules in Wheat
      TIAN Yi-Hua,ZHANG Chuan-Hui,CAI Jian,ZHOU Qin,JIANG Dong*,DAI Ting-Bo,JING Qi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2009, 35(9):  1755-1758.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01755
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      A- and B-type starch granules were isolated and purified from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour to study their physico-chemical properties. Starch granule image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that there was obvious morphological difference between A- and B-type starch granules, and they could be completely isolated without mixture due to the unique type of starch granule in each group. The diameter of A-type starch granule was 4.45–44.46 μm and there were 1.23×1010 granules per gram starch, whereas the two values of B-type granule were 0.47–11.16 μm and 6.70×1010, respectively. Amylose content in A- and B-type granules was 27.70% and 22.62%, respectively. Compared with the A-type granules, the B-type granules had higher pasting temperature and lower viscosities of peak, breakdown, and setback. The B-type granules contributed greatly to the pasting properties of the reconstituted starches when the fraction of B-type granules was less than 30%. Effects of starch granule size distribution on pasting property of reconstituted starch decreased when the fraction of B-type granules was higher than 30%.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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