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    12 December 2010, Volume 36 Issue 12
    • REVIEW
      Mechanism and Regulation in the Filling of Inferior Spikelets of Rice
      YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2011-2019.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02011
      Abstract ( 3803 )   PDF (427KB) ( 3502 )   Save
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      Grain filling is the final growth stage in cereals when fertilized ovaries develop into caryopses. The degree and rate of grain filling in rice spikelets differ largely with their positions on a panicle. In general, earlier-flowering superior spikelets, usually located on apical primary branches, fill fast and produce larger and heavier grains. While later-flowering inferior spikelets, usually located on proximal secondary branches, are either sterile or fill slowly and produce smaller grains. The poor grain-filling of inferior spikelets is more aggravated in the new bred “super” rice cultivars that have numerous spikelets on a panicle. Poor filling of inferior spikelets not only limits the realization of great yield potential, but also degrades rice quality, especially milling and apparent qualities. There are many explanations to the poor filling of inferior spikelets, including carbon limitation, sink capacity limitation, unbalance in hormone levels, low activities and/or expressions of enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion, and “flow” impediment. Recent studies have shown that low physiological activities of sink (grains) at the initial grain filling and low conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch during the active grain filling period contribute to the poor filling of inferior spikelets. It is observed that the ratio of sugar to spikelets at the heading stage (amount of non-structural carbohydrate in the stems and sheaths over the number of spikelets at heading) significantly correlats with the physiological activities of sink, and the ratio of abscisic acid (ABA) to 1-aminocylopropane -1-carboxylic acid (ACC, a precursor of ethylene) significantly correlats with the grain filling rate, indicating that increases in the ratios of sugar to spikelets and of ABA to ethylene would be two important regulatory approaches to improve the filling of inferior spikelets. Further studies are essential by investigating how environmental factors (including cultivation techniques), factors of the whole plant, and factors within the spikelets regulate the filling of inferior spikelets. A deep understanding of the regulation mechanism that limits the filling of inferior spikelets would lead to efforts that could greatly enhance grain filling and, consequently, increase the yield performance of rice.
      CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Genetic Analysis of Homozygous-Dominant-Surviving Ligon Lintless Recombinants in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
      LIU Feng-Ju, LIANG Wen-Hua, ZHANG Tian-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2020-2027.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02020
      Abstract ( 1989 )   PDF (251KB) ( 1176 )   Save
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      The Li1 mutant discovered by Griffee and Ligon in 1929 is characterized by its short lint fiber, contorted leaf laminae and a twisted appearance of the branches and stems. It was observed that the homozygous mutant plants appeared slightly smaller than the heterozygous ones. Li1 mutant has never been observed to produce homozygous Li1 phenotype by selfing since it was introduced and planted in China. To study the allelic relationship between three fiberless mutant (XZ142 FLM,MD17, and SL1-7-1) genes and Li1 gene, we crossed the Li1 mutant with these three fiberless mutants, respectively. From the cross Li1 × XZ142 FLM, we unexpectedly got a recombinant with all distorted leaves and short lint fibers. And there was no segregation in their F2 progeny, which indicated that the mutation is homozygous of Li1 gene. We named this homozygous Li1 mutantas Ligon lintless recombinant (Li-R). Segregating populations were produced to conduct the inheritance analysis of homozygous-dominant- surviving phenotype of this Ligon lintless recombinant Li-R. Segregation of four F2s derived from Li-R× XZ142 FLM, Li-R×TM-1, Li-R×Hai 7124, and Li-R×Li1 indicated that the segregation of the homozygous-dominant-surviving phenotype of Li-Rfit a two locus inheritance model, one locus being the dominant Li1 and another a new recessive locus derived from XZ142 FLM, and we proposed to name it as lia. Therefore, the genotype of homozygous-dominant-surviving plant Li-Ris lialiaLi1Li1, and that of homozygous-dominant-leathal plant of Li1 is LiaLiaLi1Li1, the genotype of XZ142 FLM is lialiali1li1, that of the heterozygousLi1 mutant found in 1929 is LiaLiaLi1li1. Segregation analysis of F2-derived F3 families from Li-R×TM-1 revealed that lia is non-allalic to li3 and n2, both genes leading to fiberless seed phenotype.
      Involvement of Heterotrimeric G Protein α and β Subunits in Defense Responses of Wheat to Puccinia triticina
      YANG Jing-Jing, LI Ya-Ning, LI Xing, LIU Da-Qun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2028-2034.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02028
      Abstract ( 2324 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1111 )   Save
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      Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein), a kind of protein in living cells, plays an important role in signal transduction on plasma membrane. G protein is actively involved in many physiological processes in plant, such as seed germination, stem elongation, root growth, fruit development, and regulation of defense reaction system. To clarify the functions of G protein on wheat leaf rust resistance, we detected the roles of Gα and Gβ subunits at a gene expression level in the interaction between wheat (Triticum aestvum L.) and Puccinia triticina. The results may help to disclose the molecular mechanism of wheat leaf rust resistance and signal transduction. Typical compatible and incompatible interactions were constructed, from wheat leaf rust resistance near-isogenic lines TcLr1 and P. triticina 05-22-64/05-8-63①. Expression of gene encoding Gα or Gβ subunit was detected in these interactions by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Using water as control, the activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and the rate changes of reactive oxygen ions production were determined in the compatible and incompatible interactions of wheat and P. triticina, respectively. In contrast with inoculated by virulent or avirulent strain independently, wheat leaves were smeared in a thin layer by G protein inhibitor pertussis toxin and inoculated with avirulent strain after 24 h. The [1]expressions of gene for Gα and Gβ subunits were up-regulated when inoculated with the avirulent strain but down-regulated by the inoculation of the virulent strain. Different subunits of G protein showed different priorities in the process of disease resistance signal transduction. The β subunit gene expressed earlier and in a higher level than the α subunit gene. In addition, G protein increased the resistance to P. triticina through stimulating the defense enzyme activities and reactive oxygen ions. These results indicate that both Gα and Gβ subunits may be involved in the process of disease resistant signal transduction.
      Construction of SSH Library and Its Analyses of Cotton Drought Associated Genes under Drought Stress
      WANG De-Long, YE Wu-Wei, WANG Jun-Juan, SONG Li-Yan, FAN Wei-Li, CUI Yu-Peng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2035-2044.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02035
      Abstract ( 2261 )   PDF (379KB) ( 2001 )   Save
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      A forward cDNA-SSH library was established by suppression subtractive hybridization using seedling leaf of Handan 177, a drought-tolerant cotton (Gossypium hirsuutm L.) inbred line, among which 300 positive clones were selected for sequencing. After detection by PCR for each clone, each single clone was sequenced. Totally 284 available sequences and 202 uniESTs which 28 were contigs and 174 were singlets were obtained by cluster analyses of the ESTs sequencing. The results of BlastN showed that 156 uniESTs had homologous sequences in GenBank database while the other 46 had no protein homologous. The BlastX results indicated that 116 uniESTs had significant protein homology and 40 uniESTs were unknown proteins and putative proteins. KOBAS mapped 33 ESTs of the 202 uniESTs to 55 KEGG pathways, in which there were 23 pathways at P-value<0.05. This study suggested that there were closely relationships with cotton drought tolerance among pyruvate metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A large group of drought stress-induced genes were found in the cDNA library, which involved in many metabolism pathways such as signal transduction, energy metabolism, protein metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, photosynthesis, transmembran. And some genes related to drought tolerance were found, such as malate synthase genes (MS1,0001_C12; MS2, 0002_F01) and malate dehydrogenase genes(Md1, 001_C12; Md2, 002_F01), some transcription factors like NAC(001_C08), BZR1/BES1(003_G04) , zinc finger protein genes (zfp, 003_C06), and the translationally controlled tumor protein gene(TCTP,002_C04).
      Mapping QTLs for Male Sterile Gene in YM-Type Thermo-Sensitive Male Sterile Line of Wheat
      ZHOU Ju-Hong, LI Ke, HE Bei-Ru, HU Yin-Gang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2045-2054.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02045
      Abstract ( 2203 )   PDF (340KB) ( 1721 )   Save
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      The sterile gene of YM-type thermo-sensitive male sterile wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line has been mapped on 1Bs chromosome with genetic distance to adjacent molecular markers more than 10 cM. To further locate this thermo-sensitive male sterile gene, we constructed a mapping population with 200 F2 plants from the cross between ATM3314 and restorer line Chinese Spring. Twenty-two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributing evenly on 1Bs were screened between the parents and the male sterile and fertile bulks, and five markers showed polymorphism. These markers were then tested in the F2 population. A 1Bs partial linkage map with the five SSR markers was obtained and QTLs for the male sterility were detected using composite interval mapping method. One major QTL and one minor QTL were detected, which were designated as rfv1-1 and rfv1-2, respectively. QTL rfv1-1 was located between the SSR markers Xgwm18 and Xwmc406 on chromosome 1Bs with genetic distances of 6.0 cM and 4.6 cM, respectively. The LOD value for this locus was 8.80, and the gene effects were 23.87 for additive effect and 10.44 for dominant effect. This QTL explained 23.91% of the phenotypic variation. QTL rfv1-2 was mapped between markers Xwmc406and Xbarc8 with genetic distances of 4.0 cM and 3.4 cM, respectively. The LOD value of this QTL was 3.10. This locus had additive effect of 17.59 and dominant effect of 5.99, and explained 7.78% of the phenotypic variation. These results are propitious for fine mapping and positional cloning of this male sterile gene.
      Application of SCoT Molecular Marker Technique in Genus Arachis
      XIONG Fa-Qian, JIANG Jing, ZHONG Rui-Chun, HAN Zhu-Qiang, HE Liang-Qiong, LI Zhong, ZHUANG Wei-Jian, TANG Rong-Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2055-2061.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02055
      Abstract ( 2492 )   PDF (438KB) ( 1485 )   Save
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      The study of molecular markers in the genus Arachis is far behind other species. It was difficult to identify DNA polymorphism in cultivated peanut by most of the molecular marker techniques, because genetic base in cultivated peanut is narrow, limiting the utilization of the Arachis wild species to improve the cultivated peanut and the establishment of peanut breeding technologies of MAS. In the present study, SCoT molecular marker technique, which can be used to detect markers associated with functional genes, was firstly used to study the genetic diversity and relationships among sixteen accessions of four sections in the genus Arachis and among eight accessions of A. hypogaea, respectively. The results showed that a total of 194 loci were detected with 23 SCoT primers in the tested Arachis accessions, 130 of which were polymorphic with a polymorphism of 67.01%. The genetic relationships revealed by cluster analysis were in accordance with previous reports. Nineteen polymorphic SCoT primers were screened out, and a total of 198 loci were amplified in the tested cultivated peanut accessions, 67 (33.84%) of which were polymorphic. This indicated that SCoT marker technique can be used to detect a certain amount of DNA polymorphism in cultivated peanut.
      Establishment of A Rapid HPLC Method for Quantifying Isoflavone Components and Its Application in Tofu Processing
      WANG Chun-E, ZHAO Tuan-Jie, GAI Jun-Yi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2062-2072.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02062
      Abstract ( 2266 )   PDF (367KB) ( 1390 )   Save
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      A rapid, precise, and stable quantifying method of isoflavone components is the key to quality soy–food processing and genetic improvement of quality soybeans. A quick procedure used Agilent 1100 high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) system with the diode array detection (DAD) and Zorbax SB-C18 packed column (5 μm, 4.6 ID × 150 mm) using external standards of isoflavone components, including daidzein,daidzin, 6”-O-acetyldaidzin, 6”-O-malonyldaidzin,genistein, genistin,6”-O-acetylgenistin, 6”-O-malonylgenistin, glycitein, glycitin,6”-O-acetylglycitin and 6”-O-malonylglycitin was established for measuring the 12 isoflavones in soybean seeds and its processing products. The procedure includes the following key points: 80% methanol aqueous solution under ultrasonication for 1 h at 50℃ was chosen; for separation of the 12 isoflavone components within 15 min, the mobile phase of 0.1% acetic acid (V/V) aqueous solvent A and 100% methanol solvent B with the flow rate of 2.0 mL min–1, injection volume at 10 μL, column temperature at 36℃ and detection wavelength at 254 nm were selected; and the linear gradient extraction of 0–2 min, 27% B (V/V)→2~3 min, 27~38% B→3–10 min, 38% B→10–12 min, 38–39% B→12–14 min, 39% B→14–15 min, 39%–27% B was adopted. The procedure was linear (R2 = 0.9976–0.9999), precise (CV or RSD ranged from 0.90% to 3.35% for 2 232 samples from NJRIKY), accurate [recoveries were more than 99.00% for the different concentrations of the 12 isoflavones (CV of 0.22%–1.40%)], robust (inter-day CV of 0.24%–3.95%) and rapid (less than 15 min for 12 isoflavones resolved). The procedure was verified to be effective by a large sample determination of isoflavone components in soybean seed, soymilk and tofu using the soybean population of NJRIKY. The data indicated that the isoflavones were 3 695.00 μg g–1 in seed, among them 14.85% (548.88 μg g–1) were transferred to the residual, 85.15% (3 146.12 μg g–1) to soymilk, but only 17.32% (639.89 μg g–1) to tofu while 67.83% (2 506.23 μg g–1) to whey under the traditional tofu processing with CaSO4 as coagulant. The 12 isoflavone components in soymilk was somewhat less than those in seeds with 6”-O-Malonylgenistin the highest in the both, while in tofu 6”-O-Acetylgenistin and 6”-O-Acetylglycitin were deficient but with high contents of genistein and daidzein. In addition, there was an enlarged genetic variation of the 12 isoflavone components among the lines, indicating the increased genetic potential for quality improvement due to recombination between Kefeng 1 and Nannong 1138-2.
      Cloning of an ABC1-like Gene ZmABC1-10 and Its Responses to Cadmium and Other Abiotic Stresses in Maize (Zea mays L.)
      GAO Qing-Song, YANG Ze-Feng, ZHOU Yong, ZHANG Dan, YAN Cheng-Hai, LIANG Guo-Hua, XU Chen-Wu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2073-2083.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02073
      Abstract ( 2001 )   PDF (800KB) ( 1889 )   Save
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      Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is extremely toxic to plants and animals. Previous studies have shown that several proteins associated with the Activity of the bc1 complex (ABC1) protein family participate in plant responses to cadmium. Here we presented the cloning and characterization of an ABC1-like gene, ZmABC1-10, from maize (Zea mays L.). The full-length 2 519 bp cDNA of maize ABC1-10 gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 250 bp encoding a membrane-binding protein with a predicted localization in the chloroplast. A promoter scan detected numerous cis-elements implicated in abiotic stress, light, and phytohormone responses. Expression profile analysis indicated most expression of this gene occurred in green tissues. Cadmium treatment revealed that expression of this gene could be induced and was correlated with plant development. In addition to cadmium, ZmABC1-10 expression was also affected by a broad range of abiotic factors, such as ABA, H2O2, drought and darkness. A total of 19 members of maize ABC1 family were identified with the B73 maize genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis using 148 ABC1 proteins from 8 representative species of plant kingdom revealed that divergence occurred and species-specific expansion contributed to the evolution of this family in plants. Collectively, our data suggest that ZmAbc1-10 is a cadmium- esponsive factor and may play potential roles in the plant adaption to diverse abiotic stresses.
      Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Four Novel Fatty Acid Synthesis Related Genes in Gossypium hirsutum L.
      DONG Jia, WEI Li-Bin, HU Yan, ZHANG Tian-Zhen, GUO Wang-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2084-2090.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02084
      Abstract ( 2386 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1687 )   Save
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      Metabolism related to fatty acid synthesis plays an important role both in regulating oil biosynthesis and in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The spatial and temporal expression level of genes related to fatty acid synthesis influences the oil content and enzymes activity for fatty acid synthesis. In this study, four novel genes related to fatty acid synthesis, designated GhKASII, GhKASIII, GhFAD, and GhGPAT, were first isolated from upland cotton, respectively. The cDNA full-length of GhKASIII, GhFAD and GhGPAT were obtained by combining homologic cloning and sillico cloning, while GhKASII was obtained by screening cDNA library and 5'-RACE technique. The expression pattern analysis of different tissues and organs revealed that the transcripts of these genes were widely distributed in all the tested tissues and organs. GhKASII and GhKASIII showed the highest expression level in seeds at 25 DPA (day post anthesis), however, GhGPAT in 0 DPA ovules and 15DPA fiber tissues and GhFAD in 0 DPA ovules, 15 DPA seeds and 20 DPA fibers, respectively. Further, the analysis of expression induced by abiotic treatments indicated that the genes were differentially regulated under wounding, methyl jasmonate (Meja), cold and ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. The study will pave a way to develop further research in oil improvement of cotton seed and resistance to abiotic stress in cotton.
      Cloning and Expression Analysis of a CBS Domain Containing Protein Gene TaCDCP1 from Wheat
      WANG Xiao-Min, FENG Gao, SUN Yan-Fei, LIU Bo, WANG Xiao-Jie, XU Liang-Qing, XU Xiu-Mei, WEI Guo-Rong, HUANG Li-Li, KANG Zhen-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2091-2098.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02091
      Abstract ( 2472 )   PDF (578KB) ( 1404 )   Save
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      To elucidate the defense response of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), we constructed the incompatible interaction SSH cDNA library of wheat(cv. Suwon 11) leaves infected by Pst CYR23. A total of 652 unigenes were identified and 424 genes were annotated. On the basis of previous study, according to cDNA sequence LWSRP2502 (Genbank accession No. EV254338), a full-length sequence of the CBS domain containing protein gene, tentatively designated as TaCDCP1 (Triticum aestivum CBS domain containing protein 1), was isolated and characterized from wheat leaves infected by Pst through in silico cloning and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) approaches.The open reading frame of TaCDCP1 was 654 bp in length andpredicted to encode 217 amino acids protein which contained two conserved cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains and was without transmembrane domain or signal peptide sequence. The deduced protein was predicted existing in chloroplast stroma. The amino acid sequence of TaCDCP1 shares 92%, 72%, and 63% identify withthe homologs in barley (Hordeum vulgare) , rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), respectively. The TaCDCP1 gene was highly expressed in leaves than in roots and stems. Challenged by Pst, TaCDCP1 was induced by this fungus in both incompatible and compatible interactions, with the maximal expression at 18 h post inoculation (hpi) and 24 hpi, respectively. Its transcript accumulation was much higher in the incompatible interaction than in the compatible interaction at the early stage of infection (18–48 hpi), but much lower at the late stage (96–120 hpi). The expression of TaCDCP1 wasalso up-regulated after treated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), and down-regulated by benzyladenine, ethylene, gibberellins, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid to a certain degree. And it was obviously up-regulated by various abiotic stresses, such as low temperature and drought. However, mechanical wound and high salinity stress could not induce the expression of TaCDCP1. These results suggest that TaCDCP1 is probably involved in the disease resistance and defense response in wheat to Pst through ABA and ethylene pathways, and also participate in the signal transmission pathways under low temperature, and drought conditions.
      Method of Establishing Ramie Core Collection
      LUAN Meng-Bao, CHEN Jian-Hua, HU Ying, WANG Xiao-Fei, SUN Zhi-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2099-2106.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02099
      Abstract ( 2097 )   PDF (149KB) ( 1127 )   Save
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      Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is an important bast fiber crop. Its fiber, one of the best bast fibers, is widely used in textile industry and plays an indispensable and irreplaceable role in the national economy. Core collection is a representative subset of entire germplasm collection, consisting of introduced accessions with minimum genetic redundancy and retained most initial collection. To develop the method of establishing ramie core collection, based on 25 agrinomic traits data from 790 ramie germplasm of national ramie germplasm nursery, using software provided by professor Xu of Zhejiang university, we sampled a serials of subsets at 20% proportion, respectively, by six hierarchical clustering methods (single linkage, complete linkage, median method, centroid method, ward’s, unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means), three sampling methods (stepwise clustering with random sampling strategy and preferred sampling strategy, stepwise clustering with deviation sampling strategy and preferred sampling strategy, random sampling strategy), three genetic distances in disordered qualitative traits (simple matching, jaccard, nei and li), and three genetic distances in ordered qualitative traits and quantitative characteristics (mahalanobis distance, euclidean distance, principal component). The genetic variation among subsets was compared by evaluating the I (index of genetic diversity), RPR (ratio of phenotype retained) of qualitative traits and MD (mean difference percentage), VD (variance difference percentage), CR (coincidence difference percentage), VR (variable rate of coefficient of variation) of quantitative traits. The results showed that different sampling methods have different impacts on qualitative traits and quantitative traits. For the largest genetic diversity of qualitative traits, it is effective to choose stepwise clustering with random sampling strategy and preferred sampling strategy. For the largest genetic diversity of quantitative traits, it is effective to choose stepwise clustering with deviation sampling strategy and preferred sampling strategy. The ramie core collection is the best one constructed by centroid method, single linkage clustering way under stepwise clustering with random sampling strategy and preferred sampling strategy and constructed by ward’s clustering way under stepwise clustering with deviation sampling strategy and preferred sampling strategy. Core collection in ramie was not related with genetic distances of qualitative traits, whereas the core collection of ramie constructed by euclidean distance of quantitative traits was the best.
      Postulation of Powder Mildew Resistance Genes in 64 Wheat Cultivars (Lines) in Gansu Province, China
      CAO Shi-Qi,LUO Hui-Sheng,WU Cui-Peng,JIN he-Lin, ANG Xiao-Ming,ZHU Zhen-Dong,JIA Qiu-Zhen,HUANG Jin,ZHANG Bo,CHANG Xun-Wu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2107-2115.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02107
      Abstract ( 2203 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1190 )   Save
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      Combined with pedigree analysis, genes for resistance to powdery mildew (Pm) in 64 wheat varieties (lines) from Gansu Province were analyzed with 17 isolates which had different spectra of pathogenicity in seedling stage. The preliminary results showed that the line Longyuan 932 was postulated to possess Pm5 and unknown resistant genes. The variety Xifeng 20 was postulated to possess Pm6 and unknown resistant genes. The line 98 bao 1-2 was postulated to possess Pm8 and unknown resistant genes. Gene Pm19 was detected in two varieties (lines) 863-13 and Shi 7816. Six varieties (lines) Tianxuan 43, X9610, 95-111-3, Lantian 17, 92R137, and Guinong 22 were postulated to possess Pm21. Eighteen wheat varieties (lines) susceptible to all the tested powdery mildew isolates might possess unidentified genes. Unknown genes were found in other 35 wheat varieties (lines), which resistant types were different from the tested genes. Cluster analysis was in agreement these results.
      Genetic Analysis and Molecular Mapping of Stripe Rust Resistance Gene in Wheat Line M8003-5
      XU Zhong-Qing, ZHANG Shu-Ying, WANG Rui, WANG Wen-Li, ZHOU Xin-Li, YIN Jun-Liang, CHEN Jie, JING Jin-Xue
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2116-2123.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02116
      Abstract ( 2524 )   PDF (427KB) ( 1284 )   Save
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      Strip rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici (Pst) is a worldwide disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Resistance breeding is constantly pursued for decades to tackle the variations of prevalent Pst races. Wheat genetic resources carrying novel resistance genes always receive great attentions and the utilization study generally initiates from the identification and genetic analysis of the resistance genes. Wheat line M8003-5 is selected from the hybrid progenies of the common wheat variety Chinese Spring and Secale cereale L., which exhibits not only high resistance to Pst but also high yield, early maturity, and resistance to drought. To map the Pst resistance gene(s) in M8003-5, a segregation population was constructed by crossing M8003-5 and a highly susceptible variety Mingxian 169. Seven prevalent Pst races in China were inoculated in greenhouse at seedling stage to evaluate the infection type of individuals from the F1, F2, and F3 generations. The results showed that M8003-5 was resistant to all races, whereas Mingxian 169 was highly susceptible to all inoculates. Genetic analysis indicated that the resistance of M8003-5 against race Su11-4 was conferred by a dominant gene, which was tentatively designated YrM8003. This gene was linked to simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers Xbarc5, Xwmc463, Xwmc405, Xbarc126, Xgwm295, Xgwm44, Xwmc702, Xwmc438, Xwmc121, Xgwm111, and Xbarc128, which were all located on chromosome arm 7DS. The closest flanking makers were Xwmc702 and Xwmc438 with genetic distance of 3.5cM and 4.3 cM, respectively. Gene YrM8003 differs from any other Pst resistance genes on 7DS, and is probably a novel gene. This gene is primarily inferred to originate fromS. cereale based on analyses on pedigree and molecular markers data. Forty-three wheat cultivars from Huang-Huai Winter Wheat Region were also tested with YrM8003 markers Xwmc702 and Xwmc438, and 20% cultivars were amplified with the target bands. These cultivars require further tests to validate the presence of YrM8003.
      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Growth and Development Characteristics of Winter Rapeseed Northern- Extended from the Cold and Arid Regions in China
      SUN Wan-Cang, WU Jun-Yan, FANG Yan, LIU Qin, YANG Ren-Yi, MA Wei-Guo, LI Xue-Cai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2124-2134.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02124
      Abstract ( 1838 )   PDF (571KB) ( 1446 )   Save
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      The impact of climate changes on crops widely attracts people,s attention, respectively in the cold and arid regions in northern China, so it is necessary to develop a technique for rapeseed production adapting to the warmed climate. Nine cultivars with different levels of resistance to cold were performed in the original growing (Tianshui) region and northern-extending region (Zhangye). Data related to growth and development were determined during growth stages. The results showed that the over-wintering rate of winter rapeseed reduced from 93.0%–100.0% (the original region) to 40.0%–95.0% (the northern-extending region); the growing period delayed from 280–284 days to 287–289 days. The vegetative growth period before wilt leaf stage and the transition stage from vegetative growth to reproductive growth were shortened greatly, while the duration from wilt leaf stage to regreen stage was longer,showing a “short-long-short” growth pattern in northern-extended winter rapeseed. So the plant height and branch length were shortened, and the dry matter weight of northern-extended winter rapeseed was also decreased. The 1000-grain weight and the seeds pee riliqua were higher at Zhangye than at Tianshui. The yield of Tianyou 8 with strong winter resistance decreased from the original regions, 2 518.8 kg ha–1 to 1 666.5 kg ha–1; but that of the ultrastrong cultivar Longyou 6 increased from 741 kg ha–1 to 3 333 kg ha–1. because winter rapeseed in the northern-extending region grows under poor climatic conditions,Ultra winter-hardy rape cultivars, reasonable sowing date and planting density should be necessary to ensure the high over-winter rate.
      Relationship of Non-Structure Carbohydrate Production and Yield Components of Aerobic Rice, HD297
      WEI Feng-Tong, TAO Hong-Bin, WANG Pu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2135-2142.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02135
      Abstract ( 2283 )   PDF (290KB) ( 1280 )   Save
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      In the system of “aerobic rice”, one of the problems is that the grain yield can not be improvedunder a relatively high N application rate. Production and translocation of non-structure carbohydrate (NSC) contributed greatly to grain yield. Moreover, nitrogen influenced these two procedures a lot through affecting photosynthesis and C metabolism. There have been many studies on the contribution of pre-anthesis and post-anthesis NSC to grain yield on wheat, lowland rice, etc., but little was done on aerobic rice. Therefore, production and translocation of NSC of HD297 was studied in a field experiment to explain the constraints for improving grain yield of HD297 under a relatively high N application rate. The results showed that the contribution of pre-anthesis NSC to grain yield was 32–54% and decreased slightly with 150 kg N ha-1. The translocation efficiency of NSC before anthesis was 48–65%. Compared with 0 kg N ha-1 treatment, the translocation efficiency of NSC decreased with 150 kg N ha-1. The amount of NSC supply to each spikelet decreased with 150 kg N ha-1, and thus reduced the thousand-grain weight. The percentage of filled grains increased with higher concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) in leaf and decreased with higher concentration of starch in panicle. Therefore, the low percentage of filled grains and thousand-grain weight were related to the poor NSC accumulation and translocation, which were the main limit factors for improving the grain yield with 150 kg N ha-1. Furthermore, the low production of photosynthetic assimilation after anthesis was another reason of yield limitation.
      Effect of Sowing-Date and Planting Density on Dry Matter Accumulation Dynamic and Establishment of Its Simulated Model in Maize
      LI Xiang-Ling, ZHAO Ming, LI Cong-Feng, GE Jun-Zhu, HOU Hai-Peng, LI Qi, HOU Li-Bai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2143-2153.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02143
      Abstract ( 2372 )   PDF (434KB) ( 1953 )   Save
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      The research and application of crop growth model is a foundation of agricultural production information and digital technology, the quantitative research of leaf area index (LAI) model in different sowing dates can provide a theoretical basis for the highing-yield in maize,and further study the relationship of dry matter accumulation with sowing date and densities.Three maize cultivars(Yinong 103, Xianyu 335, and Denghai 661) with four density treatments in 45 000 plants ha-1, 60 000 plants ha-1, 75 000 plants ha-1and 90 000 plants ha-1 in three sowing date(May 3rd, May 28th, and June 22nd) were used in field experiments, dynamic dry matter accumulation and grain yield were measured. A Richard curveequation, y = 1.1044/(1+e2.0253-5.1927x)1/0.4448, was developed with relative DMA and relative accumulated temperature.The basic parameter of ultimate growth (a) was 1, initial growth parameter (b) and growth rate parameter (c) changed dramatically, shape parameter (d) changed small. The accuracy and precision of relative model were tested with the data in 2008 and 2007 in Huadian, Jilin province, the dynamic model could make a good estimation for DMA dynamics with the accuracies of above 1.0486**, and the precision (R2) of above 0.9534**. According to accumulated temperature and the largest dry matter accumulation, the model can better predict the dynamic dry matter accumulation of the growth period. Sowing-date and density had a regulated role in the change rate of dry matter accumulation. The sixth leaf and waxy stage was the sensitive reaction period of dry matter accumulation rate with density. In the slow increase and decrease stage of the dry matter accumulation rate, the accumulated temperature for maize increased gradually; in the rapid increase stage, the accumulated temperature for maize decreased gradually; in the growing period, theaverage rate of dry matter accumulation of different cultivars showed as Xianyu 335> Denghai 661 >Yinong 103. Theaverage rate of dry matter accumulation of treatments with different sowing dates showed as early sowing > middle sowing>late sowing,and increased with the density increasing.
      Effect of Cd2+ on Seedling Growth and Proteome in Tomato
      CHEN Li, WANG Lan, WANG Zhen-Ying, BENG Yong-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2154-2161.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02154
      Abstract ( 2533 )   PDF (326KB) ( 1309 )   Save
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      Cadmium is one of the most serious heavy metal pollutions in agricultural soils in China. Three-day-old tomato seedlings were treated with 0.01–1.00 mmol L–1 Cd2+ for 72 h. The results showed that seedling growth was obviously inhibited and seedling height was decreased from 4.76±0.5 cm (in control) to 3.79±0.05 cm (in 0.01 mmol L–1 Cd2+ treatment, P<0.01) and 1.77±0.15 cm (in 0.03 mmol L–1 Cd2+ treatment, P<0.01). In addition, root length was also decreased from 6.07±0.04 cm (in control) to 4.77±0.58 cm (in 0.01 mmol L–1 Cd2+ treatment, P<0.01) and 3.65±0.66 cm (in 0.03 mmol L–1Cd2+ treatment, P<0.01). The chlorophyll contents decreased in the treatment with 0.1 mmol L–1 Cd2+. Ten protein spots in roots and twenty one protein spots in leaves were altered when the seedlings were treated with 0.05 mmol L–1 Cd2+. Total ten protein spots in roots were identified by MS/MS. Four new proteins were induced in roots, including spot 1: ribosomal protein L 20, spot 2: F-box /LRR repeat protein, spot 4: ribosomal protein small submit 4 and spot 5: CBL-interacting protein kinase. In the leaves, two protein spots disappeared and four new protein spots were induced, including spot 16, ABC transporter; spot 17, maturase-like protein; spot 1, chalcone synthase; spot 3, a hypothetical protein; spot 4, an unknown protein and spot 6, a predicated protein. These Cd2+ responsive proteins identified could be involved in protein biosynthesis, mRNA transcription regulation and protein transport. The above results showed that tomato is one of the highly sensitive crops to Cd2+ and could be used as a model to study the adaptation and tolerance mechanisms to heavy metals at physiological and biochemical levels.
      Effects of Plant Densities on Cottonseed Biomass, Fat and Protein Contents
      SHU Li-Li, ZHOU Zhi-Guo, ZHAO Wen-Qing, MENG Ya-Li, CHEN Bing-Lin, LV Feng-Juan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2162-2169.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02162
      Abstract ( 2132 )   PDF (421KB) ( 1506 )   Save
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      Two cotton cultivars (Kemian 1 and NuCOTN) were used in the field experiments in Nanjing (118º50′E, 32º02′N, Middle Lower Reaches of Yangtze River Valley) and Anyang (114°13′E, 36°04′N, Yellow River Valley). The results showed that under the different plant densities, the cumulative process of cottonseed biomass and fat content met Logistic growth curve. As the plant densities increased, cottonseed biomass and fat content decreased and were strongly negatively correlated with plant densities at both experimental sites and flowering dates. However, the curve of cumulative process of cottonseed protein content was similar to “V” for each treatment. A highly significant quadratic relationship was existed between cottonseed protein content and plant densities for varieties, sites, and flowering dates. The highest cottonseed protein content was obtained under 3.3×105 plants ha–1 in Nanjing and 5.1×105 plants ha–1 in Anyang, respectively. Variety, site, and flowering date had no significant effects on the dynamic changes of cottonseed biomass, fat and protein contents. The impacts of plant densities on cottonseed quality were closely related to canopy light conditions. Low plant densities helped the improvement of cottonseed biomass and fat content, while the too high or too low plant densities were not conducive to cottonseed protein synthesis and accumulation.
      Differences of Physicochemical Properties for Waxy Maize Flour at Fresh and Maturity Stages
      LIU Da-Lei, GUO Huan-Fen, DONG Ce, LIU Wei-Peng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2170-2178.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02170
      Abstract ( 2249 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1370 )   Save
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      Understanding the differences of physicochemical properties of flours from different waxy maize cultivars at fresh and maturity stages could make its utilization proper. In the study, the flour physicochemical properties of five waxy maize cultivars at fresh and maturity stages were measured. The results indicated that the λmax was similar at two stages and presented typical waxy character. Heshengnuo 1512 harvested at maturity presented higher blue value (BV), whereas the other four cultivars had similar BV at two harvest stages. The flour presented higher starch content and lower protein content when the maize was harvested at maturity. The crystallinity and swell power at maturity were higher than those at fresh, whereas the solubility and light transmittance were lower at maturity, and the responses of the physicochemical characteristics to harvest stage were different for different cultivars. Zhongnuo 319 harvested at fresh presented higher viscosity characteristics and lower pasting temperature, whereas the viscosity properties for the other four cultivars were better at maturity, and Yuecainuo1 could not paste at fresh. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that flour at maturity had lower transition temperature (onset, peak, and conclusion temperature), enthalpy of gelatinization (DHgel), peak height index (PHI) and wider gelatinization range (R), whereas the percentage of retrogradation (%R) was lower at fresh. Λmax was positively correlated to peak viscosity (r=0.63, P<0.05), and negatively correlated to pasting temperature (r= -0.86, P<0.01). Crystallinity was negatively correlated to pasting temperature (r = -0.70, P<0.05), and positively correlated to DHgel (r=0.74, P<0.01), PHI (r=0.62, P<0.05) and enthalpy of retrogradation (DHret) (r=0.74, P<0.01). %R was positively correlated to BV (r=0.64, P<0.05), λmax (r=0.61, P<0.05), crystallinity (r=0.69, P<0.05), and DHret (r=0.96, P<0.01). Among the five cultivars, Zhongnuo 319 harvested at fresh presented higher starch content, crystallinity, and viscosity characteristics, which makes it better in fresh eating quality. Yuecainuo 1 at both harvest stages had the lowest %R among the cultivars, indicating its advantage using for the food that needs lower retrogradation.
      RESEARCH NOTES
      Editing Sites in Transcript of Mitochondrial atp6 Gene of Male Sterile Line with Aegilops kotschyi Cytoplasm in Wheat
      HAN Yan-Fen, ZHANG Long-Yu, HU Jun-Min, ZHANG Gai-Sheng, LI Ya-Xin, CHENG Ying, LI Fang, NIU Na, MA Shou-Cai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2179-2184.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02179
      Abstract ( 2182 )   PDF (413KB) ( 1299 )   Save
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      RNA editing of atp6 gene at different stages of pollen development was sequenced directly and from clones using the cytoplasmic male-sterile line ms(Kots)-90-110 (A) and its near-isogenic line (NIL, BC5F2). The DNA sequences of ms(Kots)-90-110 (A) and the NIL had 99% identities with those of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and T. timopheevi. There were 15 editing sites in the conservative regions of atp6 transcripts between male sterile and fertile lines, of which 13 occurred at the first or the second position of codons with alteration of amino acid type, and two occurred at the third position with no change of amino acid type. Codens at the sixth and seventh sites were cotranscripted. The frequency of the editing site was increased gradually as the developmental stage of anther proceeded. The restorer gene in BC5F2 obviously increased the editing frequency at each editing site. Transcripts that were inadequately edited might affect the normal mitochondria function. RNA editing of atp6 is probably associated with CMS in wheat with Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm.
      Comparison of Analysis Method of Genetic Yield Gain for the Single-Cross Hybrids Released During 1970s–2000s
      CI Xiao-Ke, ZHANG Shi-Huang, XIE Zhen-Jiang, XU Jia-Shun, LEI Zhen-Yu, RU Gao-Lin, ZHANG De-Gui, LI Xin-Hai, XIE Chuan-Xiao, BAI Li, LI Meng-Shun, DONG Shu-Ting
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2185-2190.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02185
      Abstract ( 2201 )   PDF (273KB) ( 1318 )   Save
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      The different methods belonging to planting direct were analyzed in order to find out appropriate one to evaluate genetic yield gain based on our experiment. Maize hybrids, spanning four decades (from 1970s–2000s), and representing the main maize areas in China and the most popular hybrids of their time were tested during 2005–2006 and 2007–2008 in Beijing and Xinjiang. Trials were conducted under three plant densities. The difference between the yield of the 1970s hybrids with 30 000 plants ha-1 and the yield of the 2000s hybrids was divided by 40 years, providing an estimated genetic yield gain per year of 94.7 kg ha-1. The difference between the yield of the 2000s hybrids and the yield of the 1970s hybrids with 75 000 plants ha-1 resulted from genetics. The difference between the yield of the 1970s hybrids with 15 000 plants ha-1 and the yield of the 2000s hybrids with 75 000 plants ha-1 was due to breeding and management. The ratio showed the contribution of breeding to total yield gain was 52.9%. Direct planting method proposed by Duvick was applicable to evaluate the genetic yield gain. The experiment design conducted by Tollnaar was applicable to evaluate the contribution of genetics to total yield gain.
      Genetic Diversity of Tea Landraces Using SSR Markers
      WANG Li-Yuan, JIANG Yan-Hua, DUAN Yun-Chang, CHENG Hao, ZHOU Jian, ZENG Jian-Meng, WEI Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(12):  2191-2195.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02191
      Abstract ( 2475 )   PDF (245KB) ( 1526 )   Save
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      Appropriate assessment of genetic diversity in tea landraces is the prerequisite of conservation and utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Ninety-one individual tea plants, from Longjing tea landrace population, were used in this study. Computer simulation was utilized to study the changes of genetic diversity parameters influenced by the number of samples and alleles per SSR locus. The results showed that the sampling number differentially affected the genetic diversity parameters. Only when the sample number was higher than 15, the parameters tended to be stable. There were also large effects of the number of alleles per SSR locus on the genetic diversity, which was closely associated with the sample number. It was found when the number of alleles per SSR locus was five, at least 24 individual tea plants were needed for reaching to 90% of the total genetic diversity of tea landraces. The results are useful for providing scientific basis for the assessment of genetic diversity and appropriate conservation strategies of tea landraces.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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