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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 276-288.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84050

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

高产高油花生品种的光合与物质生产特征

陈四龙,程增书,宋亚辉,王瑾,刘义杰,张朋娟,李玉荣()   

  1. 河北省农林科学院粮油作物研究所 / 河北省作物遗传育种实验室, 河北石家庄 050035
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-03 接受日期:2018-10-08 出版日期:2019-02-12 发布日期:2019-01-01
  • 通讯作者: 李玉荣 E-mail:hbhuasheng@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家自然科学基金项目(31771843);本研究由国家自然科学基金项目(31201239);河北省人才培养工程(2017-192);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-13);河北省现代农业科技创新工程项目(494-0402-YBN-XGHI);河北省科学技术研究与发展计划项目资助(16226301D)

Leaf photosynthesis and matter production dynamic characteristics of peanut varieties with high yield and high oil content

Si-Long CHEN,Zeng-Shu CHENG,Ya-Hui SONG,Jin WANG,Yi-Jie LIU,Peng-Juan ZHANG,Yu-Rong LI()   

  1. Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences / Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Breeding of Hebei, Shijiazhuang 050035, Hebei, China
  • Received:2018-04-03 Accepted:2018-10-08 Online:2019-02-12 Published:2019-01-01
  • Contact: Yu-Rong LI E-mail:hbhuasheng@163.com
  • Supported by:
    his study was supported the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31771843);his study was supported the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31201239);the Hebei Province Talent Training Project(2017-192);the China Agriculture Research System(CARS-13);the Hebei Modern Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation and Research Project(494-0402-YBN-XGHI);and the Hebei Province Science and Technology R&D Plan(16226301D)

摘要:

以冀花2号、冀花4号和鲁花12号为材料, 连续测定干物质、荚果产量、含油量及叶片光合指标, 定量分析高产高油花生品种冀花4号物质生产指标的动态特征和叶片光合性能, 为解析花生高产高油形成机制和优质高效栽培提供依据。结果表明, 荚果产量和籽仁含油量均以冀花4号最高。干物质平均积累速率和最大积累速率均以冀花4号>冀花2号>鲁花12号, 且冀花4号干物质积累潜力适中; 籽仁油分最大积累速率和平均积累速率均以冀花4号>鲁花12号>冀花2号, 籽仁油分积累活跃期以冀花4号最短。冀花4号全生育期的光合势显著高于冀花2号和鲁花12号, 分别高20%以上, 产量形成期的光合势占全生育期的80%, 冀花4号结荚期光合速率比冀花2号和鲁花12号均高24%以上; 光饱和点和CO2饱和点均为冀花4号最高。荚果产量与干物质平均积累速率、叶片光合速率和总光合势呈极显著正相关; 籽仁含油量与单株干物质积累速率、籽仁油分平均积累速率、光饱和点、CO2饱和点、经济系数、出仁率等显著或极显著相关; 荚果产量与含油量极显著正相关。冀花4号具有较高的经济系数、总光合势及结荚期后分配比例、光合速率、光饱和点和CO2饱和点, 以及相对较高的干物质和油分积累平均速率, 是其较冀花2号和鲁花12号高产高油的重要原因。

关键词: 花生, 干物质积累, 产量, 油分积累, 光合特征

Abstract:

The pod yield and seed oil content are important factors affecting oil yield in peanut varieties. Obviously, it is essential for high oil yield to explore the dry matter accumulate, yield, seed oil content and leaf photosynthesis characteristics. In order to clarify the formation mechanisms for high yield and high oil content in peanut varieties and to provide a theoretical base for peanut high quality and high yield cultivation techniques, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate three widely cultivated peanut varieties (Jihua 2 and Luhua 12, the high-yield and normal-oil; Jihua 4, the high-yield and high-oil). The dry matter accumulation, pod yield, seed oil content accumulation, and leaf photosynthetic characteristics were determined, showing that the pod yield and seed oil content of Jihua 4 were the highest among the three varieties used. The average rate of dry matter accumulation and the maximum rate of dry matter accumulation showed a trend of Jihua 4 > Jihua 2 > Luhua 12. The maximum weight of dry matter of Jihua 4 was moderate. The maximum seed oil accumulation rate and average seed oil accumulation rate showed a trend of Jihua 4 > Luhua 12 > Jihua 2, the active seed oil accumulation stage of Jihua 2 was the longest, while that of Jihua 4 was the shortest among the three varieties. The leaf photosynthesis potential of Jihua 4 in the entire growth period was above 20% higher than that of Jihua 2 and Luhua 12, respectively. The photosynthesis potential in pod-setting stage was very important to peanut yield, accounting for 80% over whole growing season. The leaf photosynthetic rate of Jihua 4 at pod-setting stage was more than 24% higher than that of Jihua 2 and Luhua 12. There was a significant difference in photosynthesis parameters among the three varieties. The light saturation point and CO2 saturation point of Jihua 4 were the highest. The pod yield was positively significantly correlated with average plant dry matter accumulation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and total leaf area duration, respectively. The seed oil content was positively significantly correlated with average plant dry matter accumulation rate, average seed oil accumulation rate, light saturation point, CO2 saturation point. Furthermore, there existed a weak but significant correlation between pod yield and seed oil content. In conclusion, Jihua 4 has higher economic coefficient, photosynthesis potential after pod-setting stage, leaf photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and CO2 saturation point, average accumulation rate of dry matter and seed oil, which is the main reason for higher productivity potential in yield and oil in Jihua 4.

Key words: peanut, dry matter accumulation, yield, oil accumulation, photosynthetic characteristics

图1

不同花生品种干物质积累进程和积累速率动态 图中数据为3次重复均值, 垂直误差线为标准误(±SE)。虚线表示2014年Logistic预测值, 实线表示2015年预测值。"

表1

不同花生品种干物质积累动态模型及其参数"

品种
Variety
模拟方程
Simulation equation
最大积累速率
MAR (g d-1)
MAR出现时间
Day of MAR (d)
平均积累速率
ARMAR (g d-1)
活跃积累期
AAS (d)
2014
冀花2号Jihua 2 Y=61.33/(1+40.72e-0.06t) 0.96 59.5 0.64 42.31
冀花4号Jihua 4 Y=57.77/(1+38.75e-0.07t) 0.97 54.6 0.65 39.35
鲁花12号Luhua 12 Y=46.24/(1+36.36e-0.06t) 0.74 56.0 0.50 41.04
2015
冀花2号Jihua 2 Y=62.88/(1+97.39e-0.07t) 1.18 61.2 0.78 35.21
冀花4号Jihua 4 Y=56.20/(1+644.30e-0.11t) 1.58 57.6 1.05 23.45
鲁花12号Luhua 12 Y=48.67/(1+92.02e-0.08t) 0.97 56.9 0.64 33.14

图2

不同花生品种单株荚果干重增加及经济系数变化动态 图中数据为3次重复均值, 垂直误差线为标准误(±SE)。虚线表示2014年试验结果, 实线表示2015年结果。"

表2

参试花生品种的产量及产量构成因素"

品种
Variety
单株果数
Pods per plant
饱果率
Rate of full-pod
(%)
出仁率
Shelling
percentage (%)
千克果数
Pods per kg
千克仁数
Seeds per kg
荚果产量
Pod yield (kg hm-2)
2014
冀花2号Jihua 2 8±0.46 c 59.7±3.55 c 73.08±0.16 b 684±19.73 a 1444±10.07 c 4040.75±84.79 b
冀花4号Jihua 4 11±0.67 a 73.2±4.36 a 77.85±0.23 a 737±19.74 a 1569±15.72 b 4350.35±83.03 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 9±0.54 b 67.8±4.03 b 76.51±0.77 a 749±26.59 a 1699±34.67 a 3002.00±35.27 c
2015
冀花2号Jihua 2 12±1.49 b 74.2±0.59 c 72.10±0.10 b 659±4.00 b 1504±41.67 b 5050.10±366.01 a
冀花4号Jihua 4 14±0.80 a 82.1±3.06 a 73.50±1.44 a 779±1.73 a 1335±24.43 c 5162.36±141.52 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 11±0.81 b 79.4±1.50 b 72.87±0.37 b 778±13.33 a 1891±83.00 a 4108.11±321.81 b
变异来源 Source of variation?
品种Variety (V) 0.034 * 0.001 ** 0.002 ** 0.000 ** 0.000 ** 0.000 **
年份Year (Y) 0.031 * 0.000 ** 0.000 ** 0.287 NS 0.000 ** 0.000 **
互作V×Y 0.826 NS 0.085 NS 0.073 NS 0.148 NS 0.000 ** 0.785 NS

图3

不同花生品种籽仁油分积累动态和积累速率变化 图中数据为3次重复均值, 垂直误差线为标准误(±SE)。虚线表示2014年试验结果, 实线表示2015年结果。"

表3

不同花生品种籽仁油分积累动态的Richards模型参数及其特征参数"

参数
Parameter
冀花2号Jihua 2 冀花4号Jihua 4 鲁花12号Luhua 12
2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015
R2 0.9835 0.9971 0.9876 0.9984 0.9870 0.9989
A 52.79 51.91 55.39 54.93 50.95 51.65
B 0.79 4.05E+8 1.01 3.11E+8 0.22 7.74E+8
K 0.0535 0.2602 0.0586 0.2668 0.0598 0.2541
N 0.0551 7.2635 0.0513 5.6420 0.0168 6.6660
Gmax 1.012 1.222 1.164 1.577 1.112 1.261
$\bar{G}$ 0.688 0.729 0.791 0.959 0.756 0.757
Tmax.G 50.8 68.5 49.7 66.8 43.1 64.0
T 76.7 71.2 67.4 57.3 70.0 68.2
Wmax 19.94 38.82 20.89 39.27 18.90 38.05

图4

不同花生品种叶面积指数(LAI)动态和不同时期光合势 数据为3次重复均值。误差线为标准误(±SE)。误差线上不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。虚线表示2014年试验结果, 实线表示2015年结果。"

图5

不同花生品种叶绿素含量 数据为3次重复均值。误差线为标准误(±SE)。误差线上不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

表4

不同花生品种结荚期光合指标"

品种
Variety
光合速率
Pn
(μmol CO2 m-2 s-1)
气孔导度
Gs
(mol H2O m-2 s-1)
胞间CO2浓度
Ci
(μmol CO2 m-2 s-1)
蒸腾速率
Tr
(mmol H2O m-2 s-1)
叶片水分利用效率
LWUE
(μmol CO2 / mmol H2O)
2014
冀花2号Jihua 2 16.47±0.49 b 0.42±0.02 b 256.35±6.88 a 7.12±0.24 a 2.32±0.05 a
冀花4号Jihua 4 21.01±0.96 a 0.57±0.03 a 252.64±9.52 a 8.48±0.78 a 2.55±0.22 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 13.69±1.12 b 0.39±0.05 b 260.56±5.36 a 7.91±0.48 a 1.72±0.05 b
2015
冀花2号Jihua 2 15.55±0.89 b 0.38±1.23 c 243.03±20.69 b 6.76±1.55 b 2.36±0.03 a
冀花4号Jihua 4 19.30±1.25 a 0.54±1.07 a 245.04±11.10 b 8.14±0.85 a 2.42±0.05 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 15.52±2.02 b 0.47±0.65 b 253.63±18.52 a 8.08±0.64 a 1.90±0.01 b

图6

不同花生品种叶片光合速率和水分利用效率对光强度变化的响应 虚线表示2014年试验结果, 实线表示2015年结果。误差线为标准误(±SE)。"

表5

不同花生品种的光响应特征参数"

品种
Variety
暗呼吸速率
DkRR
(μmol m-2 s-1)
初始量子效率
IQE
最大光合速率
MPRl
(μmol m-2 s-1)
光补偿点
LCP
(μmol m-2 s-1)
光饱和点
LSP
(μmol m-2 s-1)
2014
冀花2号Jihua 2 2.04±0.01 a 0.0297±0.001 a 17.57±0.98 b 72.45±1.95 a 2222.40±19.52 b
冀花4号Jihua 4 0.60±0.01 b 0.0519±0.001 a 25.19±1.10 a 11.86±1.03 c 2922.54±21.11 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 1.10±0.01 b 0.0207±0.001 a 11.81±0.75 b 55.65±2.36 b 2358.51±13.64 b
2015
冀花2号Jihua 2 2.48±0.01 b 0.0642±0.001 b 16.08±0.19 b 42.43±1.65 b 1559.33±19.71 c
冀花4号Jihua 4 2.36±0.02 b 0.0755±0.001 a 19.28±0.21 a 34.07±0.91 c 2275.17±10.12 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 3.09±0.01 a 0.0654±0.001 b 14.92±0.26 b 58.11±1.18 a 1789.32±16.43 b

图7

不同花生品种叶片光合速率和水分利用效率对CO2浓度变化的响应 虚线表示2014年试验结果, 实线表示2015年结果。误差线为标准误(±SE)。"

表6

不同花生品种叶片光合作用CO2响应特征参数"

品种
Variety
初始羧化效率
ICE
(μmol m-2 s-1)
CO2饱和点
CSP
(μmol mol-1)
最大净光合速率
MPRc
(μmol m-2 s-1)
CO2补偿点
CCP
(μmol mol-1)
光呼吸速率
DyRR
(μmol m-2 s-1)
2014
冀花2号Jihua 2 0.19±0.02 a 728.40±10.21 a 28.86±2.34 b 58.86±3.01 a 9.63±0.18 a
冀花4号Jihua 4 0.16±0.01 a 781.95±5.30 a 35.89±1.65 a 56.56±2.32 b 8.26±0.05 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 0.12±0.01 a 674.33±13.84 b 24.56±0.97 b 56.87±1.54 b 6.29±0.12 b
2015
冀花2号Jihua 2 0.29±0.01 a 632.65±9.05 b 27.39±1.85 b 44.26±2.58 b 10.47±0.84 a
冀花4号Jihua 4 0.25±0.01 b 647.91±10.21 a 34.10±1.08 a 47.21±1.66 b 10.42±0.95 a
鲁花12号Luhua 12 0.23±0.01 b 621.57±11.02 c 24.40±0.94 b 55.15±1.23 a 10.42±0.87 a

表7

干物质积累、产量、籽仁油分积累与叶片光合特征参数的相关性分析"

性状指标
Index
x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8 x9 x10
x2 0.239
x3 0.222 0.635**
x4 0.552** 0.879** 0.753**
x5 0.774** 0.506 0.706** 0.740**
x6 -0.474 0.365 -0.169 0.101 -0.380
x7 -0.127 0.329 0.746** 0.476* 0.313 0.031
x8 0.503* 0.396 0.635** 0.754** 0.588** -0.090 0.652**
x9 0.850** 0.420 0.562** 0.750** 0.872** -0.450 0.198 0.775**
x10 -0.190 0.511* 0.529** 0.555** 0.042 0.542 0.233 0.621** 0.068
x11 0.867** 0.256 0.029 0.540** 0.414 -0.156 -0.201 0.574** 0.790** -0.057
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