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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 714-727.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84097

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

秸秆带状沟覆垄播对旱地马铃薯产量和水分利用效率的影响

陈玉章1,2,田慧慧1,李亚伟1,柴雨葳1,李瑞1,程宏波3,常磊1,柴守玺1,*()   

  1. 1 甘肃农业大学农学院 / 甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室, 甘肃兰州 730070
    2 毕节市农业科学研究所, 贵州毕节 551700
    3 甘肃农业大学生命科学与技术学院 / 甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室, 甘肃兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-14 接受日期:2019-01-12 出版日期:2019-05-12 发布日期:2019-02-01
  • 通讯作者: 柴守玺 E-mail:sxchai@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由甘肃省农牧厅专项(072-034035);国家自然科学基金项目(31760373)

Effects of straw strip mulching on furrows and planting in ridges on water use efficiency and tuber yield in dryland potato

Yu-Zhang CHEN1,2,Hui-Hui TIAN1,Ya-Wei LI1,Yu-Wei CHAI1,Rui LI1,Hong-Bo CHENG3,Lei CHANG1,Shou-Xi CHAI1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University / Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
    2 Bijie Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Bijie 551700, Guizhou, China
    3 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University / Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
  • Received:2018-07-14 Accepted:2019-01-12 Online:2019-05-12 Published:2019-02-01
  • Contact: Shou-Xi CHAI E-mail:sxchai@126.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the Special Research Project of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Department of Gansu Province(072-034035);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31760373)

摘要:

为探明西北半干旱雨养农业区马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)生产中沟垄不同覆盖种植方式的增产效果和水分利用特点, 在2016年和2017年设置了大田试验, 包括秸秆带状沟覆宽垄种植、秸秆带状沟覆微垄种植、全覆膜沟垄种植和露地平作4个处理。结果表明, 在干旱年份(2016年), 沟垄覆盖种植可显著降低马铃薯全生育期耗水量6.1%~13.2%, 平均提高块茎形成期1.2~1.8 m土层含水量7.6%, 全覆膜沟垄作可显著提高淀粉积累期0~0.2 m土壤含水量30.3%。在平水年份(2017年), 除全覆膜沟垄种植显著降低马铃薯全生育期耗水量22.2%外, 其余处理与露地平作无显著差异; 沟垄覆盖种植0~2 m土壤含水量在马铃薯块茎形成期、块茎膨大期和淀粉积累期分别平均比露地平作高8.7%、13.0%和13.1%。与露地平作相比, 2个生长季沟垄覆盖种植可使马铃薯全生育期0~2 m土壤平均贮水量提高5.4%~15.5%, 单株生物量增加12.8%~147.4%, 成熟期株高增加21.1~39.7 cm, 进而马铃薯增产51.6%~88.2%, 水分利用效率提高68.2%~111.7%。以玉米秸秆带状沟覆微垄种植增产增效最显著, 2年平均产量、水分利用效率和纯经济收益分别较露地平作提高87.8%、97.5%和254.2%。因此, 玉米秸秆带状沟覆微垄种植能显著提高马铃薯产量和水分利用效率。此外, 与全覆膜沟垄种植相比, 秸秆带状沟覆微垄种植具有操作简单、无污染、投入产出比高等优点, 适宜在西北半干旱区马铃薯生产中应用。

关键词: 沟垄作, 覆膜, 秸秆带状沟覆, 旱作马铃薯, 产量, 水分利用效率

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different mulching materials and ridge-furrow widths on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth, tuber yield, soil moisture and water use efficiency in a semiarid rain-fed ecosystem in northwest China in 2016 and 2017. Four treatments were performed: (1) alternating narrow furrows and wide ridges with corn straw strip mulching only on narrow furrows and planting in the wide ridges (RFWN); (2) alternating micro-ridge-furrows with corn straw strip mulching only on furrows and planting in the ridges (RFN); (3) alternating small and large ridges full mulching with black plastic film and planting in the large ridges (RFB), and (4) traditional-flat planting without mulching (CK). Compared with CK, mulching treatments significantly decreased total evapotranspiration by 6.1%-13.2%, increased average soil water content (1.2-1.8 m depth) by 7.6% at tuber initiation stage, and RFB treatment significantly increased soil water content (0-0.2 m) by 30.3% at starch accumulation stage in the dry year of 2016. In the normal precipitation year of 2017, the total evapotranspiration in RFB was 22.2% lower than that in CK, and there was no significant difference in total evapotranspiration observed among the RFWN, RFN and CK treatments. The average soil water content (0-2 m depth) in mulching treatments was 8.7%, 13.0%, and 13.1% higher than that in CK, respectively, at tuber initiation, tuber bulking and starch accumulation stage in 2017. Compared with CK, mulching treatments significantly increased soil water storage (0-2 m), weight of dry matter per plant and final plant height by 5.4%-15.5%, 12.8%-147.4%, and 21.1-39.7 cm, respectively, and thus enhanced tuber yield and water use efficiency by 51.6%-88.2% and 68.2%-111.7% in both years, respectively. The tuber yield, water use efficiency and net income for RFN treatment was the highest increasing on average by 87.8%, 97.5%, and 254.2%, respectively, in both years. In addition, RFN had the advantages of simple operation, the environmentally friendly and the highest input/output ratio compared with the treatment of plastic film mulching. Hence, RFN is the best cultivation model for dryland potato.

Key words: ridges-furrows culture, plastic film mulching, straw strip mulching only on furrows, dryland potato, tuber yield, water use efficiency

图1

2016年和2017年试验区马铃薯生长季降水分布"

图2

马铃薯田间种植示意图 RFWN: 秸秆带状沟覆宽垄种植; RFN: 秸秆带状沟覆微垄种植; RFB: 全覆膜沟垄作; CK: 传统平作无覆盖。"

图3

不同处理马铃薯各生育时期的土壤贮水量动态 SW: 播种期; SD: 苗期; BR: 分枝期; TI: 块茎形成期; TB: 块茎膨大期; SA: 淀粉积累期; MT: 成熟期。处理代号见图2。误差线表示平均值的标准误(n = 3)。标明不同小写字母的柱值表示各处理的平均值(n = 3)在P < 0.05水平上差异显著。"

图4

不同处理对马铃薯关键生育期水分垂直分布的影响 处理代号见图2。PWC: 永久凋萎系数; FWHC: 田间饱和持水量。误差线表示平均值的标准误(n = 3)。"

图5

不同处理对马铃薯单株干物质积累的影响 处理代号见图2。误差线表示平均值的标准误(n = 3)。同一生育时期标明不同小写字母的柱值表示各处理的平均值(n = 3)在P < 0.05水平上差异显著。"

表1

各生育时期马铃薯单株干物质与产量间的相关性"

出苗期
Seedling
分枝期
Branching
块茎形成期
Tuber initiation
块茎膨大期
Tuber bulking
成熟期
Maturity
相关系数r 0.566 0.629* 0.908** 0.963** 0.980**

图6

不同处理对马铃薯耗水量、成熟期株高、产量和水分利用效率的影响 处理代号见图2。误差线表示平均值的标准误(n = 3)。同一生长季标明不同小写字母的柱值表示各处理的平均值(n = 3)在P < 0.05水平上差异显著。"

表2

马铃薯主要农艺性状、水分利用效率与产量间的相关性"

小薯率
Small
tuber rate
中薯率
Medium
tuber rate
大薯率
Large
tuber rate
结薯数
Tuber number
per plant
单株薯重
Tuber weight
per plant
株高
Plant
height
水分利用效率
Water use
efficiency
耗水量
Water
consumption
相关系数r -0.732** -0.554 0.889** 0.954** 0.999** 0.990** 0.927** -0.324

表3

不同处理对马铃薯产量(15株)性状的影响"

表4

不同处理的经济效益分析"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
总投入
Input cost
(Yuan hm-2)
总收入
Output revenue
(Yuan hm-2)
纯收益
Economic benefit
(Yuan hm-2)
投入产出比
Output/input
2016 RFWN 12000 11299.9 -700.1 0.94
RFN 12000 14411.6 2411.6 1.20
RFB 13650 14585.1 935.1 1.07
CK 10500 6873.9 -3626.1 0.65
2017 RFWN 12000 40156.3 28156.3 3.35
RFN 12000 43492.8 31492.8 3.62
RFB 13650 29049.6 15399.6 2.13
CK 10500 17625.3 7125.3 1.68
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