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作物学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 695-703.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14038

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同生育期干旱与氮肥施用对花生氮素吸收利用的影响

丁红(), 徐扬, 张冠初, 秦斐斐, 戴良香*(), 张智猛*()   

  1. 山东省花生研究所, 山东青岛 266100
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-04 接受日期:2021-06-16 出版日期:2021-07-12 网络出版日期:2021-07-12
  • 通讯作者: 戴良香,张智猛
  • 作者简介:E-mail: dingpeanut@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31971854);国家自然科学基金项目(31971856);山东省重大科技创新工程项目(2019JZZY010702)

Effects of drought at different growth stages and nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization in peanut

DING Hong(), XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, QIN Fei-Fei, DAI Liang-Xiang*(), ZHANG Zhi-Meng*()   

  1. Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Qingdao 266100, Shandong, China
  • Received:2021-03-04 Accepted:2021-06-16 Published:2021-07-12 Published online:2021-07-12
  • Contact: DAI Liang-Xiang,ZHANG Zhi-Meng
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31971854);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31971856);Major Scientific and Technological Innovation Projects in Shandong Province(2019JZZY010702)

摘要:

为明确不同生育期干旱胁迫与氮肥施用对花生氮素吸收利用的影响, 利用15N示踪技术, 研究了不同水分条件下氮肥施用对花生各器官肥料氮吸收利用以及氮肥残留和损失情况的影响。水分设置为正常供水(WW, 75%~80%田间持水量)、花针期轻度干旱胁迫(FD, 55%~60%田间持水量)和结荚期轻度干旱胁迫(PD, 55%~60%田间持水量) 3个条件, 氮肥水平设置为不施氮(LN)、中氮(MN, 90 kg hm-2)、高氮(HN, 180 kg hm-2)。结果表明, 与正常供水条件相比, 不同生育期干旱胁迫均降低了花生产量和植株氮素积累量, 且花针期干旱胁迫的降低幅度大于结荚期干旱胁迫。花生籽仁的氮素积累量占全株氮素积累量的68.42%~77.67%。与WWMN处理相比, FDMN处理下花生各器官氮肥吸收比例(Ndff, the percentage of N derived from 15N fertilizer)和15N积累量显著提高, 且促进了氮素向籽仁的转运, PDMN处理下籽仁15N积累量却显著降低。花生对15N标记氮肥的回收率为30.20%~38.42%, 残留率为37.12%~48.83%, 损失率为12.75%~32.68%。FDMN处理下氮肥回收率最高, 损失率最低。表明90 kg hm-2的施氮水平促进了干旱胁迫下花生产量的提高和氮素吸收利用, 降低了肥料氮的损失。

关键词: 花生, 干旱胁迫, 15N, 氮素吸收利用, 产量

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of drought at different growth stages and nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization of peanut. We investigated the effects of nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization efficiency under different water conditions in peanut by the 15N-label technique. The residue and loss rate of nitrogen in soil after peanut harvest were also studied. The soil water treatments were three levels of well-watered conditions (WW, 75%-80% of field capacity), slight water stress at flowering-pegging stage (FD, 55%-60% of field capacity), and slight water stress at pod-setting stage (PD, 55%-60% of field capacity). Nitrogen treatments were three levels of no nitrogen application (LN), moderate nitrogen (MN, 90 kg hm-2), and high nitrogen (HN, 180 kg hm-2). The results showed that peanut yield was decreased under drought stress at different growth stages and the reduction of drought stress at flowering-pegging stage was greater than that at pod-setting stage. Nitrogen accumulation of peanut kernel accounted for 68.42%-77.67% of the total nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant. Compared with the well-watered condition, nitrogen accumulation of peanut plants was decreased under drought stress at both flowering-pegging and pod-setting stages. Compared with WWMN treatment, FDMN treatment significantly increased the accumulation of Ndff and 15N in different organs and promoted the transport of nitrogen to seed kernel in peanut. However, 15N accumulation in kernel was significantly decreased under PDMN treatment. The recovery rate of 15N labeled nitrogen fertilizer was 30.20%-38.42%, the residue rate was 37.12%-48.83%, and the loss rate was 12.75%-32.68%. The recovery rate of nitrogen fertilizer was the highest and the loss rate was the lowest under FDMN treatment. In summary, nitrogen application level of 90 kg hm-2could promote the yield and nitrogen absorption and utilization under drought stress, and reduce the loss of fertilizer nitrogen in peanut.

Key words: peanut, drought stress, 15N-label technique, nitrogen absorption and utilization, yield

图1

不同水氮处理下花生的产量 标以不同小写字母的柱值表示处理间在0.05水平上差异显著。*、**和***分别代表P < 0.05、P < 0.01和P < 0.001显著水平。WW: 正常供水条件; FD: 花针期干旱胁迫; PD: 结荚期干旱胁迫; LN: 不施氮肥; MN: 中氮, 90 kg hm-2; HN: 高氮, 180 kg hm-2; W: 水分; N: 氮肥。"

表1

不同水氮处理下花生不同器官的氮素积累量"

处理
Treatment

Leaf

Stem

Root
果壳
Hull
籽仁
Seed
全株
Whole plant
WWLN 154.49 bc 80.39 a 42.80 bcd 63.88 ab 1017.39 a 1358.97 a
WWMN 219.74 a 73.12 b 40.95 bcd 56.16 ab 1036.71 a 1426.68 a
WWHN 151.51 c 73.20 b 44.72 bc 47.86 abc 884.68 b 1201.97 b
FDLN 135.44 cd 54.34 d 28.62 e 33.63 c 602.72 e 854.75 e
FDMN 140.57 cd 64.82 c 60.96 a 66.05 a 681.17 d 1013.57 d
FDHN 151.57 c 57.18 d 34.66 cde 33.18 c 610.84 e 884.74 e
PDLN 126.66 d 75.42 b 37.91 bcde 50.12 abc 791.87 c 1081.99 cd
PDMN 176.48 b 70.35 b 47.80 b 42.53 bc 848.84 bc 1186.02 b
PDHN 152.67 bc 71.37 b 32.88 de 64.50 a 821.48 bc 1142.90 bc
Water (W) 0*** 0*** 0.459 0.095 0*** 0***
Nitrogen (N) 0*** 0.102 0*** 0.413 0*** 0 ***
W×N 0*** 0** 0*** 0.002** 0.004** 0.001***

表2

不同水氮处理下花生各器官的Ndff"

处理
Treatment

Leaf

Stem

Root
果壳
Hull
籽仁
Seed
全株
Whole plant
WWMN 16.22 e 19.62 d 19.58 b 17.42 d 11.75 d 13.29 d
WWHN 38.69 d 39.14 b 36.00 a 38.22 b 29.45 b 31.64 b
FDMN 27.88 b 27.96 c 25.21 c 24.09 c 18.82 c 21.43 c
FDHN 42.95 a 43.43 a 42.71 a 52.08 a 43.61 a 43.78 a
PDMN 17.89 e 20.40 d 20.66 d 19.94 d 12.57 d 14.40 d
PDHN 31.59 c 39.12 b 37.20 b 37.82 b 29.28 b 30.91 b
Water (W) 0 *** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0 ***
Nitrogen (N) 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0***
W×N 0.001*** 0.002** 0.861 0.002** 0.004** 0.011*

表3

不同水氮处理下花生各器官的15N吸收量"

处理
Treatment

Leaf

Stem

Root
果壳
Hull
籽仁
Seed
全株
Whole plant
WWMN 3.60 c 1.46 d 0.81 c 1.00 cd 12.37 cd 19.24 d
WWHN 5.98 a 2.92 a 1.64 a 1.86 ab 26.55 a 38.95 ab
FDMN 4.00 c 1.85 c 1.57 a 1.65 bc 13.08 c 22.15 c
FDHN 6.65 a 2.53 b 1.37 a 1.76 ab 27.15 a 39.60 a
PDMN 3.22 c 1.46 d 1.01 bc 0.86 d 10.86 d 17.41 d
PDHN 4.91 b 2.85 a 1.25 ab 2.48 a 24.50 b 35.99 b
Water (W) 0.002** 0.868 0.020* 0.445 0.010** 0.002**
Nitrogen (N) 0*** 0*** 0.008** 0.001*** 0*** 0***
W×N 0.097 0.001*** 0.016* 0.023* 0.910 0.739

表4

不同水氮处理下花生肥料氮在土壤中的残留及空间分布"

处理
Treatment
土层15N残留量 Residue and spatial distribution of peanut fertilizer nitrogen in soil
0-20 cm 20-40 cm 40-60 cm 60-80 cm 80-100 cm 0-100 cm
WWMN 36.60 b 4.17 d 2.93 e 1.61 d 0.66 e 45.97 bc
WWHN 64.64 a 15.99 b 15.38 b 1.87 c 0.85 d 98.73 a
FDMN 36.15 b 10.66 c 6.64 d 1.90 c 0.96 c 56.31 b
FDHN 67.53 a 21.27 a 8.50 c 5.30 b 2.57 a 105.15 a
PDMN 36.36 b 3.54 c 1.77 f 0.92 e 0.41 f 43.00 c
PDHN 65.33 a 20.24 a 17.64 a 6.10 a 1.97 b 111.28 a
Water (W) 0.943 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0.156
Nitrogen (N) 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0***
W×N 0.903 0*** 0*** 0*** 0*** 0.077

表5

花生生育期内15N肥料氮的投入与损失"

处理
Treatment
15N总投入量Total 15N rate
(mg column-1)
15N 植株回收量
15N recovery by plant
(mg column-1)
15N残留量
Residual 15N rate
(mg column-1)
15N损失量
15N loss rate
(mg column-1)
肥料氮回收率
Recovery rate of fertilizer nitrogen (%)
肥料氮损失率
Loss rate of
fertilizer nitrogen (%)
WWMN 115.31 38.48 d 45.97 bc 30.86 bc 33.37 bc 26.76 ab
WWHN 230.62 77.90 ab 98.73 a 53.99 a 33.78 b 23.42 b
FDMN 115.31 44.30 c 56.31 b 14.70 c 38.42 a 12.75 c
FDHN 230.62 79.20 a 105.15 a 46.27 ab 34.34 b 20.06 bc
PDMN 115.31 34.82 d 43.00 c 37.69 b 30.20 c 32.68 a
PDHN 230.62 71.98 b 111.28 a 47.36 ab 31.21 bc 20.54 bc
Water (W) 0.002** 0.156 0.069 0.001*** 0.005**
Nitrogen (N) 0*** 0*** 0.001*** 0.192 0.284
W×N 0.739 0.077 0.173 0.084 0.012*
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