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作物学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (7): 1063-1075.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93065

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

5-氨基乙酰丙酸和乙烯利对东北春玉米源库碳平衡的调控效应

李瑞杰1,2,唐会会2,王庆燕2,许艳丽2,王琦2,卢霖2,闫鹏2,董志强2,*(),张凤路1,*()   

  1. 1,# 河北农业大学农学院 / 省部共建华北作物改良与调控国家重点实验室 / 河北省作物生长调控实验室, 河北保定 071001
    2,# 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所 / 农业农村部作物生理生态与栽培重点开放实验室, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25 接受日期:2020-04-15 出版日期:2020-07-12 发布日期:2020-04-26
  • 通讯作者: 董志强,张凤路 E-mail:dongzhiqiang@caas.cn;nxyumi@hebau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:E-mail: lrj15176380796@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0201301);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300300);国家自然科学基金面上项目(31470087)

Effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid and ethephon compound on carbon balance of source-sink of spring maize in Northeast China

LI Rui-Jie1,2,TANG Hui-Hui2,WANG Qing-Yan2,XU Yan-Li2,WANG Qi2,LU Lin2,YAN Peng2,DONG Zhi-Qiang2,*(),ZHANG Feng-Lu1,*()   

  1. 1,# College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation / Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei Province, Baoding 071001, Hebei, China
    2,# Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-physiology and Cultivation, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-12-25 Accepted:2020-04-15 Online:2020-07-12 Published:2020-04-26
  • Contact: Zhi-Qiang DONG,Feng-Lu ZHANG E-mail:dongzhiqiang@caas.cn;nxyumi@hebau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program(2017YFD0201301);National Key Research and Development Program(2016YFD0300300);National Natural Science Foundation of China Face Project(31470087)

摘要:

为探讨5-氨基乙酰丙酸(5-ALA)和乙烯利(ETH)复配剂对东北春玉米生育期内低温冷害的调控机制, 创建东北春玉米区抗冷密植稳产化控栽培技术, 2018—2019年在吉林省公主岭试验站(43o9′55″N, 124o48′43″E), 以中单909为材料, 设置5-ALA和ETH不同浓度复配组合处理, 于拔节期(V6)进行叶面喷施, 研究各复配剂组合对春玉米源-库代谢、灌浆速率及产量的调控效应。5-ALA-ETH处理相比对照均改善了春玉米源-库代谢, 其中22.50 g hm-25-ALA配合450 mL hm-2ETH处理(A2E1)调控效果最优。A2E1处理下春玉米花前功能叶蔗糖磷酸合酶(SPS)活性和蔗糖含量平均比对照分别增加5.4%和7.9%, 在吐丝后20 d内功能叶蔗糖含量降低14.4%, 而籽粒蔗糖含量提高41.4%。5-ALA-ETH处理提高了籽粒最大灌浆速率, A2E1处理下在灌浆10~20 d籽粒蔗糖合酶(SS)分解方向酶活、籽粒酸性转化酶(AI)和中性转化酶(NI)活性相比对照平均分别提高12.5%、52.8%和24.1%。A2E1处理玉米收获期穗长、穗粒数比对照分别增加4.7%和8.6%, 秃尖长降低58.3%, 产量显著提高4.8%。综上所述, 5-ALA-ETH复配剂能够增加东北春玉米生育期内源强和库活性, 进而促进籽粒灌浆, 缓解低温冷害的影响, 对保障东北春玉米高产稳产具有重要意义。

关键词: 5-ALA-ETH复配剂, 东北春玉米, 低温冷害, 蔗糖代谢, 产量

Abstract:

In order to explore the mechanism of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and ethephon (ETH) compound for alleviating chilling damage, and to establish a chemical controlled cultivation technique for cold tolerance, dense planting and stable production of spring maize (Zea mays L.) in Northeast China, we conducted a field experiment at Gongzhuling Experiment Station (43o9'55"N, 124o48'43"E) of Jilin province, China, in 2018 and 2019. The maize (cv. Zhongdan 909) plants were treated with mixture of 5-ALA and ETH at different concentrations by foliar spraying at the jointing stage (V6). The source-sink metabolism, grain filling rate and yield of spring maize were evaluated. The yield of plants treated with 22.50 g hm-2 5-ALA combined with 450 g hm-2 ETH (A2E1) was significantly increased by 4.8% compared with the control. A2E1 promoted the synthesis of sucrose in functional leaf before anthesis. The sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose content in functional leaf were increased by 5.4% and 7.9% by A2E1 treatment, in comparison with the control, respectively. A2E1 treatment promoted the transport of sucrose from leaf to kernel during the first 20 days after anthesis, showing that the sucrose content decreased by 14.4% in the ear leaf, but increased by 41.4% in kernel. In addition, A2E1 also promoted sucrose degradation in grain. Sucrose synthase (SS) activity in the direction of decomposition was increased by 12.5% compared with the control, and the activities of acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) were increased by 52.8% and 24.1%, respectively, during early grain-filling stage (about 10 days after anthesis). In this case, spring maize under A2E1 treatment had a relatively higher maximum grain-filling rate than the control treatment. At harvest, ear length and kernel number per ear were 4.7% longer and 8.6% higher, respectively, and the bare tip length was 58.3% shorter than those of the control. In conclusion, 5-ALA-ETH can effectively improve the transportation of sucrose between source and sink of spring maize in Northeast China, accelerate the kernel filling and alleviate the effect of chilling damage during the growing period, which is of great guarantee to a high and stable yield of spring maize in this region.

Key words: 5-ALA-ETH compound, spring maize, chilling damage, sucrose metabolism, yield

图1

2018年和2019年公主岭试验站春玉米生长季日累计降雨量(柱形)和日平均气温(折线)"

表1

2018年和2019年不同试验处理下5-氨基乙酰丙酸和乙烯利使用量"

处理
Treatment
5-氨基乙酰丙酸
5-ALA (g hm-2)
乙烯利
ETH (mL hm-2)
CK 0 0
A1 11.25 0
A2 22.50 0
A3 33.75 0
E1 0 450
A1E1 11.25 450
A2E1 22.50 450
A3E1 33.75 450
E2 0 900
A1E2 11.25 900
A2E2 22.50 900
A3E2 33.75 900

图2

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对玉米功能叶蔗糖含量的影响 V9: 9展叶期; V12: 大喇叭口期; VT: 吐丝期; VT+10: 吐丝后10 d; VT+20: 吐丝后20 d; VT+30: 吐丝后30 d; VT+40: 吐丝后40 d; 处理同表1。"

图3

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对蔗糖合酶(SS, 合成方向)活性的影响 V9: 9展叶期; V12: 大喇叭口期; VT: 吐丝期; VT+10: 吐丝后10 d; VT+20: 吐丝后20 d; VT+30: 吐丝后30 d; VT+40: 吐丝后40 d; 处理同表1。"

图4

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对蔗糖磷酸合酶(SPS)活性的影响。。。"

图5

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对籽粒蔗糖含量的影响 处理同表1。"

图6

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对籽粒蔗糖合酶(SS, 分解方向)活性的影响 处理同表1。"

图7

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对酸性转化酶(AI)活性的影响 处理同表1。"

图8

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA和ETH复配剂处理对中性转化酶(NI)活性的影响 处理同表1。"

表2

2018年5-ALA、ETH单剂以及5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对玉米籽粒灌浆特征参数的影响"

处理
Treatment
a b c r Tmax
(d)
Wmax
(g 100-kernel-1)
Gmax
(g 100-kernel-1 d-1)
P
(d)
CK 34.16 33.56 0.11 1.00 31.63 17.08 0.95 23.72
A1 35.78 32.13 0.11 1.00 32.84 17.89 0.95 24.93
A2 36.27 44.74 0.12 1.00 32.53 18.14 1.06 22.504
A3 35.87 31.02 0.11 1.00 31.72 17.93 0.97 24.33
E1 33.18 36.15 0.12 1.00 30.01 16.59 0.99 22.04
A1E1 36.72 36.12 0.11 1.00 33.41 18.36 0.99 24.53
A2E1 34.69 33.40 0.11 1.00 31.02 17.34 0.98 23.29
A3E1 34.30 33.07 0.11 0.99 31.81 17.15 0.94 23.95
E2 33.46 36.88 0.12 1.00 30.64 16.73 0.99 22.37
A1E2 35.68 30.32 0.11 0.99 32.41 17.84 0.94 25.02
A2E2 34.38 57.02 0.13 1.00 30.97 17.19 1.12 20.18
A3E2 33.69 33.79 0.11 0.99 31.87 16.85 0.93 23.85

表3

2018年和2019年5-ALA、ETH单剂和5-ALA-ETH复配剂处理对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
穗长
Ear length
(cm)
秃尖长
Bare tip length
(cm)
穗粒数
Kernel number
(ear-1)
千粒重
1000-kernel weight (g)
单位面积穗数
Ear number
(m-2)
产量
Yield
(kg hm-2)
2018 CK 17.5±0.9 bc 0.6±0.3 ab 511.4±12.9 abc 337.6±3.1 ab 6.9±0.2 ab 11,928.4±262.3 bc
A1 17.6±0.8 abc 0.5±0.2 abcd 504.2±24.7 bc 339.7±4.9 a 7.1±0.3 ab 12,145.9±282.2 ab
A2 17.8±0.8 abc 0.4±0.2 bcd 520.4±23.3 ab 340.7±12.2 a 6.9±0.6 ab 12,233.0±428.1 ab
A3 17.6±1.0 abc 0.5±0.1 abc 503.8±31.8 bc 340.6±9.6 a 7.1±0.4 ab 12,114.6±233.9 ab
E1 18.5±0.4 a 0.2±0.2 d 537.7±24.3 a 336.8±6.5 ab 6.8±0.1 b 12,270.5±313.1 ab
A1E1 16.8±0.7 c 0.5±0.2 abc 482.2±25.3 c 344.5±11.5 a 7.4±0.3 a 12,266.0±304.0 ab
A2E1 18.3±0.8 ab 0.3±0.2 cd 539.8±27.0 a 335.9±4.0 ab 6.9±0.4 ab 12,497.1±137.7 a
A3E1 17.5±0.8 bc 0.4±0.2 bcd 506.4±28.3 bc 341.4±5.0 a 7.1±0.3 ab 12,277.9±237.0 ab
E2 18.3±0.6 ab 0.4±0.2 bcd 502.4±25.8 bc 334.9±4.8 ab 6.9±0.3 ab 11,549.7±162.1 c
A1E2 18.0±0.4 ab 0.4±0.3 abcd 491.9±19.6 bc 342.6±6.8 a 7.1±0.2 ab 11,932.2±80.8 bc
A2E2 18.0±0.6 ab 0.7±0.2 a 481.1±20.6 c 334.1±7.0 ab 7.3±0.1 ab 11,806.1±297.9 bc
A3E2 17.9±0.8 ab 0.5±0.2 abcd 505.5±19.4 bc 327.1±8.9 b 7.1±0.0 ab 11,789.9±222.8 bc
2019 CK 18.1±0.6 bc 1.2±0.2 abc 512.2±2.7 abcd 376.4±6.9 ab 6.9±0.0 b 13,357.5±233.8 bc
A1 17.8±0.6 c 0.9±0.1 c 498.3±15.7 cd 364.9±1.6 abc 7.5±0.4 ab 13,560.1±185.4 bc
A2 18.9±0.2 ab 1.4±0.1 a 527.1±27.7 abc 365.1±7.1 abc 7.0±0.4 b 13,506.3±165.8 bc
A3 18.4±0.6 abc 1.2±0.2 abc 504.7±32.9 bcd 378.7±3.1 a 6.9±0.6 b 13,169.1±275.4 c
E1 18.5±0.2 abc 1.0±0.3 bc 534.5±6.5 ab 360.6±12.4 abc 7.0±0.2 b 13,406.9±222.50 bc
A1E1 18.2±0.3 abc 1.1±0.1 abc 526.5±5.0 abcd 360.2±5.0 abc 7.2±0.1 ab 13,645.0±126.1 b
A2E1 19.1±0.4 a 0.6±0.3 d 544.1±27.3 a 371.9±4.7 abc 7.0±0.4 b 14,078.9±102.1 a
A3E1 18.5±0.7 abc 0.9±0.1 cd 492.8±1.5 d 357.6±12.8 bc 7.7±0.3 a 13,497.2±266.7 bc
E2 18.7±0.4 abc 1.0±0.2 abc 519.1±14.0 abcd 369.8±1.9 abc 6.9±0.2 b 13,218.0±105.3 bc
A1E2 18.4±0.4 abc 1.3±0.0 ab 508.4±4.0 bcd 371.4±9.9 abc 7.0±0.3 b 13,231.4±348.6 bc
A2E2 18.2±0.3 abc 0.9±0.2 bc 543.3±18.2 a 354.9±21.7 c 7.0±0.2 b 13,466.9±296.3 bc
A3E2 18.3±0.4 abc 1.1±0.1 abc 522.8±14.7abcd 363.1±15.8 abc 7.0±0.5 b 13,294.5±149.6 bc
变异来源 Source of variation
年份Year ** ** * ** ns **
5-ALA * ** ns ** ns **
ETH ns ** ns ** ns **
5-ALA×ETH ** ** * ** ns **
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