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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 656-666.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12012

• TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of seeding rates and panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing

CHEN Yun1,2(), LI Si-Yu1, ZHU An1, LIU Kun1, ZHANG Ya-Jun2, ZHANG Hao1, GU Jun-Fei1, ZHANG Wei-Yang1, LIU Li-Jun1,*(), YANG Jian-Chang1   

  1. 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Centre for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
    2College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2021-02-15 Accepted:2021-06-16 Online:2021-07-12 Published:2021-07-12
  • Contact: LIU Li-Jun E-mail:yunchen@yzu.edu.cn;ljliu@yzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund(cx183007);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300502);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31871557);National Natural Science Foundation of China(32071947);Open Project of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology(YSCL202102);Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

Abstract:

Seeding rate is one of the key factors affecting grain yield under direct sowing in rice, but there are fewer studies of its influence on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars (GTRC). The application of panicle fertilizer is an important measure for high-yielding cultivation in rice production, however, the effects of panicle fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in GTRC is still unclear. In this study, three representative GTRC (Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108) in Jiangsu province were used as materials, and the effects of seeding rates (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 kg hm-2) and the effect of nitrogen (N) application as panicle fertilizer on grain yield and quality were investigated under direct sowing when the rowing spacing was fixed at 25 cm. The main results were as follows: (1) The yields of Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108 all increased first and then decreased with the increase of seeding rates. The optimum seeding rates for the high yield of the three rice cultivars were 130.2-136.5 kg hm-2, 118.3-119.3 kg hm-2, and 90.0-96.4 kg hm-2, respectively. Rice processing quality was negatively correlated with the seeding rates to different extents, while chalky grain rate, chalkiness, protein content, and setback was significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the seeding rates. Gel consistency, amylose content, taste value, and breakdown were significantly or extremely significantly negatively correlated with seeding rates. (2) Under the optimum seeding rates with the high yield, compared with conventional panicle N application rate, halving the panicle N application had no significant effects on the yields of Nanjing 5055 and Nanjing 9108, but it could significantly improve the appearance quality and taste value. The above results indicated that the optimum seeding rate in GTRC under direct sowing varied with cultivars. Excessive seeding rate would decrease the processing quality, appearance quality, and taste value. Appropriately reducing the amount of N application as panicle fertilizer was beneficial to further improve the appearance and taste quality in GTRC under direct sowing.

Key words: rice, direct sowing, seeding rate, panicle fertilizer, yield, grain quality

Table 1

Analysis of variance of F-values of grain yield and main grain quality indices in rice"

来源
Source of variation
自由度
DF
产量
Grain yield
整精米率
Head milled rice rate
直链淀粉含量
Amylose content
蛋白质含量
Protein content
食味值
Taste value
年份Year (Y) 1 NS NS NS NS NS
播种量Seeding rate (S) 4 63.2** 26.2** 100.2** 76.0** 144.0**
品种Variety (V) 2 222.5** 36.8** 4103.3** 46.5** 468.1**
Y × S 4 NS NS NS NS NS
Y × V 2 NS NS NS NS NS
S × V 8 22.8** 4.69** 4.28** NS 6.73**
Y × S × V 8 NS NS NS NS NS

Fig. 1

Effects of seeding rates on grain yield and its components in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing SXJ3, NJ5055, and NJ9108 represent Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108, respectively."

Table 2

Relationships between seeding rates and grain yield in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing"

年份
Year
品种
Cultivar
播种量(x, kg hm-2)与产量(y, kg hm-2)的关系方程
Equation between seeding rates (x, kg hm-2) and grain yield (y, kg hm-2)
R2 xopt
(kg hm-2)
ymax
(kg hm-2)
2017 苏香粳3号 SXJ3 y = -0.2739x2 + 74.780x + 3161.2 0.9405 136.5 8265.3
南粳5055 NJ5055 y = -0.2991x2 + 71.281x + 5195.3 0.9964 119.2 9442.2
南粳9108 NJ9108 y = -0.2299x2 + 44.311x + 7395.3 0.9024 96.4 9530.4
2018 苏香粳3号 SXJ3 y = -0.3999x2 + 104.14x + 1647.9 0.9754 130.2 8427.8
南粳5055 NJ5055 y = -0.3579x2 + 84.657x + 4579.6 0.9559 118.3 9585.8
南粳9108 NJ9108 y = -0.2119x2 + 38.158x + 7839.2 0.9382 90.0 9557.0

Fig. 2

Effects of seeding rates on processing quality and appearance quality in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing The abbreviations of cultivar names such as SXJ3 are the same as those in Fig. 1. Different letters of red, green, and blue colors indicate significant difference at the 0.05 probability level among seeding rate treatments in SXJ3 (Suxiangjing 3), NJ5055 (Nanjing 5055), and NJ9108 (Nanjing 9108), respectively. *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01."

Fig. 3

Effects of seeding rates on cooking and eating quality, protein content, and taste value in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing The abbreviations of cultivar names are the same as those in Fig. 1. Different letters of red, green, and blue colors indicate significant difference at the 0.05 probability level among seeding rate treatments in SXJ3 (Suxiangjing 3), NJ5055 (Nanjing 5055), and NJ9108 (Nanjing 9108), respectively. *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01."

Fig. 4

Effects of seeding rates on breakdown and setback values in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing The abbreviations of cultivar names are the same as those in Fig. 1. Different letters of red, green, and blue colors indicate significant difference at the 0.05 probability level among seeding rate treatments in SXJ3 (Suxiangjing 3), NJ5055 (Nanjing 5055), and NJ9108 (Nanjing 9108), respectively. *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01."

Table 3

Effects of panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and components in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing"

品种
Cultivar
施氮量
N rate
(kg hm-2)
穗数
Panicles No.
(×104 hm-2)
每穗粒数Spikelets per panicle 结实率
Filled grain rate
(%)
千粒重
1000-grain weight
(g)
产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
南粳5055 NJ5055 0 361.9 a 103.3 b 87.2 a 25.7 a 8378.0 b
60 368.9 a 113.0 ab 86.5 a 25.5 a 9194.8 a
120 370.1 a 117.2 a 86.2 a 25.4 a 9497.0 a
南粳9108 NJ9108 0 343.2 b 107.2 b 88.0 a 26.5 a 8579.7 b
60 351.3 ab 121.3 ab 87.4 a 26.4 ab 9832.3 a
120 352.5 a 126.1 a 86.1 a 26.0 ab 9950.6 a

Table 4

Effects of panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on main grain quality indices in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing"

品种
Cultivar
施氮量
N rate
(kg hm-2)
整精米率
Head rice
(%)
垩白粒率
Chalky kernel
(%)
垩白度
Chalkiness
(%)
胶稠度
Gel consistency
(mm)
直链淀粉含量
Amylose content
(%)
蛋白质含量
Protein content
(%)
食味值
Taste value
南粳5055 NJ5055 0 65.1 b 10.1 b 2.75 c 93.7 a 12.5 a 7.16 b 85.3 a
60 68.9 a 10.6 ab 2.91 b 91.5 ab 12.4 a 7.52 ab 83.6 a
120 70.4 a 10.8 a 3.17 a 88.2 b 12.3 a 7.81 a 79.7 b
南粳9108 NJ9108 0 65.2 b 10.4 b 3.12 c 93.6 a 13.9 a 7.98 b 82.3 a
60 68.9 a 10.8 ab 3.33 b 91.9 ab 12.9 b 8.21 ab 81.7 a
120 70.9 a 11.0 a 3.65 a 88.1 b 12.5 b 8.40 a 75.7 b
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