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Acta Agron Sin ›› 2009, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (6): 1021-1030.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01021


ITS Region of rDNA in Common Wheat and Its Genome Origins

QIAN Jin12,SUN Yi2*,DUAN Yong-Hong123   

  1. 1Institute of Biotechnology,Shanxi University,Taiyuan 030006,China;2Agri-Biotechnology Research Center of Shanxi Province,Taiyuan 030031,Shanxi,China;3Shanxi Agricultural University,Taigu 030801,China
  • Received:2008-09-23 Revised:2009-02-17 Online:2009-06-12 Published:2009-03-23
  • Contact: SUN Yi,0351-7123546 E-mail:sunyi692003@yahoo.com.cn


Wheat, as an allohexaploid, is the most important cereal crop in the world. The origins of the three genomes have been a ‘hot spot’ for many geneticists and phylogeneticists since the famous Japanese geneticist Kihara suggested that wheat genome is composed of chromosomes of A, B and D genomes from three diploid progenitors. The studies on the origins of the three genomes have reported controversial results. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences are ubiquitous in most plants, they have been widely used in plant phylogenetics and systematics studies because of their unique characteristics compared with other types of DNAs. Specific primers were used to amplify the rDNA ITS sequences of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by PCR. The amplified rDNA fragments were sequenced. Three types of ITS sequences were obtained. The results of cluster analysis by neighbor-joining method suggested that the sequence length of wheat ITS region was 602 bp, within which ITS1 and ITS2 had 8 and 20 variation sites, respectively. The range of genetic distances and genetic differentiation varied from 0 to 0.038, with the mean value of 0.021. The ITS sequences of common wheat resulted from this study were compared with those of its wild relatives, downloaded from GenBank, by MEGA, PAUP and PHYLIP programs, and the differentiation distances of ITS were calculated by Kimura-2 model program. A dendrogram was constructed with Bromus tectorum as the out-group. Based on the fact that common wheat had the ITS sequences highly similar to some of its wild relatives, we arrived at a conclusion that the formation of its genome is relatively recent events and the concerted evolution in its genome is incomplete, which provided the evidence at molecular level for that common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allohexaploid. By contrastive analysis to ITS sequences of common wheatandthe suspected donators of its genomes, we proposed that the most probable original donators of A, B, D genomes maybe T.urartu, T. speltoides, T. tauschii, respectively. We also proposed that the ‘concerted evolution’ is not concerted if we take various types of genes or DNA fragments into account.

Key words: Wheat, internal transcribed spacer(ITS), concerted evolution

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