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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (11): 2091-2098.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01083


Molecular identification and breeding application of allelic variation of grain weight gene in wheat from the Yellow-Huai-River Valley

ZHANG Fu-Yan1(), CHENG Zhong-Jie1, CHEN Xiao-Jie1, WANG Jia-Huan1, CHEN Feng2, FAN Jia-Lin1, ZHANG Jian-Wei1,*(), YANG Bao-An1,*()   

  1. 1Isotope Institute Co., Ltd, Henan Academy of Sciences / Henan Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450015, Henan, China
    2Agronomy College, Henan Agricultural University / National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science in Henan Province, Zhengzhou, 450002, Henan, China
  • Received:2020-11-03 Accepted:2021-03-19 Online:2021-11-12 Published:2021-04-14
  • Contact: ZHANG Jian-Wei,YANG Bao-An E-mail:zhangfuyan704@163.com;zjw10308@163.com;yangcorn@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Henan Wheat Research System(Z2010-01-04);Key Research and Development and Promotion Program of Henan Province(202102110028);Basic Scientific Research Project of Henan Academy of Sciences(190604015);National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science(30500884)


Grain weight is one of the most important yield traits in wheat. To accelerate the application process of dominant allelic variation of grain weight gene in wheat breeding, the allelic variation of grain weight gene was identified by using functional markers and the combinations of dominant grain weight genotypes were investigated the allelic variations of grain weight genes TaCwi-A1, TaGw8-B1, and TaGS-D1 in 183 wheat varieties (lines) from the Yellow-Huai-River Valley were identified by PCR amplification with specific primers. To identify the dominant genotype combinations, the effects of different allelic variation genotypes on wheat grain weight were studied by combining the phenotypic data of the 1000-grain weight (TGW) from 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. The results showed that the difference of TGW between different years was highly significant at P < 0.01. Two alleles, TaCwi-A1a and TaCwi-A1b, were detected at TaCwi-A1 locus, with the frequencies of 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. The frequency of TaGw8-B1a allele on TaGw8-B1 locus was up to 94.5%, while the frequency of TaGw8-B1b allele was only 5.5%. In addition, two alleles, TaGS-D1a and TaGS-D1b, were found in TaGS-D1 locus, and their frequencies were 79.8% and 20.2%, respectively. Further results indicated that there were significant differences in TGW among different allelic variation combinations at P < 0.05. Among them, the average TGW of varieties with TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a genotype was the highest. There was not significant difference in TGW between TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a and TaCwi-A1b/ TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a genotype, but it was significantly higher than other genotypes at P < 0.05. The average TGW of TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1b genotype was the lowest. The allelic variations at the loci of TaCwi-A1, TaGw8-B1, and TaGS-D1 all led to significant changes in TGW, and the allelic variations of TaGw8-B1 and TaGS-D1 loci were more important to TGW in wheat. There were no varieties with three low TGW allelic variation combinations TaCwi-A1b/TaGS-D1b/TaGw8-B1b in the tested materials. Among the seven different allele combinations, the average TGW of three high TGW allelic variation combinations TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a was the highest, which was the dominant genotype combination.

Key words: wheat, grain weight gene, functional marker, allelic variation, TGW

Table 1

Functional markers and amplification information for detecting alleles of target genes in wheat"

Mark primer
Primer sequences (5′-3′)
temperature (℃)
fragment (bp)

Table 2

ANOVA of thousand-grain weight in partial wheat varieties in different year"

Thousand-grain weight (g)
Standard deviation
Coefficient of variation (%)
2016-2017 44.11 34.50-53.35 14.00** 3.74 8.48
2017-2018 46.29 34.20-58.45 16.42** 4.05 8.75

Fig. 1

Amplification of TaCwi-A1 alleles by functional markers CWI21 (A) and CWI22 (B) in partial wheat varieties M: DL2000; 1: Shi 4185; 2: Zhengpinmai 22: 3: Shangmai 167; 4: Zhengyumai 16; 5: Yufeng 11; 6: Zhongyu 1220; 7: Guomai 66; 8: Fanyumai 17; 9: Yunong 186; 10: Saidemai 1; 11: Zhengmai 369; 12: Huaimai 19."

Fig. 2

Amplification of TaGW8 genes by functional marker TaGW8-7B in partial wheat varieties 1: Zhengpinmai 22; 2: Shangmai 167; 3: Wenmai 6; 4: Zhengmai 518; 5: Yunong 202; 6: Zhongxin 16; 7: Yufeng 11; 8: Wanke 06725; 9: Yumai 2; 10: Jimai 38; 11: Shi 84-7111; 12: Fengdecunmai 5; 13: Liangxing 99; 14: Luomai 28; 15: Huaimai 19; 16: Bainong 3217; M: DL2000."

Fig. 3

Molecular detection for partial wheat varieties by GS7D 1: Yunong 186; 2: Saidemai 1; 3: Luyuan 502; 4: Zhengmai 366; 5: Zhongyu 9302; 6: Longke 1221; 7: Puxing 0369; 8: Yufeng 11; 9: Nongda 2011; 10: Zhengpinmai 8; 11: Gaomai 6; 12: Fengdecunmai 5; M: DL2000."

Table 3

Effects of alleles of different grain weight genes on the thousand-grain weight (TGW) of wheat varieties"

Gene locus
Number of varieties
Frequency (%)
TGW in 2016 (g)
TGW in 2017 (g)
Mean (g)
TaCwi-A1 TaCwi-A1a 122 66.7 44.46* 46.61* 45.54*
TaCwi-A1b 61 33.3 43.40 45.65 44.52
TaGw8-B1 TaGw8-B1a 173 94.5 44.27** 46.51** 45.39**
TaGw8-B1b 10 5.5 41.34 42.46 41.90
TaGS-D1 TaGS-D1a 146 79.8 44.44** 46.71** 45.58**
TaGS-D1b 37 20.2 42.79 44.63 43.71

Table 4

Effects of alleles of allelic variation combination of TaCwi-A1, TaGS-D1, and TaGw8-B1 on the thousand-grain weight (TGW) in wheat varieties"

Allelic variation combination
Number of varieties
Frequency (%)
2016 TGW (g)
2017 TGW (g)
Mean (g)
TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a 96 52.5 H 43.67 45.71 44.69 a
TaCwi-A1b/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a 43 23.5 H 43.28 45.73 44.50 a
TaCwi-A1b/TaGS-D1b/TaGw8-B1a 13 7.1 M 41.56 43.53 42.54 b
TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1b/TaGw8-B1a 21 11.5 M 41.61 43.39 42.50 b
TaCwi-A1b/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1b 5 2.7 ML 41.69 42.90 42.30 b
TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1b/TaGw8-B1b 3 1.6 ML 41.13 42.92 42.03 bc
TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1b 2 1.1 L 41.18 41.60 41.39 c
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