Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agron Sin ›› 2009, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (5): 867-874.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00867


Starch Gelatinization and Retrogradation Properties under different Basic Fertilizer Regimes and Nitrogen Topdressing at Jointing Stage of Waxy Maize

LU Da-Lei1,WANG De-Cheng1,JING Li-Quan1,HAN Qing1,GUO Huan-Fen1,ZHAO Jiu-Ran2,LU Wei-Ping1*   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology,Ecology and Cultivation in Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River of Ministry of Agriculture, Yangzhou University,Yangzhou 225009,China;2Maize Research Center,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097,China
  • Received:2008-08-11 Revised:2009-02-11 Online:2009-05-12 Published:2009-03-23
  • Contact: LU Wei-Ping,0514-87979377 E-mail:wplu@yzu.edu.cn


Proper fertilizer managements can improve the starch gelatinization and retrogradation properties of waxy maize (Zea mays L. Ceratina Kulesh). The split-design experiment was conducted using waxy maize cultivar Suyunuo 4 with four main plots subjected to basal fertilizer treatments of N 75 kg ha-1, N 75 kg ha-1+K2O 70 kg ha-1, N 75 kg ha-1+P2O5 65 kg ha-1, and N 75 kg ha-1+P2O5 65 kg ha-1+K2O 70 kg ha-1, respectively in 2007 and 2008. The three split plots were topdressed with nitrogen of 0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 at jointing stage, respectively. Though onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp) and conclusion temperature (Tc) of native starch and retrogradated starch were affected by fertilizer treatments, the variation was little. No significant effects were observed for basic fertilizer treatments on the enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHgel), and for N topdressing treatments on gelatinization range (R) and peak height index (PHI). The R-value was the lowest in the treatment with only N and K in basal fertilizer, and the highest in the treatment with N, P, and K in basal fertilizer. The changes of PHI showed an opposite trend to R. The ΔHgel was the highest in the treatment with medium N topdressing (150 kg ha-1). Gelatinized starch became retrograded with lower To, Tp, Tc, enthalpy of retrogradation (ΔHret), and PHI, as well as wider R. Compared with the treatment of only N applied in basal fertilizer, the percentage of retrogradation and ΔHret decreased when P and/or K added in the basal fertilizer. The two indicators were higher in the treatments with N topdressing than without N topdressing. The percentage of retrogradation was positively correlated with ΔHret (r = 0.90, P < 0.01) and PHI of retrograded starch (r = 0.41, P < 0.05). ΔHgel was positively correlated with PHI (r = 0.65, P < 0.01) and ΔHret (r = 0.44, P < 0.05), but negatively correlated with Tc (r = -0.41, P < 0.05). It is recommended to apply balanced fertilization with N, P, and K combining with moderate N topdressing under conditions similar to the experiment to improve gelatinization and retrogradation properties of waxy maize starch.

Key words: Waxy maize, Starch, DSC, Gelatinization, Retrogradation, Basal fertilizer ratio, N topdressing at joint stage

[1] Singh N, Singh J, Kaur L, Sodhi N S, Gill B S. Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches from different botanical sources. Food Chem, 2003, 81: 219–231

[2] Kuakpetoon D, Wang Y. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of oxidized corn starches varying in amylose content. Carbohyd Res, 2006, 341: 1896–1915

[3] Ji Y, Wong K, Hasjim J, Pollak L M, Duvick S, Jane J. Structure and function of starch from advanced generations of new corn lines. Carbohyd Polym, 2003, 5: 305–319

[4] Seetharaman K, Tziotis A, Borras F, White P J, Ferrer, M, Robutti J. Thermal and functional characterization of starch from Argentinean corn. Cereal Chem, 2001, 78: 379–386

[5] Yamin F F, Lee M, Pollak L M, White P J. Thermal properties of starch in corn variants isolated after chemical mutagenesis of inbred line B73. Cereal Chem, 1999, 76: 175–181

[6] Sandhu S K, Singh N. Some properties of corn starches: II. Physicochemical, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting and gel textural properties. Food Chem, 2007, 101: 1499–1507

[7] Noda T, Takahata Y, Sato T, Ikoma H, Mochida H. Physicochemical properties of starches from purple and orange fleshed sweet potato roots at two levels of fertilizer. Starch/St?rke, 2006, 48: 395–399

[8] Singh M, Sandhu K S, Kaur M. Physicochemical properties including granular morphology, amylose content, swelling and solubility, thermal and pasting properties of starches from normal, waxy, high amylose and sugary corn. Prog Food Biopolymer Res, 2005, 1: 43–54

[9] Singh N, Inouchi N, Nishinari K. Structural, thermal and viscoelastic characteristics of starches separated from normal, sugary and waxy maize. Food Hydrocolloid, 2006, 20: 923–935

[10] Sandhu K S, Singh N, Lim S. A comparison of native and acid thinned normal and waxy corn starches: Physicochemical, thermal, morphological and pasting properties. LWT Food Sci Technol, 2007, 40: 1527–1536

[11] Sandhu K S, Kaur M, Singh N, Lim S. A comparison of native and oxidized normal and waxy corn starches: physicochemical, thermal, morphological and pasting properties. LWT Food Sci Technol, 2008, 41: 1000–1010

[12] Lu D-L(陆大雷), Lu W-P(陆卫平), Zhao J-R(赵久然), Wang D-C(王德成). Effects of basic fertilizer treatments and nitrogen topdressing at jointing stage on starch RVA characteristics of waxy maize. Acta Agron Sin (作物学报), 2007, 34(7): 1253–1258 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[13] Lu H-H(陆虎华), Chen G-Q(陈国清), Xue L(薛林), Huang X-L(黄小兰), Shi M-L(石明亮), Yin Z-T(印志同). Study on the breeding of new waxy maize hybrid Suyunuo No.4 of fresh and processing type. J Jinling Inst Tech (金陵科技学院院报), 2005, 21(3): 58–61(in Chinese with English abstract)

[14] Sasaki T, Yasui T, Matsuki J. Effect of amylase content on gelatinization, retrogradation and pasting properties of starches from waxy and non-waxy wheat and their F1 seeds. Cereal Chem, 2000, 77: 58–63

[15] Karim A A, Norziah M H, Seow C C. Methods for the study of starch retrogradation. Food Chem, 2000, 71: 9–36

[16] Aggarwal V, Singh N, Kamboj S S, Brar P S. Some properties of seeds and starches separated from different Indian pea cultivars. Food Chem, 2004, 85: 585–590

[17] Xu L J, Xie J K, Kong X L, Bao J S. Analysis of genotypic and environmental effects on rice starch: 2. Thermal and retrogradation properties. J Agric Food Chem, 2004, 52: 6017–6022

[18] Sandhu K S, Singh N, Malhi N S. Physicochemical and thermal properties of starches separated from corn produced from crosses of two germ pools. Food Chem, 2005, 89: 541–548

[19] Singh N, Kaur L, Sandhu K S, Kaur J, Nishinari K. Relationships between physicochemical, morphological, thermal, rheological properties of rice starches. Food Hydrocolloid, 2006, 20: 532–542
[1] CHEN Yun, LIU Kun, ZHANG Hong-Lu, LI Si-Yu, ZHANG Ya-Jun, WEI Jia-Li, ZHANG Hao, GU Jun-Fei, LIU Li-Jun, YANG Jian-Chang. Effects of machine transplanting density and panicle nitrogen fertilizer reduction on grains starch synthesis in good taste rice cultivars [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(8): 1540-1550.
[2] YANG Fan, ZHONG Xiao-Yuan, LI Qiu-Ping, LI Shu-Xian, LI Wu, ZHOU Tao, LI Bo, YUAN Yu-Jie, DENG Fei, CHEN Yong, REN Wan-Jun. Effects of delayed sowing and planting date on starch RVA profiles of different indica hybrid rice in the sub-suitable region of ratoon rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(4): 701-713.
[3] DONG Er-Wei, WANG Jin-Song, WU Ai-Lian, WANG Yuan, WANG Li-Ge, HAN Xiong, GUO Jun, JIAO Xiao-Yan. Effects of row space and plant density on characteristics of grain filling, starch and NPK accumulation of sorghum grain of different parts of panicle [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(12): 2459-2470.
[4] HUANG Su-Hua, LIN Xi-Yue, LEI Zheng-Ping, DING Zai-Song, ZHAO Ming. Physiological characters of carbon, nitrogen, and hormones in ratooning rice cultivars with strong regeneration ability [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(11): 2278-2289.
[5] Yuan LU,Wei-Da AI,Qing HAN,Yi-Fa WANG,Hong-Yang LI,Yu-Ji QU,Biao SHI,Xue-Fang SHEN. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis by SSR markers in waxy maize [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2019, 45(2): 214-224.
[6] YU Hai-Yue,HAN Zi-Xuan,ZHANG Yu-Shi,DUAN Liu-Sheng,ZHANG Ming-Cai,LI Zhao-Hu. Regulation of coronatine on the grain filling characteristics and starch synthesis in maize kernels [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2019, 45(10): 1535-1543.
[7] Long-Jian SHI,Zhang-Rong WEN,Shi-Bo ZHANG,Jue WANG,Wei-Ping LU,Da-Lei LU. Effects of Water Deficit at Flowering Stage on Yield and Quality of Fresh Waxy Maize [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(8): 1205-1211.
[8] Sha-Sha LI,Geng MA,Wei-Xing LIU,Juan KANG,Yu-Lu CHEN,Yang-Yang HU,Pan-Pan ZHANG,Chen-Yang WANG. Effects of Long-Term Irrigation and Nitrogen Regimes on Soil Nitrogen Content and Paste Property of Wheat Grain [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(7): 1067-1076.
[9] Chun-Yan LI,Wen-Xia ZHANG,Yu-Xue ZHANG,Meng-Hao YAO,Jin-Feng DING,Xin-Kai ZHU,Wen-Shan GUO,Chao-Nian FENG. Differences in Physicochemical Properties between Flour and Starch of Wheat Grain [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(7): 1077-1085.
[10] Yang-Yang HU, Hong-Fang LU, Wei-Xing LIU, Juan KANG, Geng MA, Sha-Sha LI, Ying-Ying CHU, Chen-Yang WANG. Effects of High Temperature and Water Deficiency during Grain Filling on Activities of Key Starch Synthesis Enzymes and Starch Accumulation in Wheat [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(04): 591-600.
[11] Li-Min YUAN, Ming-Fei ZHAN, Xing-Chuan ZHANG, Zhi-Qin WANG, Jian-Chang YANG. Endosperm Structure of Grains at Different Positions of Rice Panicle and Regulation Effect of Irrigation Regimes on It during Grain Filling [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(02): 245-259.
[12] ZHANG Xiao-Xing, ZHU Hui, ZHANG Dong-Min, SONG Li-Ya, ZHANG De-Gui, WENG Jian-Feng, HAO Zhuan-Fang,LI Ming-Shun. Construction of Waxy Maize opaque2 Near-isogenic Lines [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2017, 43(12): 1760-1766.
[13] HE Wei,FAN Xiao-Xu,WANG Zhi-Feng,WEI Cun-Xu. Application of Quantitative Graphical Method Based on Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Spectrum in Crop Starch Study [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2017, 43(12): 1827-1834.
[14] LIU Xi-Wei,ZHANG Min,LI Yong,ZHANG Yu-Chun,SONG Xiao-Jun,ZHAO Cheng,CAI Rui-Guo. Effects of Post-Flowering Shading Intensities on Starch Components and Physicochemical Properties in Waxy and Non-waxy Wheats [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2017, 43(05): 777-786.
[15] XIAO Yan-Hua**, CHEN Xin-Long**, DU Dan, XING Ya-Di, ZHANG Tian-Quan, ZHU Mao-Di,LIU Ming-Ming,ZHU Xiao-Yan, SANG Xian-Chun,HE Guang-Hua*. Identification and Gene Mapping of Starch Accumulation and Early Senescence Leaf Mutant esl9 in Rice [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2017, 43(04): 473-482.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!