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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (3): 423-431.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91046


Interactive effects of sowing pattern and planting density on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in large spike wheat cultivar

Fei-Na ZHENG,Jin-Peng CHU,Xiu ZHANG,Li-Wei FEI,Xing-Long DAI(),Ming-Rong HE()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology / Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China
  • Received:2019-07-07 Accepted:2019-09-26 Online:2020-03-12 Published:2019-10-14
  • Contact: Xing-Long DAI,Ming-Rong HE E-mail:adaisdny@163.com;mrhe@sdau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300403);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801298);the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province(ZR2018BC034)


In order to find out the way to achieve further improvement in the grain yield (GY) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat, two sowing pattern (the wide range sowing and conventional drilling sowing) and seven planting densities (130×10 4, 200×10 4, 270×10 4, 340×10 4, 410×10 4, 480×10 4, and 550×10 4 plants hm -2) were designed during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 growing seasons. Tainong 18, a winter wheat cultivar with larger spike and lower tillering capacity, was used to investigate the combined effects of sowing pattern and planting density on GY and NUE. Compared with the conventional drilling sowing, the wide range sowing with higher planting density effectively alleviated the negative effect of increasing spikes per unit area and nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) on decreasing single spike weight and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE), respectively. Concurrent improvement in GY and NUE was achieved by increasing the number of spikes per unit area and NUpE. The planting density resulting in the highest GY and NUE under wide range sowing conditions was 410×10 4 plants hm -2, which was significantly higher than that (340×10 4 plants hm -2) under conventional drilling sowing. Moreover, the increase percentage of GY and NUE under wide ranging sowing was also significantly higher than that under drilling sowing. In summary, it is feasible to further improve GY and NUE of large spike wheat cultivar through rational combination of wide range sowing with higher planting density. Under the condition of this experiment, the optimal combination measure for high GY and NUE was sowing width of 8-10 cm with plant density of 410×10 4 plants hm -2.

Key words: wide range sowing pattern, planting density, interaction effect, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency

Table 1

Nutrient status of top 0-0.20 m and 0.20-0.40 m soil before seeding in 2015-2016 and 2016-2017"

Soil layer
Bulk density
(g cm-3)
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total N
(g kg-1)
Alkali-hydrolysable N
(mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
2015-2016 0-0.20 1.33 14.67 1.15 77.98 30.84 90.31
0.20-0.40 1.35 12.25 0.83 33.70 6.63 60.29
2016-2017 0-0.20 1.32 16.98 1.23 60.20 31.24 80.18
0.20-0.40 1.35 13.25 0.90 48.10 6.95 47.62

Table 2

Variance analysis of grain yield, yield components, nitrogen use efficiency and its components as affected by year (Y), sowing pattern (S), planting density (D) in large spike wheat cultivar"

Source of variation
Grain yield
Spikes per unit area
Kernels per spike
1000-kernel weight
Year (Y) 28.72*** 81.09*** 44.55*** 121.76*** 3.63 92.40*** 94.53*
Sowing pattern (S) 261.72*** 76.74*** 1416.26*** 193.30*** 258.20*** 501.13*** 46.44**
Planting density (D) 48.65*** 1483.46*** 5.37* 296.95*** 47.77*** 93.54*** 73.09***
Y×S 27.03*** 2114.91** 5.02*** 2.39*** 28.60*** 19.66** 13.85*
Y×D 1.50 2.56* 481.40*** 669.16*** 0.83 3.13*** 3.77**
S×D 6.01*** 5.35*** 173.65*** 14.27* 5.92*** 7.18*** 12.79***
S×D×Y 0.36 38.54*** 5.82*** 2.82* 0.38 0.18 3.76**

Fig. 1

Effect of interaction of sowing pattern and planting density on the grain yield of large spike wheat cultivar The error bars represent standard error of three replicates."

Table 3

Effects of sowing pattern (S), planting density (D) on components of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in large spike wheat cultivar"

Plant density
(×104 plants hm-2)
Spikes per unit
area (×104 plants hm-2)
Kernels per spike
(No. spike-1)
weight (g)
(kg kg-1)
2015-2016 宽幅播种
Wide range
T130 451.05 f 49.40 a 39.96 ef 55.73 i 33.27 b
T200 540.07 de 47.48 bc 39.61 fg 68.23 e 30.70 de
T270 622.61 c 45.63 cd 39.12 h 76.88 d 29.44 fg
T340 696.65 b 43.55 e 38.62 i 83.52 b 28.54 gh
T410 748.65 a 41.57 fg 38.13 ij 86.18 a 28.27 h
T480 778.02 a 38.22 h 37.72 j 81.67 c 28.15 h
T550 783.83 a 35.99 i 37.20 k 76.41 d 27.90 h
T130 388.67 g 47.95 ab 42.99 a 46.57 j 36.21 a
T200 460.33 f 45.50 d 42.68 a 55.98 hi 33.50 b
T270 529.00 e 43.05 ef 42.17 b 62.71 g 31.92 c
T340 583.33 cd 40.73 g 41.58 c 66.90 e 31.04 cd
T410 600.63 c 38.06 h 41.06 d 65.17 f 30.79 de
T480 608.50 c 35.46 i 40.19 e 61.43 g 29.70 ef
T550 611.03 c 33.02 g 39.36 gh 57.56 h 28.17 h
2016-2017 宽幅播种
Wide range
T130 450.27 h 45.30 bc 42.28 a 63.44 h 29.76 c
T200 554.33 f 44.28 cd 41.01 b 72.36 e 28.32 ef
T270 646.38 d 42.39 e 39.91 c 78.62 d 27.70 fg
T340 699.82 c 41.11 f 38.92 d 83.73 b 27.29 gh
T410 742.96 ab 40.01 g 38.04 ef 85.80 a 27.14 ghi
T480 767.69 a 38.43 h 37.35 gh 83.72 b 26.96 hi
T550 779.03 a 37.33 i 36.84 hi 81.14 c 26.43 i
传统条播Drilling T130 413.99 i 46.92 a 41.19 b 58.00 i 31.92 a
T200 498.27 g 45.70 b 39.95 c 64.28 h 30.61 b
T270 572.71 f 43.71 d 38.59 de 68.96 g 29.91 bc
T340 608.97 de 42.50 e 37.83 fg 72.91 e 29.42 cd
T410 635.73 d 41.25 f 36.63 i 71.66 f 28.96 e
T480 649.79 d 39.31 gh 35.72 j 70.23 fg 27.78 fg
T550 654.84 d 38.30 hi 35.21 j 69.22 g 26.54 i

Fig. 2

Effect of interaction of sowing pattern and planting density on the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of large spike wheat cultivar The error bars represent standard error of three replicates."

Fig. 3

Effect of interaction of sowing pattern and planting density on the spikes per unit area and the grain weight per spike of large spike wheat cultivar The error bars represent standard error of three replicates."

Fig. 4

Effect of interaction of sowing pattern and planting density on the nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) of large spike wheat cultivar The error bars represent standard error of three replicates."

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