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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (9): 1712-1723.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04164

• RESEARCH PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Source-sink characteristics and classification of peanut major cultivars in North China

GAO Fang(), LIU Zhao-Xin, ZHAO Ji-Hao, WANG Ying, PAN Xiao-Yi, LAI Hua-Jiang, LI Xiang-Dong*(), YANG Dong-Qing*()   

  1. College of Agronomy / State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China
  • Received:2020-07-22 Accepted:2021-01-21 Online:2021-09-12 Published:2021-02-20
  • Contact: LI Xiang-Dong,YANG Dong-Qing E-mail:15563177918@163.com;lixdong@sdau.edu.cn;chengyang2364@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China “Physiological Basis and Agronomic Management for High-quality and High-yield of Field Cash Crops”(2018YFD1000900);Shandong Key Research and Development Program(2018YFJH0601-3);Innovation Team Project for Modern Agricultural Industrious Technology System of Shandong Province(SDAIT-04-01)


To explore whether and how source-sink theory was involved in mediating peanut high yield formation, a field experiment was conducted using 13 major peanut cultivars in North China. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to evaluate natural indicators for the characterization and classification of source-sink types such as leaf area (LA) per plant, number of flowers, and pod rate. The results showed that LA per plant, number of flowers, pod rate, and pod plumpness at the pod-setting and pod-filling stages could be the major characteristics to evaluate source-sink relationship. Based on the source-sink indicators and yield components, these peanut cultivars could be classified into four categories, including source-sink coordination type, large source-few sink type, sufficient source-few sink type, and sufficient source-large sink type. The source-sink coordination type varieties could achieve high yield mainly due to the higher net assimilation rate at the pod-setting stage, the moderate florescence and number of flowers, and the higher economic pods ratio and pod fullness. Large source-few sink type cultivars had higher LA, but lower net assimilation rate and smaller contribution of the leaf area to the yield formation, thus decreased the pod yield. Sufficient source-large sink type cultivars had longer florescence and more flowers compared to others types, leading to reduce the pod rate and pod plumpness, which was the main limiting factor to increase the pod yield. On the contrary, both florescence and the number of flowers per plant of sufficient source-few sink type cultivars were less than others types. In summary, to prevent the redundancy of leaf source, more flowers but less pegs, and more pods but less kernels and to promote the effective proportions and pod fullness resulting in higher pod yield in peanut production, corresponding measures should be taken to control leaf area and amount of flowering according to different source-sink types peanut cultivars.

Key words: peanut, source, sink, evaluation indicator, yield

Table 1

Peanut cultivars and their origins used in this study"

丰花1号 Fenghua 1 山东农业大学 Shandong Agricultural University
山花9号 Shanhua 9 山东农业大学 Shandong Agricultural University
青花7号 Qinghua 7 青岛农业大学 Qingdao Agricultural University
潍花8号 Weihua 8 潍坊市农业科学院 Weifang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
潍花16号 Weihua 16 潍坊市农业科学院 Weifang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
花育33号 Huayu 33 山东省花生研究所 Shandong Peanut Research Institute
花育36号 Huayu 36 山东省花生研究所 Shandong Peanut Research Institute
冀花5号 Jihua 5 河北省农林科学院 Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
冀花18155 Jihua 18155 河北省农林科学院 Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
中花24 Zhonghua 24 中国农业科学院油料作物研究所 Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
日花1号 Rihua 1 日照市东港花生研究所 Rizhao Donggang Peanut Research Institute
豫花15号 Yuhua 15 河南省农业科学院 Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
豫花9326 Yuhua 9326 河南省农业科学院 Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Table 2

Analysis of variance of peanut source and sink indexes in 2019"

Range of variation
Coefficient of variation (%)
Source traits
花针期LA LA at pegging stage (cm 2) 860.37-2100.63 29.37
结荚期LA LA at pod setting stage (cm2) 1717.71-2910.91 18.87
饱果期LA LA at pod filling stage (cm2) 650.05-1442.52 26.42
花针期LDM LDM at pegging stage (g) 7.05-11.44 13.91
结荚期LDM LDM at pod setting stage (g) 9.47-15.63 18.87
饱果期LDM LDM at pod filling stage (g) 4.05-9.24 25.01
Sink traits
开花数Number of flowers (ind) 67.43-124.10 17.11
开花持续时间Florescence (d) 29.00-46.00 14.80
成针率Peg rate (%) 36.67-26.95 18.89
成果率Pod rate (%) 8.66-24.20 21.27
Source-sink comprehensive traits
花针期PTR PTR at pegging stage (%) 0.24-11.85 65.76
结荚期PTR PTR at pod setting stage (%) 26.71-49.48 17.61
收获指数HI 0.39-0.59 12.14
单位叶面积对产量贡献 LAC (mg cm-2) 8.88-24.86 33.41
单位叶面积负荷量 LAL (ind m-2) 144.48-396.01 23.97
Output targets
荚果充实度 Pod plumpness (%) 31.02-63.85 19.63
有效果比例 EPR (%) 40.75-76.21 16.10
产量 Yield (kg hm-2) 6024.69-7944.44 7.88

Table 3

Variance contribution rate of principal components of peanut source and sink traits"

Principal components
Contribution rate (%)
Accumulative contribution rate (%)
1 5.155 28.640 28.640
2 2.935 16.305 44.945
3 2.915 16.197 61.142
4 2.563 14.239 75.381
5 2.397 13.315 88.696

Table 4

Loading matrix of principal components of peanut source and sink traits"

Component 1
Component 2
Component 3
Component 4
Component 5
花针期LA LA at pegging stage -0.740 0.236 0.430 0.024 0.185
结荚期LA LA at pod setting stage -0.962 -0.091 -0.077 -0.085 0.010
饱果期LA LA at pod filling stage 0.042 -0.115 0.228 0.952 0.024
花针期叶LDM LDM at peg setting stage (g) -0.355 0.091 -0.152 -0.359 0.480
结荚期叶LDM LDM at pod setting stage (g) -0.942 -0.118 0.019 -0.113 0.049
饱果期叶LDM LDM at pod filling stage (g) 0.050 -0.137 0.243 0.930 -0.128
花针期PTR PTR at peg setting stage (%) 0.595 0.101 -0.069 0.064 0.703
结荚期PTR PTR at pod setting stage (%) 0.742 0.471 -0.260 -0.208 -0.080
收获指数 HI (%) 0.529 0.466 0.069 -0.589 0.136
开花持续期 Florescence (d) -0.246 -0.191 0.865 0.200 -0.233
开花数 Number of flower (ind) -0.089 -0.122 0.901 0.272 -0.176
成针率 Peg rate (%) -0.445 -0.269 0.161 -0.076 0.759
成果率 Pod rate (%) -0.131 0.422 -0.363 -0.048 0.731
有效果比例 EPR (%) 0.182 0.894 -0.276 -0.251 0.039
单位叶面积负荷量 LAL (ind m-2) 0.254 -0.305 0.800 0.119 0.378
单位叶面积对产量贡献 LAC (mg cm-2) 0.896 0.326 0.021 -0.072 -0.071
荚果充实度 Pod plumpness (%) 0.197 0.920 -0.217 -0.093 0.087
产量 Yield (kg hm-2) 0.507 0.471 0.182 -0.192 0.491

Table 5

Values of principal components"

Component 1
Component 2
Component 3
Component 4
Component 5
Synthetic component
丰花1号Fenghua 1 -0.770 -1.463 0.217 2.314 -0.438 -0.172
山花9号Shanhua 9 -1.789 -3.702 4.855 2.508 0.526 0.110
青花7号Qinghua 7 -2.751 -0.774 0.691 0.488 -0.152 -0.849
潍花8号Weihua 8 3.421 3.136 0.469 0.444 -1.087 1.307
潍花16号Weihua 16 0.689 0.466 -0.866 -2.314 0.106 -0.206
花育33号Huayu 33 -3.084 1.008 0.213 -1.524 1.011 -0.864
花育36号Huayu 36 -2.696 -0.684 -2.668 -0.851 -0.798 -1.740
冀花5号Jihua 5 4.138 4.381 -1.945 -2.009 -0.561 1.380
冀花18155 Jihua 18155 2.176 1.317 -2.135 -2.613 1.744 0.397
中花24 Zhonghua 24 1.897 1.667 -0.918 1.076 2.478 1.296
日花1号Rihua 1 -0.934 -3.594 2.007 3.264 -4.181 -0.700
豫花15号Yuhua 15 0.721 0.808 0.691 0.195 0.058 0.548
豫花9326 Yuhua 9326 -1.019 -0.566 -0.614 -0.980 1.294 -0.508

Table 6

Source and sink types by K-means dynamic cluster analysis"

Number of
Cultivar name
I 2 冀花5号、潍花8号 Jihua 5, Weihua 8
II 4 潍花16号、冀花18155、中花24、豫花15号 Weihua 16, Jihua 18155, Zhonghua 24, Yuhua 15
III 3 丰花1号、山花9号、日花1号 Fenghua 1, Shanhua 9, Rihua 1
IV 4 青花7号、花育33号、花育36号、豫花9326 Qinghua 7, Huayu 33, Huayu 36, Yuhua 9326

Fig. 1

Changes of leaf area of different peanut cultivars after anthesis"

Table 7

Differences of net assimilation rate and contribution of unit-leaf area to yield of different peanut cultivars"

Net assimilation rate at pod setting stage (g m-2 d-1)
Contribution of unit-leaf area to yield (mg cm-2)
2018 2019 2018 2019
花育33号 Huayu 33 3.19 c 3.64 d 10.79 c 10.19 c
花育36号 Huayu 36 3.32c 3.49 d 11.02 c 10.56 c
山花9号 Shanhua 9 4.50 b 5.31 b 13.95 c 12.74 c
中花24 Zhonghua 24 3.90 b 4.74 c 18.02 b 18.48 b
潍花8号 Weihua 8 5.59 a 6.84 a 23.46 a 24.86 a
冀花5号 Jihua 5 5.14 a 5.77 ab 19.88 b 23.26 a

Table 8

Differences of the sink characters of different peanut cultivars in 2019"

Number of flower
per plant
Peg rate
Pod rate (%)
Pod plumpness (%)
山花9号Shanhua 9 46 124.10 a 73.73 a 14.92 c 40.75 d 33.13 d
日花1号Rihua 1 42 99.30 b 42.27 de 8.66 d 45.82 d 31.02 e
潍花8号Weihua 8 34 98.95 b 52.05 cd 18.36 b 64.58 b 46.07 c
冀花5号Jihua 5 32 84.81 bc 36.67 e 17.49 bc 76.21 a 63.85 a
花育36号Huayu 36 29 70.05 c 59.46 bc 19.63 b 59.18 c 46.15 c
中花24 Zhonghua 24 31 75.10 c 67.88 ab 24.20 a 65.46 b 53.68 b

Table 9

Differences of yield of different peanut cultivars"

荚果产量Pod yield (kg hm-2) 品种
荚果产量Pod yield (kg hm-2)
2018 2019 2018 2019
丰花1号Fenghua 1 4746.91 cdef 6592.59 fg 冀花5号Jihua 5 6037.04 a 7944.44 a
山花9号Shanhua 9 5240.74 bc 7203.70 bcde 冀花18155 Jihua 18155 5530.86 ab 7549.38 ab
青花7号Qinghua 7 5055.56 bcde 6925.93 def 中花24 Zhonghua 24 4703.70 def 7432.10 bc
潍花8号Weihua 8 5222.22 bcd 7401.23 bcd 日花1号Rihua 1 4500.00 fg 6024.69 h
潍花16号Weihua 16 5129.63 bcde 6580.25 fg 豫花15号Yuhua 15 4666.67 ef 6864.20 ef
花育33号Huayu 33 4975.31 cdef 7037.04 cdef 豫花9326 Yuhua 9326 5141.98 bcde 7339.51 bcde
花育36号Huayu 36 4030.86 g 6197.53 gh 平均Average 4998.58 cdef 7007.12 cdef
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