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Table of Content

    12 April 2012, Volume 38 Issue 04
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Resistance of Triticum durum Cultivars Waskana and Waskowa to Cereal Cyst Nematode, Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae
      GAO Xiu,CUI Lei,LI Hong-Lian,WANG Xiao-Ming,TANG Wen-Hua,Robert L.CONNER,LIN Xiao-Hu,LI Hong-Jie
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  571-577.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00571
      Abstract ( 2167 )   PDF (354KB) ( 1307 )   Save
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      Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) are a group of important soil-borne pathogens of wheat. Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are the major species of CCN that have limited wheat (Triticum aestivum) production in China in recent years. Since the CCN-resistant resource is short, it is important to develop new sources with resistance for breeding purpose in China. Based on the results of a 3-year field test and controlled environment tests, we found that two Canadian Triticum durum cultivars, Waskana and Waskowa, were highly resistant to both Heterodera filipjevi (pathotype Hfc-1) and H. avenae (pathotype HA43) populations from Henan Province, China. The number of white females per plant in Waskana and Waskowa was significantly smaller than that in the susceptible common wheat cultivars Aikang 58, Shi 4185, and Wenmai 19. Although the juveniles of H. filipjevi and H. avenae populations were able to penetrate into the roots of Waskana and Waskowa, the number of juveniles inside the roots was significantly smaller than that of Aikang 58, Shi 4185, and Wenmai 19, resulting in smaller numbers of females on the roots of these durum wheat cultivars. Waskana and Waskowa with resistance to H. filipjevi and H. avenae are useful in developing wheat cultivars with enhanced resistance to CCN in China. Based on the results from the DNA-based soil testing service operated by South Australian Research and Development Institute, the number of eggs of nematodes in the rhizospheric soil samples from the CCN-resistant cultivars Waskana and Waskowa was less than that in the soil samples from the susceptible wheat cultivars. This indicates that application of resistant cultivars might reduce the risk of damage caused by CCN in soil.
      Cloning and Expression Characteristics of EXO70A1 from Brassica oleracea, Brassica campestris and Brassica napus
      YANG Kun,ZHOU Yong-Xiang,ZHANG He-Cui,ZHAO Yong-Bin,YANG Yong-Jun,LU Jun-Xing,ZHU Li-Quan,XUE Li-Yan,Lü Jun,GAO Qi-Guo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  578-588.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00578
      Abstract ( 1757 )   PDF (643KB) ( 839 )   Save
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      EXO70A1 is an important signal element of self-incompatibility in Brassica. In this study, coding sequences (CDS) of EXO70A1 and the corresponding gDNA were cloned by PCR. Sequence analysis was carried out by means of bioinformatics. RT-PCR was used to analyze expression characteristics of EXO70A1 in Brassica oleracea. And BoEXO70A1 was transformed into yeast Y187 to explore its expression. The results showed: That the gene lengths of BnEXO70A1, BrEXO70A1 and BoEXO70A1 were 3 797, 3 752, and 3 770 bp, respectively, and all consisted of 12 exons and 11 introns; their identity positions reached 91%. Sequence conservation was higher in exons than in introns excluding 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th intron. CDS of three EXO70A1 genes consisted of
      1 917 base pairs and sequence similarity was 97.1%. Three proteins of EXO70A1 conduced all consisted of 638 amino acids; the similarity and identity of EXO70A1 in the three species were 99.8% and 98.1%, respectively. BnEXO70A1, BrEXO70A1, and BoEXO70A1 shared similar secondary structures and three-dimensional structures. All introns started from the sequence GU and ended with the sequence AG (in the 5' to 3' direction). They are referred to as the splice donor and splice acceptor site, respectively. Another important sequence “CU(A/G)A(C/U)” in all introns of EXO70A1 genes was located at 20–50 bases upstream of the acceptor site. The corresponding sequence lengths of all 12 exons of EXO70A1 were identical among three Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana; and similarity of four coding sequences was 90.1%. The similarity and identity of EXO70A1 proteins in the four species reached 99.8% and 93.7%, respectively. EXO70A1 was a subunit of EXO70 family which showed high conservative in Magnoliophyta. The results showed that BoEXO70A1 presented weak expression in Y187, while expressed in stamens, young stems, petals, pistils, young roots and leaves. However, its expression quantity was different in different tissues, with strong expression in pistils and weak in stamens. Thus conclusions can be drawn that: EXO70A1, in Brassica, is high conservative; EXO70A1 perhaps plays very important roles in plant cells because of its different expression characteristics in different plant tissues.
      Chromosome Location and Molecular Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene PmAS846 Originated from Wild Emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides)
      XUE Fei,WANG Chang-You,ZHANG Li-Hua,ZHANG Hong,LI Hao,WANG Ya-Juan,LIU Xin-Lun,JI Wan-Quan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  589-595.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00589
      Abstract ( 2566 )   PDF (349KB) ( 1196 )   Save
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      Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Wheat relativesare important donors of resistance genes against this disease in wheat breeding program. The common wheat line N9738 is highly resistant to Bgt isolate E09 and Shaanxi prevailing races at both seedling and adult plant stages. The PmAS846 gene in line N9738 was derived from wild emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accession As846. Genetic analysis of an F2 population and their F3 families, developed from the cross between N9738 and a susceptible common wheat cultivar Huixianhong, indicated that N9738 carries one dominant resistance gene. A set of common wheat nullisomic (monosomic) lines were used to analyze the chromosomal location of PmAS846. The results revealed that PmAS846 was located on wheat chromosome 5B. Microsatellite markers on wheat chromosome 5B were used to map the gene using bulked segregant analysis. Eleven microsatellite markers were used to construct a linkage map for the gene, and two markers, Xgpw3191 and Xfcp1, ?anking PmAS846 location at 7.3 and 1.8 cM, respectively. Amplification of 5B chromosome deletion lines of Chinese Spring with the flanking markers mapped PmAS846 on chromosome 5BL bin 0.75–0.76. Based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) information mapped on chromosome 5BL bin 0.75–0.76, we identified EST-derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers BF202652 and BF482522 to be closely linked to PmAS846 with genetic distance of 5.1 cM both. These markers can be used in fine mapping of PmAS846 and marker-assisted selection.
      DNA Fingerprinting of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties (Lines) from Recent National Regional Trials in China
      LIU Hong-Yan,WU Kun,YANG Min-Min,ZUO Yang,ZHAO Ying-Zhong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  596-605.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00596
      Abstract ( 2093 )   PDF (310KB) ( 942 )   Save
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      DNA fingerprinting is an important technique for plant variety identification and protection. In this study, 43 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) varieties (lines) from recent National Regional Trail were amplificated with 12 pairs of SSR primers, and a total of 30 polymorphic bands were obtained. These molecular markers were further used for variety (lines) distinction and uniformity analysis. Clustering analysis showed that 43 varieties (lines) were completely differed from each other with 30 markers. Varieties (lines) from the same breeding institute tended to share a higher genetic similarity, while varieties (lines) with different origins seemed to be more distinct. With a genetic similarity coefficient threshold of 0.90, 90% of varieties (lines) were distinctive, and 80% of tested varieties (lines) were classified into high uniformity group in consistence with marker loci uniformity, Furthermore, in assignment test, 86% of derivative individuals were correctly corresponding to their original varieties (lines), it indicated that most varieties (lines) have a good uniformity. Overall, the results showed that most of the tested sesame varieties (lines) have good distinction and uniformity, and SSR marker is suitable for variety identification and protection.
      Cloning and Expression Analysis of Fusarium Wilt Resistance-related Gene PvCaM1 in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
      XUE Ren-Feng,ZHU Zhen-Dong,WANG Xiao-Ming,WANG Lan-Fen,WU Xiao-Fei,WANG Shu-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  606-613.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00606
      Abstract ( 2056 )   PDF (440KB) ( 835 )   Save
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      Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein in plant cells. It plays important roles in regulating the growth, development and disease resistance in plants. A full-length cDNA sequence coding for CaM in common bean was cloned based on expressed sequence tags from common bean. Sequence analysis showed that the isolated fragment was 713 bp, it contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 453 bp encoding 150 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 17.16 kD, designated PvCaM1 (GenBank accession number JN418801),. Online ScanProsite tool analysis showed that PvCaM1 had four Ca2+-binding domains with the function of combining with free Ca2+. Homology analysis indicated that PvCaM1 gene was similar to CaM genes in other plant species including Lotus japonicus (CAB63264.3), watermelon (BAI52955.1), Populus (ADC80735.1) and castor bean (XP_002533357.1).Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acids sequence of PvCaM1 with other nine species showed that the protein encoded by this gene had the closest relationship with the CaM in Lotus japonicus and watermelon, the homology were 77% and 76%, respectively. Real time-PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of PvCaM1 in the interactions between the resistant cultivars and Fusarium wilt pathogen FOP-DM01 (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli) increased significantly and reached the peak at 96 h, however, the susceptible one touched the bottom under the same conditions.The expression level of PvCaM1 in 260205 leaves was higher than that in BRB-130 at all different time points. PvCaM1 expressed differently in the leaves, stems and roots, the expression level in leaves was higher than that in roots and stems. Transcriptional level of PvCaM1 was up-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate and ethephon, but not increased significantly by salicylic acid and 3-indoleacetic acid. These results suggested that PvCaM1 is probably involved in the abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene-regulated resistant response pathways, but not closely related to the salicylic acid and 3-indoleacetic acid pathway. The study indicated that the function of PvCaM1 should be closely related to the resistant response pathways against Fusarium wilt pathogen FOP-DM01 with involvement of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene in common bean.
      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Comparison of Two Genetic Maps of Soybean constructed by RIL Populations Derived from Combinations of Peking×7605 under Two Ecological Sites
      HONG Xue-Juan, HOU Jin-Feng, DING Hui, LI Yong-Chun, GAI Jun-Yi, GENG Han
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  614-623.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00614
      Abstract ( 2135 )   PDF (471KB) ( 965 )   Save
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      Molecular linkage maps provide a powerful tool for the analysis of plant genome structure and function, and it is important to determine the effect of ecological environment on soybean genetic map construction. Two soybean recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations named “JN(RN)P7” and “NJ(RN)P7” were tested in this study, which were derived from Peking × 7605 at Jinan and Nanjing, respectively. One hundred and forty-five SSR markers and one morphologic marker (BSC) which had polymorphism between parents were screened out to construct two genetic linkage maps using JoinMap 4.0 software. And we obtained two soybean genetic maps, which contained 27 and 25 of the linkage groups, respectively. The total length of two genetic maps was 1 574.80 cM and 1 682.50 cM, and the average distance between markers was 13.58 cM and 15.72 cM, respectively. The length of linkage group varied from 17.30 to 127.40 cM for JN(RN)P7, and from 20.10 to137.50 cM for NJ(RN)P7. Both genetic maps were homologous with the public genetic map. The two maps constructed in this study were mostly coincident with each other, while certain differences were observed too, which indicated that there were some genetic structure differences between the two populations caused by the selection effect in various environments.
      Inheritance and Correlation Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits in Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) by Using Mixed Linear Models
      LIU Chang-You,FAN Bao-Jie,CAO Zhi-Min,WANG Yan,ZHANG Zhi-Xiao,SU Qiu-Zhu,WANG Su-Hua,TIAN Jing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  624-631.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00624
      Abstract ( 2017 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1309 )   Save
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      There are only few reports about the genetic research of agronomic traits of mungbean in China. The objectives of this experiment were to study the inheritance and correlation of main agronomic traits of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Through incomplete diallel cross of 19 mungbean varieties (lines), we analyzed the breeding data by using mixed linear models. The results revealed that additive genetic effects were mainly responsible for growing period, plant height, node number of main stem and 100-seed weight. The narrow-sense heritability of the four traits was high with significant level. Additive and dominant genetic effects were responsible for pod number per plant, yield per plant and total yield. The narrow-sense heritability of the three traits was low. Dominant genetic effects were responsible for seed number per pod, and the broad-sense heritability of it was high. Days to flowering was significantly and positively correlated with plant height at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Number of pods per plant and seeds per pod were significantly and negatively correlated with 100-seed weight, but number of pods per plant was positively correlated with yield per plant and total yield. There was no correlation between 100-seed weight and yield. As a result, the selection should be at early generations for growing period, plant height, node number of main stem and 100-seed weight, but at late generations for yield according to number of pods per plant and yield per plant.
      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Genetic Effects of Different RNA Interference Fragments from OsGA20ox2 on Plant Height and Other Agronomic Traits in Rice
      WANG Jian,ZHAO Kai-Jun,QIAO Feng,YANG Sheng-Long
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  632-638.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00632
      Abstract ( 1851 )   PDF (271KB) ( 846 )   Save
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      In our previous study, different rice dwarf lines were obtained through rice genetic transformation using RNAi vectors harboring different fragments of OsGA20ox2 gene. In this study, B1F2 populations were produced by backcrossing between those RNAi dwarf lines and wild-type plants. The progenies of B1F2 populations segregated in a ratio of 3 dwarf plants to 1 normal height plant, indicating that dwarf trait was dominantly inherited. At the same time, plant height, the internode length and some major agronomic traits of dwarf plants of F5 and B1F2 populations were analyzed. It was resulted that RNAiof OsGA20ox2 gene significantly reduced the rice plant height and the internode length. The longer the interference fragment was, the shorter the plant height and internode length were. In general, the rice plant height was reduced by 24–42 cm, dwarfing ratio was 22–39%. For the same RNAi fragment, the average shorten length of the first internode (counting from the top to bottom) was very similar to that of the second, and the third was very similar to the fourth. The dwarfing ratio of each internode showed a trend of the fourth > third > second > first section. Bottom internodes obtained a greater dwarfing ratio, which is good for improving lodging resistance of rice, and the upper internodes showed a lower dwarfing ratio that made the plant maintain a reasonable height, which helps the rice plants to remain a stable and high yield. Other major agronomic traits such as grain weight, seed setting rate, panicle length were not significantly affected by the RNAiof OsGA20ox2 gene.
      Establishment of Phytase-Specific Qualitative PCR Detection Method and Construction of a Positive Plasmid Molecule
      LI Jun,LIU Xin,CAO Ying-Long,WU Yu-Hua,LI Jian-Meng,WU Gang,ZHANG Li,LU Chang-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  639-647.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00639
      Abstract ( 1570 )   PDF (381KB) ( 806 )   Save
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      Phytase gene is valuably applicated in agricultural production, especially in genetic engineering of crops. In order to meet the requirements of safety regulation of transgenic crops, the gene-specific qualitative PCR detection method targeting the fungal-originated phytase gene was developed. A primer pair Phytase-F5/R5 yielding a 389 bp amplicon was selected from 11 primer pairs, then the PCR reaction system was optimized by improving Mg2+ concentration, primer concentration and primer anneal temperature.Twenty transgenic and nontransgenic lines from different crops were used as templates in PCR, showing that the PCR method had good amplification specificity. And the results of sensitivity testing indicated that the phytase amplicon was still observed when the template concentration was down to 0.05%, which reaches the national standards for GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) detection method. In addition, we cointegrated the phytase gene and the endogenous reference genes from six major crops of wheat, rice, cotton, soybeans, corn and rapeseed into a vector, yielding a positive plasmid molecule pBS Endogenous-phytase. The positive plasmid molecule was suitable for screening phytase gene in the six crops about wheat, soybeans, corn, cotton, rice and rape. This study provides positive materials and detection method for safety regulation of genetically modified crops carrying phytase gene.
      Root Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Cultivars with High Yield and High Nitrogen Use Efficiency
      LI Min,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,YANG Xiong,GE Meng-Jie,MA Qun,WEI Hai-Yan,DAI Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,XU Ke,CAO Li-Qiang,WU Hao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  648-656.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00648
      Abstract ( 1890 )   PDF (312KB) ( 1083 )   Save
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      The difference of root morphological and physiological characteristics of low-yielding and low N-efficiency, high-yielding and medium N-efficiency, high-yielding and high N-efficiency rice cultivars was investigated using six representative japonica varieties under their optimum N levels, respectively. The results showed that the high-yielding genotypes showed distinct advantages over the low-yielding ones in root dry weight, root volume, total and active absorbing surface areas of root system, root oxidation ability of α-NA and root bleeding intensity at each growth stage, indicating that the increase of productivity was accompanied by the improvement of root morphological traits and the enhancement of root physiological activities. Cultivars with different N-efficiency displayed diverse root morphological and physiological characteristics, even though they were all on a high-yielding level. Comparing with medium N-efficiency genotypes, the high N-efficiency ones showed lower root dry weight, root volume, root bleeding intensity and root total absorbing surface area for populations, but for single plants, the root dry weight, root volume, root bleeding intensity, active absorbing surface area and α-NA oxidation amount were superior in a significant or extremely significant degree. The results above suggest that the coordination of high-yielding with high N-efficiency could be achieved through controlling population growth properly, facilitating the concordant development of plant population and individuals, and endeavoring to improve the single stem root quality after heading.
      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Difference of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Leaves at Different Positions and Its Relationship with Nitrogen Content in Winter Wheat Plant
      FENG Wei,Li Xiao,WANG Yong-Hua,WANG Chen-Yang,GUO Tian-Cai*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  657-664.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00657
      Abstract ( 1887 )   PDF (493KB) ( 1202 )   Save
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      For diagnosing nitrogen (N) nutrient status in winter wheat plant based on fluorescence parameters of leaves, two cultivars with Aikang 58 (mid-protein content) and Zhengmai 366 (high-protein content) were used in experiments with N application rates of 0, 90, 180, and 270 kg ha-1 in 2008–2009 and 2009–2010 growing seasons. The fluorescence parameters were measured in the first, second, third, and fourth leaves from top of plant from jointing to maturity stage. The N contents and biomasses of leaf and culm were determined through destructive sampling and chemica1 assay. The leaf N contents at different 1eaf positions were significantlycorrelated with fluorescence parameters from jointing to booting stage (P < 0.01). The correlation coefficients of N content with Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and Fv/Fo were 0.557, 0.601, 0.619, and 0.633, respectively. The fluorescence parameters of the top three leaves had small differences, which were much higher than those of the fourth leaf from the top. However, the differences reduced gradually with the increase of N application rate. This indicated a sensitive response of leaf position to N application. The differences of Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm between the fourth and the first leaves (LPD4-1) were significantly correlated with N content in plant (PNC) at jointing stage (R2 = 0.644 for Fv/Fo and R2 = 0.651 for Fv/Fm); whereas, the differences of Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm between the fourth and the second leaves (LPD4-2) had less accurate predictions with smaller R2 values (R2 = 0.626 for Fv/Fo and R2 = 0.592 for Fv/Fm). At booting stage, linear equations were obtained for Fo, Fv, and Fm differences (LPD4-n) between the fourth and the top three leaves (R2 = 0.726 for Fo, R2 = 0.791 for Fv, and R2 = 0.784 for Fm). Using independent datasets to predict PNC at jointing stage with the LPD4-1 and LPD4-2 equations based on Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm, the R2 values for LPD4-1 were 0.844 and 0.828 with relative errors of 13.0% and 16.7%, respectively; and the R2 values for LPD4-2 were 0.793 and 0.813 with relative errors of 16.9% and 18.4%, respectively. The result showed that the estimations were reliable. At booting stage, the best prediction of PNC was from the LPD4-n equation based on Fv and Fm, and R2 values were 0.831 and 0.815 with relative errors 13.2% and 16.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the LPD4-1 equation based on Fv/Fo at jointing stage and the LPD4-n model based on Fv at booting stage are applicable to estimate PNC of wheat.
      Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Drought-resistance at Soybean Adult Stage
      QI Xu-Sheng,LIU Zhang-Xiong,GUAN Rong-Xia,WANG Xing-Rong,GOU Zuo-Wang,CHANG Ru-Zhen,QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  665-674.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00665
      Abstract ( 2183 )   PDF (227KB) ( 1058 )   Save
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      Drought is a very important abiotic stress for soybean production in China. A number of methods have been used to evaluate drought tolerance of soybean. In this study, 77 soybean varieties with Jindou 21 as the controlwere planted under drought stress and normal irrigationin Dunhuang City, Gansu, where the annual rainfall is less than 40 mm. The identification criterions for drought-resistance wereselected fromeightyield-related agronomic traits, and different evaluation methods were compared by simple correlation, spearman correlation, stepwise regression and gray correlation.The result showed that the evaluation method of drought resistance coefficient had the same effect as that of index of damage and drought resistance index. The comprehensive evaluation methods based on biomass, grain number per plant and pod number per plant had no advantages than the direct evaluation method based on yield. Drought resistance rather than high yield could be selected by traditional drought resistance coefficient method. The soybean varieties with drought resistance and stable yield under both drought and normal conditions could be selected using the improved drought resistance index created in this study, such as Xudou 12, Zhongzuo 00-683, and Zhonghuang 24, which would be elite soybean germplasm for soybean production in dry area. We might select drought resistant soybean germplasm with different ecotypes by dividing varieties with different growing periods. This study provided a theoretical basis for evaluating drought resistant soybean germplasm and for establishing the “standard evaluation system for drought resistant soybean”.
      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Effects of Tillage Regimes on Water Consumption and Dry Matter Accumulation in Dryland Wheat
      WANG Hong-Guang, YU Zhen-Wen, ZHANG Yong-Li, SHI Yu,WANG Dong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  675-682.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00675
      Abstract ( 1868 )   PDF (71KB) ( 1063 )   Save
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      The area of dryland wheat is large in Huang-Huai-Hai Rivers region, where grain yield of wheat was low and unstable because of deficient and variable precipitation. Conservation tillage is an important cultivation mode to stimulate crop production and has been a hotspot in cultivation research of winter wheat. Minimum tillage and no-tillage are believed to significantly increase grain yield and water use efficiency of dryland wheat. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of tillage modes on water consumption and dry matter accumulation of wheat in hill area of Shandong Province in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 growing seasons. Compared to strip rotary tillage (SR), rotary tillage after subsoiling (RS), and rotary tillage (R) treatments, strip rotary tillage after subsoiling (SRS) treatment was beneficial to reduce water consumption amount from sowing to pre-winter stage, increase water consumption amount from anthesis to maturity stage, and promote the ratio of water consumption after anthesis to the total water consumption. The water reduction amount in 0–20 cm soil layer was lower in SRS treatment than in RS and R treatments from sowing to jointing, while that in 40–160 cm soil layer was higher in SRS treatment than in SR and R treatments from jointing to maturity.In the whole growing period of 2009–2010 and seedling, anthesis, and filling stages of 2010–2011, the evaporation of SRS was lower than that of RS or R treatment, which was equivalent to that of SR with no significant difference. SRS treatment had the highest dry matter accumulation amount from anthesis to maturity stage. Compared to SR and R treatments, SRS treatment had higher water consumption amount and water use efficiency. There was no significant difference between SRS and SR treatments in water consumption and water use efficiency, but the grain yield was the highest in SRS treatment. Therefore, SRS treatment is considered as the best tillage treatment under the experimental condition.
      Effect of Increased Canopy Temperature on Cotton Plant Dry Matter Accumulation and Its Physiological Mechanism
      SUN Xiao-Zhen,ZHANG Li-Ni,DAI Yan-Jiao,HE Xin-Ying,ZHOU Zhi-Guo,WANG You-Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  683-690.  doi:0.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00683
      Abstract ( 1685 )   PDF (398KB) ( 894 )   Save
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      Cotton is highly sensitive to temperature. High temperature usually causes the decline of net photosynthetic rate, resulting in cotton yield reduction at the boll stage. The experiment was carried out, using cotton cultivars Simian 3 and Siza 3, with similar genetic background in the half-open-top greenhouse in Pailou experiment station of Nanjing Agricultural University (118º50′E, 32º02′N). The results indicated that under the 2–3°C of increased canopy temperature (average boll period temperature was 33.5–35.2°C), the chlorophyll SPAD readings and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the functional leaf on the main stems reduced, while the stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) increased. Soluble protein content increased significantly while soluble sugar content, soluble amino acid content and C/N decreased. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in cotton leaves increased, whereas the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of cotton leaves decreased. The variation ranges of related indices for Siza 3 were less than those for Simian 3. The results suggested that in the 2–3°C increased canopy temperature (average boll period temperature was 33.5–35.2°C) condition, the cotton plant suffered from serious temperature stress, then the plant photosynthesis was inhibited, the carbohydrates supplementary capacity was decreased in the leaf subtending the boll, and declination of the dry matter accumulation rate reached 20%. The cotton plant also suffered water deficiency stress in leaf but the reduction of the photosynthesis rate was mainly affected by non-stomatic restrictions, and it might be caused by the damage of cell membrane. The tolerance to the increased temperature is higher in Siza 3 than Simian 3.
      Spectrum Analysis of Crystalline Structure of Crop Starches
      MAN Jian-Min,CAI Jin-Wen,XU Bin,ZHANG Feng-Min,LIU Qiao-Quan,WEI Cun-Xu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  691-698.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00691
      Abstract ( 2691 )   PDF (330KB) ( 2856 )   Save
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      Crop starches have A-type, B-type, and C-type crystallinity, and C-type crystallinity is the combination of both A-type and B-type crystallinity. In this paper, spectrum charateristics and relative crystallinity of starches from different plants were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR). The results indicated that rice, potato and pea starches showed typical A-type, B-type and C-type XRD spectra respectively. Water chestnut starch showed a CA-type XRD spectrum, which was a C-type closer to A-type. Kudzu starch showed a CB-type XRD spectrum, which was a C-type closer to B-type. The relative crystallinity of starch from XRD was obtained using the Jade 5.0 software and the curve mapping method. The results of two methods showed significant difference and had no correlation. The crystallinity with the curve mapping method was more reliable. The spectra of 13C CP/MAS NMR from different crop starches showed similar characteristics, and had four regions of C1, C4, C2, 3, 5 and C6, while the difference of the spectra among different starches was from C1 region. In C1 region, A-type starches of waxy and normal maize showed three peaks, B-type starch of potato showed two peaks, the transgenic resistant starch rice line (TRS) starch, which was a CA-type crystallinity, showed three inconspicuous peaks, the acid-modified TRS starch with CB-type crystalline showed two peaks and the amorphous starch had no peaks. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra were peak fitted by using the PeakFit 4.12 software. The relative crystallinity and the percentage of double helix content in starches were calculated. The double helix content was higher than the relative crystallinity. The crystallinity obtained from 13C CP/MAS NMR was higher than that from XRD. These results would be very useful for the application of XRD and 13C CP/MAS NMR to the analysis of crystalline structure of crop starches.
      Effects of Different Mixing Rates of Controlled-release Urea and Common Urea on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Summer Maize
      LI Wei,LI Xu-Hua,LI Hai-Yan,PENG Qiang,LIU Xu-Feng,TANG Shen-Xin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  699-706.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00699
      Abstract ( 1908 )   PDF (281KB) ( 899 )   Save
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      Using controlled-release urea (CRU) with releasing period of 60 d and conventional urea (U) as experimental materials, the effects of different mixing rates of CRU (0, 10%, 30%, 50%, 100%) and U with the equality of nitrogen fertilization every treatment on photosynthetic efficiency, grain filling rate, grain yield, economic profits and nitrogen utilization efficiency of summer maize were studied. Results were as follows: (1) Net photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll contents and nitrate reductase activity in ear leaves of treatments with different ratio of CRU were always higher , the grain filling was started-up faster and grain active filling duration was longer than those of U treatment. (2) With the increase of proportion of CRU, the grain yield was increased firstly and then gradually decreased .Compared with U treatment, the increase of grain yield in CRU+U treatments was 2.90%, 7.91%, 9.48%, and 5.68% in turn and the increase of economic profits was 397.34, 1 077.65, 1 263.94, and 611.3 yuan ha-1 in turn. (3) In all treatments, nitrogen agronomy efficiency was 8.31, 10.55, 11.81, 12.5, and 9.46 kg kg-1 in turn, among them, CRU treatments showed 1.15–4.19% more than U treatment; nitrogen use efficiency was 29.71%, 31.83%, 38.49%, 40.72%, and 44.63% in turn, among them CRU treatments showed 2.12–14.92% more than U treatment. (4) Applying CRU with a mixing ratio of 50% was most beneficial to increase the yield of summer maize.
      Characteristics of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium’s Uptake and Partitioning in Mechanical Transplanting Japonica Rice
      YU Lin-Hui,LI Gang-Hua,XU Jing-Jing,Yang Juan-Juan,WANG Shao-Hua,LIU Zheng-Hui,WANG Qiang-Sheng,LING Qi-Hong,DING Yan-Feng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  707-716.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00707
      Abstract ( 1687 )   PDF (186KB) ( 955 )   Save
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      From 2008 to 2009, 2 more than 6.7 ha high-yield demonstration fields at Caoqiao (using cv. Wuxiangjing 9) and Qianhuang (using cv. Wuyunjing 7) in Wujin County, Jiangsu province, were used to investigate the nutrient uptake and partitionging characteristics of mechanical transplanting rice. The results showed that 80% of grain yield of mechanical transplanting rice came from the dry matter accumulation after heading, dry weight decreased in leaves while increased in stem sheath after heading. Leaves were also the main contributor of nitrogen translocation. Nitrogen uptake of mechanical transplanting rice increased with the yield, and the increased nitrogen uptake mainly originated from the nitrogen accumulation after heading. With the increasing yield, the accumulation and proportion of nitrogen from heading to maturity increased. At the same time, the uptake of P2O5 and K2O increased while the dry weight accumulation ratio reduced. The nitrogen harvest index was between 0.51 and 0.61, the P2O5 harvest index was about 0.75, and the K2O harvest index was close to 0.20. For achieving high yield in mechanical transplanting rice, nitrogen requirement for 100 kg grains should be 2.0–2.1 kg, and the optimum ratio of NPK should be 2.0 : 0.9 : 1.4.
      Effects of Ecological Conditions and Cultivation Methods on Rice Starch RVA Profile Characteristics and Protein Content
      DENG Fei, WANG Li, XIE De-Cheng, LIN Mo-Jun, YANG Wen-Yu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  717-724.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00717
      Abstract ( 1990 )   PDF (223KB) ( 975 )   Save
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      In order to clarify the relations of ecological conditions, cultivation methods and their interactions with rice starch and protein qualities, the authors systematically studied the effects of cultivation methods on rice strach RVA profile and protein content under different ecological conditions by using rice varieties II You 498 as material. The result showed that all of the ecological conditions, cultivation methods and interactions of them had a significant effect on the RVA profile of rice starch. With the raising of altitude and the reducing of average temperature and sunshine hours in 30 days after heading, the peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and cool paste viscosity of RVA depressed significantly. It was found that both of seedling age and transplanting methods caused RVA profile changes. The peak viscosity and cool paste viscosity of long seedling age were higher than those of short seedling age. Meanwhile, the peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and cool paste viscosity of the optimized-broadcasting rice treatment were lower than those of the double seedlings hand-transplanted treatment. Because of the interaction of ecological condition and cultivation method, all of the seven eigenvalue were strongly influenced, but pasting temperature. In addition, it was easy to discover that breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity were affected higher than peak time and pasting temperature, according to the coefficient of variation. Besides, all of the latitude, light and temperature conditions affected protein content seriously. In conclusion, in order to get a better cooking and eating quality and rice yield under different ecological conditions, an appropriate cultivation method must be chosen.
      Observation by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Analysis of Silicon Content on Glume of Rice Variant Strain with Bird Disaster Resistance
      JI Sheng-Dong,WANG Hai-Sha,ZHU De-Lai,HOU Lei-Lei,WEI Song-Hao,ZHANG Xiang-Yu,ZHANG Yu,LI Chun-Yan,MA Ya-Feng,GUO Dan-Dan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  725-731.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00725
      Abstract ( 1882 )   PDF (913KB) ( 783 )   Save
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      Bird-disaster-resistantriceisakindofscarcegermplasmresources, and the research on its glume surface structure, such as the close degree of glume tip, the length, diameter and density of pubescence, as well as the silicon (Si) content related with glume mechanical strength could provide a theoretical basis for the exploitation and utilization of the bird-resistant rice variants.Inthe present research,thesurfacestructureandsilicon(Si)contentofglumesofastablyinheritedbird-resistantvariantof rice(the10thgeneration)wereinvestigatedviascanningelectronmicroscopy(SEM)andenergyspectrumtechnology.Comparedwiththreecontrolstrains,thelength,diameteranddensityofpubescenceontheuppermiddlesectionofglumeaswellastheclosedegreeofglumetipweresignificantlygreaterforthevariant,andtheinterspacesbetweenglumesandgrainsweresignificantlysmaller.ThevariantshowedahigherSicontentintheoutersurfaceofglumethanthethreecontrols,whilealowercontentintheirinnersurface.Theseresultsindicatethatthecharacteristicsofthe bird-disaster-resistant variantofricearesignificantlyassociatedwiththesurfacestructureanditsSicontent ofglume,andtheresultsarealsousefulfordevelopingandutilizing new.
      Effect of Chilling Stress on Physiological Metabolism in Chloroplasts of Seedlings of Sugarcane Varieties with Different Chilling Resistance
      SUN Fu,YANG Li-Tao,XIE Xiao-Na,LIU Guang-Ling,LI Yang-Rui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  732-739.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00732
      Abstract ( 1988 )   PDF (395KB) ( 988 )   Save
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      Chilling occurs frequently in recent years, and has become a major limiting factor for sugarcane production. Chloroplasts are the main organelle for photosynthesis and one of the subcellular fractions for chilling sensitivity in plants. In order to investigate the effect of chilling stress on the physiological metabolism of sugarcane chloroplast, and reveal the relationships between the physiological characteristics in chloroplast and chilling tolerance of sugarcane, the experiment was conducted with two varieties of GT28 (chilling resistant) and ROC22 (chilling susceptible) with two treatments: control (28°C) and chilling stress (4°C). The relative electrical conductance (REC) of sugarcane seedling leaves, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and some physiological indiees in chloroplasts were measured. The results showed that under the low temperature stress condition, the plasma membrane permeability of the seedling leaves, initial fluorescence (Fo) and NPQ increased significantly in both varieties, and the chilling resistant variety GT28 was more stable than the chilling sensitive variety ROC22; and theFv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', qP, and ΦPSII decreased in the two sugarcane varieties, and decreased less in GT28 than in ROC22. The activities of Hill reaction, Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in chloroplasts decreased, and those in GT28 decreased less than those in ROC22. The MDA content and SOD, POD, GR activities in the chloroplasts increased, and sugarcane variety GT28 showed lower increase in MDA but higher increase in SOD, POD, GR activities. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the physiological characteristics in the chloroplasts of sugarcane leaves were affected significantly by chilling stress. The changes of chlorophyll fluorescence and the physiological characteristics in the chloroplasts are correlated significantly to low temperature resistance, and GT28 is more chilling resistant than ROC22.
      Adaptability of APSIM Maize Model in Northeast China
      LIU Zhi-Juan,YANG Xiao-Guang,WANG Jing,Lü Shuo,LI Ke-Nan,XUN Xin,WANG En-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  740-746.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00740
      Abstract ( 2393 )   PDF (352KB) ( 824 )   Save
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      The APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) model was introduced to simulate maize growth, development and yields in the northeast China using the field experimental data and climate data collected from six typical agricultural meteorological stations in the studied area. APSIM was calibrated using the first part of data to determine the varietal parameters, then simulated the growing periods, leaf area index (LAI), total above-ground biomass and yields using the second part of data at each site. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the simulated and observed values in growing periods. The difference of growing periods from sowing to emergence, form sowing to flowering and form sowing to maturity between simulated and observed data was 02.0, 0.72.0, and 0.72.3 d, respectively. The Normalized Root Mean Square Error(NRMSE) values for measured and simulated LAI and total above-ground biomass in Harbin station were 33% and 11%, respectively. NRMSE values for measured and simulated yield in Harbin, Hailun, Tailai, Huadian, Tonghua, and Benxi station were 18%, 13%, 4%, 4%, 5%, and 2%, respectively. These results indicated that APSIM model has good ability to simulate the growing periods, dynamic process of LAI, dynamic process of above-ground biomass and yield of maize in Northeast of China. This research supports the model application in Northeast of China, such as simulating maize potential yield, or prescribing yield limiting factors.
      RESEARCH NOTES
      NDVI Analysis and Yield Estimation in Winter Wheat based on GreenSeeker
      WANG Lei, BAI You-Lu, LU Yan-Li, WANG He, YANG Li-Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  747-753.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00747
      Abstract ( 2074 )   PDF (365KB) ( 1539 )   Save
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      The field experiment was carried out in two winter wheat growing seasons during 2007–2009. Winter wheat canopy reflectances in the 656 nm and 770 nm wavelengths were obtained by GreenSeeker at over-wintering stage, reviving stage, jointing stage, early-filling stage, and last-filling stage, respectively, in order to compute NDVI [(NIR770-R656)/(NIR770+R656)]. Yields were collected at harvest stage and compared among different nitrogen application rates. Canopy NDVI changes were analyzed with nitrogen increasing and growth, respectively. Furthermore, correlation analysis was done between yield and canopy NDVI. Yield estimation models were established for winter wheat based on canopy NDVI. Results showed that, winter wheat yield changed in parabola shape with N increasing. Wheat canopy NDVI value presented almost changeless before reviving stage, but great increase from reviving stage to early-filling stage with N increasing. In the whole growth stage, canopy NDVI value presented a trend of “low–high–low”. The correlation between canopy NDVI and yield was positive in the whole growth stage with different N rates and gradually became higher with growth, and up to the highest at the late-filling stage. The yield estimation models based on canopy NDVI at early-filling stage (P=0.005) and late-filling stage (P<0.001) were greatly significant. Regression validated between predicted and measured values was significant at early-filling stage (P=0.0129) and greatly significant at late-filling stage (P=0.0002). So, it is feasible that using canopy NDVI at early-filling stage and late-filling stage estimates winter wheat yield, especially at late-filling stage.
      Karyotype Analysis of Arachis hypogaea L. Using Fluorescence Banding and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization with rDNA Probes
      SHE Chao-Wen,ZHANG Li-Hua,JIANG Xiang-Hui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(04):  754-759.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00754
      Abstract ( 1773 )   PDF (322KB) ( 966 )   Save
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      The establishment of an exact and detailed karyotype of Arachis hypogaea L. was fundamental for clarification of the origin and research of the genome of the species. In this study, the mitotic metaphase chromosomes of the species were analyzed using DAPI banding and double fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. The mean haploid karyotype length was (81.06±3.74) μm, the longest chromosome pair was (4.72±0.15) μm and the shortest chromosome pair was (2.62±0.14)μm. In the complements of the species, fifteen pairs of the chromosomes displayed centromeric DAPI+ bands including ten pairs of strong bands and five pairs of weak bands; and two pairs of 5S and five pairs of 45S rDNA sites were showed, with one 5S site being syntenic to a 45S site. Combining the chromosome measurements with DAPI+ bands and rDNA FISH signals, the chromosomes were exactly paired and arranged, and a detailed molecular cytogenetic karyotype of A. hypogaea is established. The karyotype formula of A. hypogaea was 2n=4x=40=38m+2sm (SAT) and the asymmetric karyotype belonged to 2A type.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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