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    12 November 2018, Volume 44 Issue 11
    • REVIEW
      Research Progress on Bioactive Components of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)
      Yi-Chen HU,Gang ZHAO,Pei-You QIN,Yan-Fen CHENG,Ya-Na CAO,Liang ZOU,Gui-Xing REN
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1579-1591.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01579
      Abstract ( 1453 )   HTML ( 93 )   PDF (935KB) ( 805 )   PDF(mobile) (935KB) ( 125 )   Save
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      Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a dicotyledon belonging to Amaranthaceae family, has been regarded as a functional healthy food because of its excellent nutritional characteristics. Quinoa has been most widely commercialized, consumed and also studied for their high contents of vitamin, essential amino acids, minerals and bioactive compounds. Indeed, the presence of these bioactive compounds in quinoa seeds well leads to their being considered a ‘‘functional food”. The bioactive compounds mainly consist of polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins), saponins, polysaccharides, polypeptides, ecdysone and aliphatic acids, and are confirmed as the main constituents of quinoa secondary metabolite, with activities in antioxidant, antidiabetics, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-inflammatory, enhancing immune, preventing cardiovascular diseases and antibacterial. The popularity of quinoa has increased in recent years due to the claims of benefits to health and superfood qualities. This paper reviews the function of bioactive compounds in quinoa, and its research and development of related products in future. It is intended to provide important references to the quinoa industry, food health and pharmaceutical research and development.

      Progresses and Prospects of Germplasms Innovation for Clubroot Resistance and Genetic Improvement in Brassica napus
      Ying-Fen JIANG,Zong-Xiang ZHAN,Zhong-Yun PIAO,Chun-Yu ZHANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1592-1599.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01592
      Abstract ( 713 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (250KB) ( 463 )   PDF(mobile) (250KB) ( 49 )   Save
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      Clubroot is one of the most serious soil-borne diseases caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus). Being a major oil crop, the safe production for oilseed rape both in Canada and China is now facing severe threat from clubroot disease in recent years. In this review, after briefly introducing the biological features of this pathogen, the root symptoms after infection, pathogen-type differentiation, strategies usually employed in disease controlling process, and a strategy based on genetic breeding are highlighted in clubroot disease comprehensive control for oilseed rape; furthermore, for sustainable development of oilseed rape industry by avoiding damages caused by clubroot disease, major problems faced are pointed out and some prospects are addressed accordingly.

      Development and Utilization of KASP Marker for SCN3-11 Locus Resistant to Soybean Cyst Nematode
      Yu TIAN,Lei YANG,Ying-Hui LI,Li-Juan QIU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1600-1611.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01600
      Abstract ( 796 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (1787KB) ( 353 )   PDF(mobile) (1787KB) ( 28 )   Save
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      Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is one of the most economically destructive pathogens worldwide. The cultivation of resistant soybean cultivars combined with crop rotation was the most effective management strategy to reduce yield losses due to SCN. To accelerate the breeding of cultivars resistant to SCN under molecular marker assisted selection, we developed an economical, time-saving and high-throughput KASP marker GmSNAP11-5149 by using a reported non-synonymous polymorphism (Map-5149) on the minor SCN3-11 resistant to SCN3. Two hundred and two soybean accessions from eight countries with known SCN3 were genotyped for GmSNAP11-5149. The average female index of 141 accessions carrying GmSNAP11-5149-AA (6.2%) was significantly lower than that of 58 accessions carrying GmSNAP11-5149-GG (61.1%) at the P < 0.0001 probability level. The selection efficiency of GmSNAP11-5149 for resistant accessions was 92%. It is suggested that GmSNAP11-5149 could be used to effectively distinguish resistant genotypes from susceptible ones in the tested soybean accessions and subsequently could be used in molecular marker-assisted breeding and identification of resistant germplasm.

      Development and Application of Functional Markers for Rice Blast Resistance Gene Bsr-d1 in Rice
      Jun WANG,Jie-Yu ZHAO,Yang XU,Fang-Jun FAN,Jin-Yan ZHU,Wen-Qi LI,Fang-Quan WANG,Yun-Yan FEI,Wei-Gong ZHONG,Jie YANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1612-1620.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01612
      Abstract ( 1055 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (1709KB) ( 287 )   PDF(mobile) (1709KB) ( 32 )   Save
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      Rice blast is one of the most serious rice diseases, breeding resistant cultivars is the most effective way to prevent this disease. Bsr-d1 is one vital non race-specific resistance gene for rice blast disease. To improve the selection efficiency of rice blast resistance gene Bsr-d1 in breeding, we selected different types of gene marker, CAPs5-1 and 3Bsr-d1/3bsr-d1, based on the single nucleotide polymorphism in the functional region of alleles Bsr-d1/bsr-d1. Furtherly confirmed by sequencing, we found both CAPs5-1 and 3Bsr-d1/3bsr-d1 could obviously distinguish different genetypes of Bsr-d1 locus. 3Bsr-d1/3bsr-d1 was employed to genotype 34 indica rice varieties, 110 japonica varieties certificated in Jiangsu Province, 13 japonica varieties certificated in different provinces, 148 local japonica cultivars and 19 local indica cultivars from Taihu Basin. There were only 11 indica varieties carrying Bsr-d1 gene, while Bsr-d1 gene was not detected in 271 japonica rice samples, indicating that Bsr-d1 mainly exists in indica germplasm, and is rarely found in japonica rice. This study facilitates the use of Bsr-d1 gene in rice blast resistance breeding and marker assisted selection.

      Identification and Gene Mapping of sdb1 Mutant with a Semi-dwarfism and Bigger Seed in Rice
      Yi-Ran TAO,Yu-Zhen XIONG,Jia XIE,Wei-Jiang TIAN,Xiao-Qiong ZHANG,Xiao-Bo ZHANG,Qian ZHOU,Xian-Chun SANG,Xiao-Wen WANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1621-1630.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01621
      Abstract ( 620 )   HTML ( 38 )   PDF (5817KB) ( 339 )   PDF(mobile) (5817KB) ( 47 )   Save
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      Moderate dwarfing is conducive to improving the lodging resistance of rice and further affecting its yield and quality, which is one of the important alternatives in rice breeding. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the molecular mechanism of shortened stem formation. In order to identify new dwarf resources and to explore the molecular regulation mechanism of plant height formation, a semi-dwarf and bigger seed (sdb1) mutant was identified from the progeny of indica restorer line Jinhui 10 with seed treated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). This paper performed systematic studies in phenotypic identification, cytological observation, genetic analysis and gene mapping. At maturity stage, the plant height of sdb1 was only 76.66 cm, significantly shorter than 117.43 cm of wild type, resulting in a 34.72% decrease. It was found from the paraffin sections of the stem that the mutant had no significant change in stem cell length compared with the wild-type cells, it reduced cell width caused significantly smaller cell size, and the number of lateral cells significantly increased. The decrease of longitudinal cells should be the major cause of sdb1 semi-dwarfism. In addition to reduced plant height of sdb1, another typical mutational trait was the larger grain size, the 1000-grain weight increased from wild-type’s 24.83 g to mutant’s 29.00 g, reaching an extremely significant difference. The number of parenchyma cells increased from 666.30 in WT to 813.21 in sdb1, with an increase of 22.05%. The increase of cell number resulted in a significant increase of grain length, width and thickness. The mutant also had increased number of sdb1 mesophyll cells, resulting in significantly higher photosynthetic pigment content than wild type, and dark green leaves. Genetic analysis showed that a recessive nuclear gene regulated the mutant phenotype. Based on the F2 recessive plants of Zhonghua 11/sdb1, the gene was finally mapped between markers RM16632 and J50-7 on chromosome 4, with a physical distance of 406 kb. This research lays a foundation for gene cloning and function research, and is conducive to further understanding the genetic model of rice plant height, which has the potential value for agricultural production research.

      Genome-wide Screening and Evaluation of SNP Core Loci for Identification of Upland Cotton Varieties
      Guo-Zhong ZHU,Fang ZHANG,Jie FU,Le-Chen LI,Er-Li NIU,Wang-Zhen GUO
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1631-1639.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01631
      Abstract ( 712 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (1872KB) ( 187 )   PDF(mobile) (1872KB) ( 21 )   Save
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      Utilizing the genome-wide SNP information to screen the core SNP loci may provide an accurate and efficient method for the identification of upland cotton varieties. Using the CottonSNP80K array, SNP genotyping was performed within 326 upland cotton accessions. Then, the SNP loci were annotated with TM-1 genomic sequence of Gossypium hirsutum (AD1) genome NBI v1.1 Upland cotton of Nanjing Agricultural University as reference sequence. Statistical analysis of all loci in CottonSNP80K showed that the call rate of 93.85% loci (72 990 in 77 774) was more than 99%, and 61 595 (79.20%) SNPs were polymorphic loci among the tested upland cotton accessions. Among them, minor allele frequency (MAF) of 76.32% (47 009) loci was greater than 0.1. Based on call frequency for each locus > 0.99; loci with polymorphism; MAF > 0.2; heterozygosity rate < 0.05; SNP density with ~400 kb/SNP in each chromosome, we obtained 4857 high-quality core SNP loci. The characteristic statistics of the core SNP loci combination showed that the average call rate was nearly 100%; the average MAF was 0.34; and the average heterozygosity was 0.02. Using these core SNPs, more than 99% of the materials could be identified accurately and effectively. In addition, the identification results of core SNP loci showed extremely significant linear correlation with that of CottonSNP80K. Taken together, a core combination containing 4857 SNP loci for fingerprint identification of upland cotton varieties is constructed, which can accurately identify the purity and reality of modern upland cotton varieties.

      Identification and Screening of Nicotiana tobacam-N. plumbaginifolia Heterologous Chromosome Plants Based on SSR Marker
      Wei SHANG,Shen-Qing-Yu ZHAO,Jiang-Bo DANG,Qi-Gao GUO,Guo-Lu LIANG,Chao YANG,Yan ZHANG,Yi-Yin CHEN
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1640-1649.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01640
      Abstract ( 507 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (5658KB) ( 139 )   PDF(mobile) (5658KB) ( 11 )   Save
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      The 340 pairs SSR primers were amplified to select polymorphic primers amplifying polymorphic bands, in which the genomic DNA of the octoploid of Nicotiana tabacum Yunyan 87 (2n = 8x = 96) and N. plumbaginifolia was extracted as a template. The polymorphic primers were used to amplify the genomic DNA of interspecific hybrids and 190 backcross progenies, and the linkage of SSR markers in N. plumbaginifolia was briefly analyzed. A total of 29 pairs of polymorphic primers. We found that N. plumbaginifolia specific SSR loci were amplified from 159 of the 190 BC1 plants. It was verified that 159 plants were N. tabacum-N. plumbaginifolia alien chromosome plants. By contrast, the other 31 plants might have no chromosomes of N. plumbaginifolia. Clustering analysis based on UPGMA indicated that the genetic diversity of the plants in BC1 population was relatively high, the appearance of some of the molecular markers in the offspring had a complete correlation. Fourteen in 29 markers could be identified from five chromosomes. The 29 N. plumbaginifolia specific loci were detected in BC1 plants in different rates, which were all lower than 31.00%, showing that vertical transmission rate of N. plumbaginifolia genome in the hybrid is low. The interspecies distant hybrids of Yunyan 87 octuploid (2n = 8x = 96) and N. plumbaginifolia could be identified as a true hybrid by using SSR marker, and a large number of N. tabacum-N. plumbaginifolia alien chromosome plants were screened out. All these results lay a foundation for production of black shank-resistant N. tabacum-N. plumbaginifolia monomer alien addition lines and alien translocations lines.

      Molecular Cloning, Location and Expression Analysis of Brasscia oleracea Zinc Finger Protein Transcription Factor BoC2H2
      Shao-Lan LUO,Xiao-Ping LIAN,Min PU,Xiao-Jing BAI,Yu-Kui WANG,Jing ZENG,Song-Mei SHI,He-Cui ZHANG,Li-Quan ZHU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1650-1660.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01650
      Abstract ( 509 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (5045KB) ( 257 )   Save
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      C2H2-type zinc finger protein family is one of the most important transcriptional regulator in plants, which it mainly involved in regulation plant growth and stress response. In this study, we screened and compared non-pollinated, self- or cross-pollinated 15, 30, and 60 min pistil transcriptome data, and isolated a gene with specifically up-regulated expression induced by self-pollination, named as BoC2H2. Molecular cloning indicated that BoC2H2 is a single exon gene, encoding a 251 amino acids protein. The protein molecular weight is 26.7 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point is 4.62. BoC2H2 contains a highly conserved ZnF_C2H2 domain. Physicochemical property analysis found BoC2H2 is a hydrophilic protein, not contains signal peptide and transmembrane domain. The 2000 bp upstream of BoC2H2 translation start codon contains light response, circadian rhythm, jasmonic acid response, defense and stress response cis acting elements and so on. The sub-cellular location of BoC2H2 in nuclear and cytoplasm were verified by transforming to Arabidopsis protoplast and tobacco. RT-PCR analysis indicated that BoC2H2 expressed in hypocotyls, leaves and flowers. The expression level of BoC2H2 in pistil changed with development stages and specifically decreased after flowering day. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BoC2H2 mRNA expression level after self- and cross-pollination 0 min to 60 min were similar with RNA-seq data. In conclusion, BoC2H2 belongs to C2H2 type of zinc finger protein family and may involve in pistil-pollen stimulating molecular processes. Our founding is helpful to reveal the mechanism of BoC2H2 in Brassica oleracea self-incompatibility response and provide a clue for studying the function of C2H2 type of transcription factors in B. oleracea self-incompatibility response.

      Transcriptome Analysis of Premature Senescence Induced by Pollination-prevention in Maize
      Lian-Cheng WU,Pei LI,Lei TIAN,Shun-Xi WANG,Ming-Na LI,Yu-Yu WANG,Sai WANG,Yan-Hui CHEN
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1661-1672.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01661
      Abstract ( 656 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (2319KB) ( 287 )   PDF(mobile) (2319KB) ( 26 )   Save
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      Senescence occurs in the last stage of maize growth and development. Timely started leaf aging has a crucial role on the formation of maize final yield. Maize inbred line Yu 816 was used to explore the molecular mechanism of early senescence induced under pollination-prevention by transcriptome analysis. Compared with the normal pollination plants, the leaves of non-pollination plants turned yellow and withered at 27 days after silking (DAS). Leaf chlorophyll content difference between pollination and non-pollination plants reached extremely significant level at 24 DAS. RNA-seq assay revealed there were 173 and 835 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pollinated and non-pollinated treatments at 10 DAS and 24 DAS, respectively. There were 1381 DEGs in pollination treatment group and 1591 DEGs in non-pollination treatment group between 10 DAS and 24 DAS. GO analysis showed that DEG functions between pollination and non-pollination treatments were mostly enriched in stimulus response and metabolic process at 10 DAS, whereas mainly in photosynthesis process at 24 DAS. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis showed that DEGs between pollinated and non-pollinated treatments were mainly involved in the metabolic pathways such as RNA degradation, photosynthesis, lignin synthesis, transcription regulation and sugar transport at 10 DAS, while primarily in the processes of signaling, hormone metabolism, photosynthesis at 24 DAS. Carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis processes affected by pollination-prevention result in the senescence onset and the significantly fast aging ahead of schedule in Yu 816 plants.

      Mapping QTLs for Grain Shape, Flag Leaf Traits, and Plant Height in Rice Variety Mowanggu
      Wei-Ye PENG,Ping-Yong SUN,Su-Jun PAN,Wei LI,Liang-Ying DAI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1673-1680.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01673
      Abstract ( 784 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (512KB) ( 303 )   PDF(mobile) (512KB) ( 35 )   Save
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      In this study, 280 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between japonica rice Mowanggu and indica CO39 were used to analyse correlations and detect QTLs for grain shape, flag leaf morphology and plant height in 2015 and 2016. The flag leaf length was significantly negatively and positively correlated with grain thickness and plant height, respectively. And there was a significant positive correlation between flag leaf width and grain width. Here, we identified 17 QTLs for grain shape traits distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 respectively, which could explain 3.51%-48.65% of total phenotypic variance. Among of them, the region between markers RM6080 and RM6283 on chromosome 3 significantly influenced both grain length and thousand-grain weight, while RM8211-RM3381 interval on chromosome 5 influenced both grain width and grain thickness. On the other hand, 12 QTLs controlling the flag leaf traits were identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9, respectively, which explained 4.26%-38.40% of the phenotypic variance. In addition, five QTL regions showing pleiotropic effects were identified. For example, the marker RM252-SFP4_6 interval on chromosome 4 could control flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area and grain length; and the RM257-RM3909 interval on chromosome 9 was responsible for flag leaf area and grain length. Furthermore, there was a major QTL controlling plant height was identified in the interval of RM6333-RM5536 on chromosome 1, which explained 28.76% of the phenotypic variance. All these results provide a foundation for fine mapping, cloning and marker assisted selection of favorable genes related to grain shape, flag leaf traits and plant height.

      Effects of Mechanical Planting Methods on Yield and Quality of Japonica Rice with Good Taste and Different Growth Durations in Huaibei Region
      Chao HAN,Fang-Fu XU,Jin-Long BIAN,Dong XU,Shi QIU,Chen ZHAO,Ying ZHU,Guo-Dong LIU,Hong-Cheng ZHANG,Hai-Yan WEI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1681-1693.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01681
      Abstract ( 585 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (368KB) ( 307 )   PDF(mobile) (368KB) ( 49 )   Save
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      An experiment in Huaibei Region was conducted using two types of rice with different growth durations including medium-maturing medium japonica rice (MMMJ) Nanjing 2728 and Nanjing 505 and late-maturing medium japonica rice (LMMJ) Nanjing 9108 and Nanjing 3818 with two treatments of mechanical transplanting with carpet seeding (MC) and mechanical direct seeding (MD) to measure yield, number of population stem and tiller, leaf area index (LAI), the amount and rate of dry matter accumulation, processing quality, appearance quality, cooking and eating quality, nutritional quality, and RVA profile characteristics. For the same cultivars, the yield under MC was significantly higher than those under MD. The rational population structure, suitable panicle numbers, high percentage of productive tiller, high LAI in the middle and later periods, and low decay rate of LAI resulted in the higher amount and rate of dry matter accumulation under MC. The brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate under MC were 2.3%-3.1%, 1.2%-2.7%, and 1.8%-3.2% higher than those under MD, but the chalkiness under MC was enhanced, meanwhile, cooking, eating, and nutritional quality, and protein content were higher, amylose content was lower, gel consistency was longer, peak viscosity, trough viscosity and breakdown value were higher, setback was lower, final viscosity under MC was higher than under MD except Nanjing 2728. For the same planting methods, the yield of MMMJ was significantly higher than that of LMMJ, Because the time of heading and maturity in MMMJ was earlier than that in LMMJ. And the mean daily temperature, and mean daily temperature over 30 days after heading of MMMJ were increased by 1.07°C and 1.18°C respectively. Therefore, MMMJ in LAI at each growth stage was higher, decay rate of LAI was lower, the amount and rate of dry matter accumulation during the period from heading to maturity were higher. Compared with LMMJ, MMMJ in milled rice rate and head milled rice rate were significantly higher, the chalkiness was increased a little bit, protein content was higher, amylose content was decreased by 1.5%-5.1%, gel consistency was increased by 7.0-16.7 mm, peak viscosity and breakdown value were higher, final viscosity and setback were lower. Therefore, choosing MMMJ with good taste quality combined with MC is a best production pattern to realize high quality, high yield and high use efficiency of temperature-light resources in Huaibei Region.

      Effects of Water-Nitrogen Coupling Patterns on Dry Matter Accumulation and Yield of Wheat under No-tillage with Previous Plastic Mulched Maize
      Cai ZHAO,Qiao-Mei WANG,Yao GUO,Wen YIN,Zhi-Long FAN,Fa-Long HU,Ai-Zhong YU,Qiang CHAI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1694-1703.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01694
      Abstract ( 501 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (347KB) ( 250 )   PDF(mobile) (347KB) ( 66 )   Save
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      The high-efficient utilization of water and nitrogen in wheat production under no tillage with previous plastic mulched maize is a new field management technology in oasis irrigation areas. In order to construct the efficient production technology of water and nitrogen in this area, a three-year field experiment was conducted in 2015 to 2017 to determine synergetic effect on dry matter accumulation, yield and its components under two kinds of tillage practices for previous plastic mulched maize (no tillage with plastic mulching, NT; conventional tillage with plastic mulching, CT), two irrigation levels (conventional irrigation, I2; reduced 20% irrigation, I1) and three nitrogen levels (225 kg ha -1, N3; 180 kg ha -1, N2; 135 kg ha -1, N1). The tillage practices, irrigation and nitrogen application had significant effect on crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation of wheat. Compared with CT practice, NT significantly increased crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation of wheat by 22.0% to 28.0% and 6.4% to 7.4%, respectively, during the entire growth period; and improved biomass yield at harvesting stage by 5.4% to 15.1%. Similarly, no tillage with low irrigation (NTI1) increased crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation of wheat by 7.7% to 13.4% and 3.1 to 5.9%, respectively, during the entire growth period, and improved biomass yield at harvesting stage by 8.7% to 10.5%, as compared with conventional tillage with high irrigation (CTI2). No tillage with low irrigation and moderate nitrogen application (NTI1N2) improved crop growth rate by 6.9% to 20.5% and 4.1% to 14.0%, and enhanced biomass yield at harvesting stage by 7.8% to 9.7% and 4.8% to 10.2%, respectively, in comparison to conventional tillage with high irrigation and moderate, high nitrogen (CTI2N2, CTI2N3). Thus, NT practice had greater grain yield of 10.1% to 10.4% more than CT, NTI1 boosted grain yield by 13.0% to 14.8% and 9.4% to 10.1% over CTI2 and CTI1 patterns, respectively. NTI1N2 enhanced grain yield by 3.7% to 9.8% and 15.2% to 22.0%, in comparison to CTI2N2 and CTI2N3 treatments, respectively. In addition, the NTI1N2 treatment significantly increased spike number (SN), kernel number per spike (KNS) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and especially SN and TKW of the NTI1N2 treatment were higher than these of other treatments. The path analysis further confirmed that the increase of SN and TKW was the main reason for boosting grain yield of wheat under NTI1N2 treatment. Therefore, the model under no-tillage and previous plastic mulched maize combined with low irrigation (1920 m 3 ha -1) and moderate nitrogen (180 kg ha -1) is feasible for high-efficient production of wheat in an arid oasis irrigation area.

      Spatio-temporal Changes of Rice Production in China Based on County Unit
      Xiao-Hui WANG,Yu-Lin JIANG,Yang LIU,Jie LU,Xiao-Gang YIN,Lei-Gang SHI,Jing HUANG,Qing-Quan CHU,Fu CHEN
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1704-1712.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01704
      Abstract ( 619 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (1257KB) ( 187 )   PDF(mobile) (1257KB) ( 23 )   Save
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      Rice is one of the most important grain crops in China. To clear spatio-temporal change characteristics of rice in recent decades is of great significance in optimizing the layout of rice and promoting the sustainable development of rice production. This study was conducted to figure out spatio-temporal dynamic changes of national rice production, planting area and yield; to map gravity center migration path of rice production and area based on county data particularly since 1985; and to quantitatively analyze rice production contribution merely caused by area and yield. Variation period was calculated by wavelet analysis using deviations from average of national rice-producing data from 1949 to 2017. Rice-producing gravity centers were computed by ArcGIS using county-level data of rice production and planting area, and then connected them in order of year. Production contribution was firstly divided into three components separately resulted from area, yield and mutual interaction, in that case production changes caused by them could be reckoned to get production contribution rate. ArcGIS was applied to display spatial distribution on the background of two maps including Chinese rice cropping regionalization and provincial administrative division. To come out, the variation periods were respectively 49 years and 21 years, 26 and 60 years of production, area and yield. From 1985 to 2015, nearly 50% of planting region increased in rice production, about 70% decreased in rice planting area, and more than 80% increased their yields. The gravity center of national rice production and planting area migrated northeastwards about 229 km and 225 km. What’s more, the gravity center of the northeast migrated more northeastwards at about 238 km and 242 km. In China, the proportion of yield, as a dominant factor of rice production contribution, fell from 56.3% to 28.3%, and area increased from 34.7% to 63.1%. In conclusion, increasing yield in every rice cropping region, increasing planting area in single cropping region of northeastern and decreasing planting area in double cropping region of South China and single and double cropping region of Central China are main rice distribution characteristics in China. Rational layout of rice planting area and increasing yield are more and more important in stabilizing and enhancing rice production. Rationally using resources, increasing the degree of mechanization and comparative effectiveness are critical pathways to promote Chinese rice production.

      Alleviation Effects of Exogenous Growth Regulators on Seed Germination of Sweet Sorghum under Salt Stress and Its Physiological Basis
      Guang-Long ZHU,Cheng-Yu SONG,Lin-Lin YU,Xu-Bing CHEN,Wen-Fang ZHI,Jia-Wei LIU,Xiu-Rong JIAO,Gui-Sheng ZHOU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1713-1724.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01713
      Abstract ( 689 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1387KB) ( 415 )   PDF(mobile) (1387KB) ( 47 )   Save
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      Salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop seed germination and growth. It is vital to exploit and utilize salinity soil by exploring the technologies for promoting seed germination under salt stress. In this experiment, two contrasting sorghum genotypes (Guotian 2011 and Guotian 106) were used to study the salt stress (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol L -1 NaCl solution) effect on seed germination, and different concentrations of exogenous growth substances of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gibberellin (GA3), kinetin (KT), and salicylic acid (SA) were used to regulate seed germination on salt-sensitive sorghum genotype Guotian 106. The seed germination was significantly inhibited under salt stress. Water uptake rate, germination potential, germination rate, germination index all decreased under salt stress, but relative salt damage rate and MDA (malondialdehyde) prominently increased in salinity condition. Exogenous growth regulators could effectively relieve the salt stress. With applied the exogenous growth substances, the seed uptake rate, germination rate, contact of soluble sugar and soluble protein, activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase), and CAT (catalase) were all significantly increased, the absorption of K +, Ca 2+, and Mg 2+ enhanced in the same time, but the contents of Na + and MDA decreased. Overall, GA3 and GABA performed a better alleviating effect on salt stress, KT showed positive effect on promoting Mg 2+ absorption. These results suggested that the exogenous growth substances (especially GA3 and GABA) can be applicated in sorghum production under salt condition, laying a foundation for improving and utilizing saline soil.

      Effects of Planting Years on the Root System and Soil Environment of Lycium barbarum L.
      Sheng-Rong XU,En-He ZHANG,Rui-Li MA,Qi WANG,Qing-Lin LIU,Jia-Jia CUI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1725-1732.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01725
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      In order to clarify the dynamic change of root system, in Lycium barbarum L., a main commercial crop distributed in arid land of northwestern China, and soil environment under different planting-years, physiological characteristic of root system, soil enzyme activity, organic carbon, soil microbial quantity and diversity, physical and chemical properties of the rhizosphere soil were monitored for ‘Ningqi 1’ seedlings for five treatments, different continuous cropping years (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years). With the increase of planting fixed number of years, the special hydraulic conductivity of roots (Ks, root) increased first and then decreased, the activity of roots remarkably decreased, the relative electric conductivity of roots gradually increased, the relative electric conductivity of root system began to decrease after planting seven years, but the reduction was not significant. The average moisture content of the soil 0-150 cm deep increased in the first five years, and declined after the planting five years, in particular, showed more effect to soil moisture above 60 cm deep. The average soil average porosity in 0-100 cm layer decreased with the increase of planting fixed number of years; the amount of soil rhizosphere microorganism increased, in this case, the number of soil bacteria and fungi increased, and the number of actinomyces did not have significant changes The soil rhizosphere microorganism average well color development (AWCD) decreased with the increase of planting fixed number of years, Shannon index (H) and Richness index (S) decreased firstly and then increased. The soil total organic carbon (TOC) activity decreased with the increase of planting fixed number of years, although light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) activity of planting five years and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) activity of planting seven years had slight rise, their general trend was consistent. The soil dehydrogenase activity was relatively stable, there was no significant change, the soil phosphatase activity increased, urease, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, and sucrase activity had similar changing trend, all of them decreasing first and then increasing. These results suggest that soil activity, fertility and microorganism diversity are decreased with the increase of planting fixed number of years, the toxic effect of soil microenvironment on the biological activity of root system in increased, meanwhile, the root system activity, hydraulic conductivity and water efficiency of soil are decreased by the changes of root system living environment.

      Response of HSP20 Genes to Artificial Aging Treatment in Maize Embryo
      Lu-Man XING, Wei-Zeng LYU, Wei LEI, Yu-Huan LIANG, Yang LU, Jun-Ying CHEN
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2018, 44(11):  1733-1742.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01733
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      Maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar ‘Zhengdan 958’ seeds were treated by artificial aging (45°C, 100% relative humidity) and RNA-seq was used to study the response of HSP20 genes to artificial aging treatment of seeds, so as to provide evidences for uncovering the molecular mechanism of seed aging. In the study, the seed vigor decreased dramatically with increasing aging time. The activity of catalase in seed embryo showed a decreasing trend. The content of hydrogen peroxide increased to the maximum at the third day of aging and then decreased. The content of malonaldehyde increased, which indicated that the damage to the membrane system increased. Twenty-five HSP20 genes were identified. These genes encoded HSP20 and mainly distributed in nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts. There was a conserved ACD sequence (RVDWRETPDAHEIVVDVPGMRREDLRIEVE DNRVLRVSGERRRAEERKGDHWHREERSYGRFW RRFRLPENADLDSVAASLDSGVLTVRFRK) in HSP20 protein which contains more amino acids, such as Arg (11.2%), Lys (7.2%), Pro (4.2%), and Thr (3.9%). In the aging process these amino acids might be oxidized by ROS accumulated in the embryo, leading to protein structure damaged and loss of functions. The expression patterns of HSP20 genes in cytoplasm, chloroplasts and mitochondria were validated by qRT-PCR, showing that the expressions of cytoplasmic HSP20 genes were up-regulated and those of chloroplast and mitochondrial HSP20 genes reached peak at the third day of aging treatment, and then declined. These suggested that the HSP20 genes play an important role in seeds aging, and the targeted oxidation of Arg, Lys and other amino acids in the ACD structural domain may be an essential cause leading to seed deterioration.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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