The aim of this study was to provide references for the breeding and precise quantitative cultivation of high-yielding cultivars of machine-transplanted double cropping rice. Therefore a two-year field experiment was conducted with 19 early rice cultivars and 20 late rice cultivars to determine the leaf-age-model parameters and characteristics of high-yielding cultivars of machine-transplanted double cropping rice by using clustering and variance analysis methods in double-cropping rice areas (Shanggao of Jiangxi) in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The average total number of leaves (N) in the main stem of the early rice was 10.7 to 12.2, the number of leaves varied from 10 to 13, the average number of internodes (n) was four and the stage of tiller equal panicle was N-n+1. For machine-transplanted late rice, N was ranged from 14.4 to 15.2, the number of leaves varied from 14 to 16, n was five, and the stage of tiller equal panicle was N-n. Machine-transplanted double cropping rice with high-yield ability had the basic characteristics of medium tillering ability, greater grain-leaf ratio, higher panicle-bearing tiller rate, ear size, total spikelets, daily production, biomass accumulation per stem and leaf area index (LAI) as well as higher leaf area per stem in mid and latter stages. While there were some differences in population quality between early rice and late rice. For high-yielding cultivars of machine-transplanted early rice, the growth duration, daily yield, tillering ability, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight were 110-113 d, 75-79 kg ha -1 d -1, 2.6-3.4 spikes per plant, 115-135 and 26-28 g, respectively. The corresponding value of machine-transplanted late rice were 115-120 d, 78-82 kg ha -1 d -1, 4.2-4.8 spikes per plant, 130-150 and 24-27 g, respectively.