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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (3): 443-459.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83026

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米干物质和氮素积累与分配及水分利用的影响

杨明达1,关小康1,刘影1,崔静宇1,丁超明1,王静丽1,韩静丽1,王怀苹2,康海平3,王同朝1,*()   

  1. 1河南农业大学农学院 / 河南粮食作物协同创新中心, 河南郑州 450046
    2浚县丰黎种业有限公司, 河南浚县456250
    3社旗县农业局植保植检站, 河南社旗473300
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-29 接受日期:2018-10-08 出版日期:2019-03-12 发布日期:2018-11-09
  • 通讯作者: 王同朝 E-mail:wtcwrn@126.com
  • 作者简介:E-mail: yangmingda1020@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0301106);国家自然科学基金项目(31471452);国家自然科学基金项目资助(31601258)

Effects of drip irrigation pattern and water regulation on the accumulation and allocation of dry matter and nitrogen, and water use efficiency in summer maize

Ming-Da YANG1,Xiao-Kang GUAN1,Ying LIU1,Jing-Yu CUI1,Chao-Ming DING1,Jing-Li WANG1,Jing-Li HAN1,Huai-Ping WANG2,Hai-Ping KANG3,Tong-Chao WANG1,*()   

  1. 1 Agronomy College, Henan Agricultural University / Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan, China
    2 Xun County Fengli Seed Industry Co., Ltd., Xunxian 456250, Henan, China
    3 Sheqi County Bureau of Agricultural Plant Protection and Phytosanitary Station, Sheqi 473300, Henan, China
  • Received:2018-03-29 Accepted:2018-10-08 Online:2019-03-12 Published:2018-11-09
  • Contact: Tong-Chao WANG E-mail:wtcwrn@126.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0301106);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31471452);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31601258)

摘要:

采用裂区试验设计探究了地下滴灌和地表滴灌(drip underground, DU; drip surface, DS)模式下土壤水分调控(分别为田间持水量的40%~50%、60%~70%和80%~90%, 记为W40、W60和W80)对夏玉米干物质和氮素积累与分配及水分利用效率的影响。结果表明, DU处理的吐丝后氮素积累量及水分利用效率分别较DS显著提高了6.18%和4.85%~8.61%。夏玉米的干物质、氮素指标及产量对滴灌模式的响应依赖于土壤水分调控水平, 在W40和W60处理条件下, DU处理显著增加夏玉米的净光合速率, 提高了吐丝后干物质和氮素的积累量及向籽粒的转运, 最终DU处理的干物质积累量、籽粒氮素积累量、产量及氮肥偏生产力分别提高了3.29%~19.94%、-1.10%~20.65%、3.29%~19.94%和3.31%~23.64%。而在W80处理条件下, DS处理的干物质积累量、吐丝后氮素积累量、产量及蒸散量比DU处理分别提高了6.80%~12.24%、5.93%、8.39%~14.91%和9.73%~14.57%。综上所述, 在限水灌溉条件下, 地下滴灌能够增加吐丝后干物质积累量、氮素积累量及其对籽粒氮素的贡献率, 最终增加产量。在充分供水条件下, 地表滴灌更有利于干物质及氮素的积累, 但由于消耗过多的水分, 因此水分利用效率未显著增加。

关键词: 地下滴灌, 地表滴灌, 干物质, 氮素, 水分利用效率

Abstract:

A split-plot experiment was conducted to explore the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and allocation characteristics, and water use efficiency of maize in response to different drip irrigation regimes. Drip underground (DU) and drip surface (DS) were applied with three levels of water treatment [W40, W60, and W80 referring to 40%-50% field water capacity (FWC), 60%-70% FWC, and 80%-90% FWC, respectively]. The nitrogen accumulation and water use efficiency of DU treatment has been significantly increased by 6.18% and 4.85%-8.61% respectively compared with DS treatment. The response of dry matter and nitrogen characteristics to drip irrigation patterns was depended on soil water regulation levels. Under W40 and W60 conditions, DU significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate of summer maize, improved dry matter and nitrogen accumulation after silking and their contribution to grains. At last, DU increased the dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation in grains, yield and nitrogen partial factor productivity by 3.29% to 19.94%, -1.10% to 20.65%, 3.29% to 19.94%, and 3.31% to 23.64% respectively. While under W80 condition, dry matter and nitrogen accumulations, yield and crop evapotranspiration were 6.80% to 12.24%, 5.93%, 8.39% to 14.91%, and 9.73% to 14.57% respectively higher in DS than in DU. In conclusion, drip underground could improve dry matter and nitrogen translocated to grain, and increase yield under limited irrigated condition (W40 and W60), while under adequate water supply (W80), drip surface could enhance the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation with lower water use efficiency due to excessive water consumption.

Key words: drip underground, drip surface, dry matter, nitrogen, water use efficiency

表1

试验地土壤的主要物理特性"

土层
Soil layer (cm)
田间持水量
Field water capacity (%)
容重
Bulk density (g cm-3)
土壤机械组成 Soil mechanical composition (%)
沙粒 Sand 粉粒 Silt 黏粒 Clay
0-20 23.63 1.31 55.89 28.97 15.14
20-40 21.77 1.46 53.61 29.40 16.99
40-60 21.95 1.31 50.73 30.92 18.35
60-80 23.36 1.36 59.01 29.94 11.05
80-100 23.79 1.31 66.42 28.96 4.62

图1

试验地夏玉米生育期间内的气象数据"

表2

不同处理夏玉米生育期的滴灌量"

处理
Treatment
苗期-拔节期
Seedling-jointing stage
拔节期-
大喇叭口期
Jointing-flare
opening stage
大喇叭口期-
吐丝期
Flare opening-
silking stage
吐丝期-灌浆期
Silking-filling
stage
总滴灌量
Total drip irrigation amount
2014 DU+W40 42.10 33.13 45.65 53.26 174.15
DU+W60 90.37 73.78 82.50 107.53 354.18
DU+W80 134.53 82.83 122.34 153.60 493.30
DS+W40 46.90 51.23 58.55 24.18 180.85
DS+W60 87.19 71.88 100.67 65.03 324.77
DS+W80 139.21 114.93 127.59 150.56 532.29
2015 DU+W40 30.13 25.24 47.06 62.54 164.97
DU+W60 30.92 43.03 76.84 99.47 250.26
DU+W80 28.45 61.32 106.05 177.53 373.36
DS+W40 36.54 40.33 52.30 55.12 184.29
DS+W60 46.66 49.44 85.61 112.48 294.19
DS+W80 47.56 69.23 122.24 172.51 411.54

表3

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响"

图2

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米干物质积累量的影响 缩写同表2。"

表4

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米花后营养器官干物质再分配量及干物质积累量的影响(2015) "

处理
Treatment
吐丝前贮藏
干物质转运量
DMR (kg hm-2)
吐丝前贮藏干物质转运量对籽粒的贡献率
CDMR (%)
吐丝后干物质
积累量
ADM (kg hm-2)
吐丝后干物质积累量
对籽粒贡献率
CADM (%)
DU W40 1379.25 ab 22.25 b 4818.60 d 77.75 c
W60 1229.28 b 14.85 c 7047.88 b 85.15 ab
W80 1283.38 b 15.20 c 7161.48 b 84.80 ab
平均值Mean 1297.30 16.98 6342.70 83.02
DS W40 1450.75 a 25.57 a 4221.81 e 74.43 d
W60 1355.37 ab 17.25 c 6499.70 c 82.75 b
W80 1328.63 b 14.52 c 7824.87 a 85.55 a
平均值Mean 1344.92 19.11 6182.13 80.89
F
F-value
滴灌模式
Drip irrigation pattern
2.12 10.50* 4.73 10.50*
水分调控
Water regulation
11.37** 133.03** 876.78** 133.03**
交互作用
Interaction
17.86** 44.81** 106.89** 44.81**

图3

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米净光合速率的影响 标以不同小写字母的柱值在同一生育时期不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。缩写同表2。"

图4

不同处理夏玉米生育期内土壤水分的时空变化动态(2014) 缩写同表2。"

表5

不同处理对夏玉米花前和花后氮素积累的影响"

表6

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米叶茎器官氮素转运量及其对籽粒氮素贡献率的影响(2015) "

处理
Treatment
氮素转运量
Nitrogen remobilization (kg hm-2)
氮素转运对籽粒氮素贡献率
Contribution to grain by nitrogen remobilization (%)
叶 Leaf 茎 Stalk 叶 Leaf 茎Stalk
DU W40 23.69 a 10.54 a 27.77 a 12.35 b
W60 23.27 a 12.42 a 22.30 b 11.90 b
W80 22.04 a 12.43 a 21.03 b 11.86 b
平均值Mean 23.00 11.80 23.70 12.04
DS W40 23.01 a 12.63 a 29.55 a 16.22 a
W60 23.94 a 11.29 a 23.82 b 11.23 b
W80 22.55 a 9.91 a 21.08 b 9.26 b
平均值Mean 23.17 11.28 24.82 12.24
F
F-value
滴灌模式
Drip irrigation patterns
3.02 2.57 3.35 4.26
水分调控
Water regulation
4.44 3.92 26.61** 14.89**
交互作用
Interaction
3.16 0.85 22.91** 6.33*

表7

滴灌模式和水分调控对夏玉米植株氮素积累及氮肥偏生产力的影响"

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