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作物学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 716-725.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11012

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

宽幅播种对强筋小麦籽粒产量、品质和氮素吸收利用的影响

刘运景1(), 郑飞娜1, 张秀1, 初金鹏1, 于海涛2, 代兴龙1,*(), 贺明荣1,*()   

  1. 1山东农业大学农学院/作物生物学国家重点实验室/农业农村部作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室, 山东泰安 271018
    2潍坊市农业科学研究院, 山东潍坊 261061
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-29 接受日期:2021-06-16 出版日期:2021-07-16 网络出版日期:2021-07-16
  • 通讯作者: 代兴龙,贺明荣
  • 作者简介:E-mail: 1101307472@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300403);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(31801298);山东农业大学“双一流”科技创新团队项目(SYL2017YSTD05)

Effects of wide range sowing on grain yield, quality, and nitrogen use of strong gluten wheat

LIU Yun-Jing1(), ZHENG Fei-Na1, ZHANG Xiu1, CHU Jin-Peng1, YU Hai-Tao2, DAI Xing-Long1,*(), HE Ming-Rong1,*()   

  1. 1College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China
    2Weifang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Weifang 261061, Shandong, China
  • Received:2021-01-29 Accepted:2021-06-16 Published:2021-07-16 Published online:2021-07-16
  • Contact: DAI Xing-Long,HE Ming-Rong
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300403);Youth Fund Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801298);Funds of Shandong ‘Double Top’ Program(SYL2017YSTD05)

摘要:

宽幅播种与适宜种植密度合理组配能够提高小麦籽粒产量和氮素利用率。然而, 在协同改善产量和氮素利用率的同时, 宽幅播种对籽粒品质有何影响未见报道。本研究于2018—2019和2019—2020连续2个生长季, 选用藁优5766、济麦44、泰山27、洲元9369等4个强筋小麦品种, 设置宽幅播种和常规条播2种播种方式, 研究了宽幅播种对强筋小麦籽粒产量、品质和氮素吸收利用的影响。结果表明, 宽幅播种条件下, 主要得益于单位面积穗数的增加, 4个强筋小麦品种的单位面积粒数平均增加13.16%, 籽粒产量相应提高13.39%。与此同时, 宽幅播种强化了整个生育期特别是花后氮素的吸收, 整个生育期小麦植株氮素积累量平均增幅为10.29%, 花后氮素吸收量平均增幅为36.83%, 进而提高了氮素吸收效率和氮素利用率, 平均增幅分别为12.73%、13.39%。整个生育期特别是花后氮素吸收的增加, 保障了籽粒氮素供应, 提高了单位面积籽粒氮积累量, 且其提高幅度(平均增幅为13.38%)与单位面积粒数(平均增幅为13.16%)和籽粒产量(平均增幅为13.39%)的提高幅度相近, 籽粒单粒含氮量和蛋白质含量得以保持不变, 籽粒蛋白质构成和籽粒品质保持稳定。综上所述, 宽幅播种在提高强筋小麦籽粒产量和氮素利用率的同时, 能够通过优化产量形成过程与氮素吸收转运过程的耦合匹配, 保持良好的籽粒品质。

关键词: 宽幅播种, 强筋小麦, 产量, 品质, 氮素利用率

Abstract:

It is well known that wide range sowing can simultaneously improve grain yield (GY) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, the effects of wide range sowing on grain quality have not been investigated while GY and NUE increased. In the present study, four winter wheat cultivars (Gaoyou 5766, Jimai 44, Taishan 27, and Zhouyuan 9369) were used as experimental materials and two sowing patterns (the wide range sowing and conventional drilling sowing) were designed during 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 growing seasons. Also, we investigated the effects of wide range sowing on GY, NUE, and grain quality. Under wide range sowing, grain number on unit land area were increased by an average of 13.16% across cultivars and growth seasons mainly due to the increase of spike number on unit land area, and in turn GY increased by an average of 13.39%. Meanwhile, nitrogen (N) uptake during whole growth season especially at post-anthesis stage were enhanced. The N accumulation during whole growth season increased by an average of 10.29% while that increased by an average of 36.83% at post-anthesis stage. Consequently, N uptake efficiency and NUE increased by 12.73% and 13.39%, respectively. Enhanced N uptake resulted in a sufficient N supply for grain and a significant increase in grain N accumulation on unit land area. A similar increase magnitude was observed between grain N accumulation (on average 13.38%), grain number (13.16%), and GY (13.39%). As a result, total quantity of N per grain and grain protein concentration remained unchanged, which led to a stable grain protein composition and grain quality. Conclusively, wide range sowing can maintain good grain quality with increased GY and NUE by optimizing coupling of GY formation process with the process of N uptake and translocation.

Key words: wide range sowing, strong gluten wheat, grain yield, grain quality, nitrogen use efficiency

表1

2018-2019和2019-2020生长季冬小麦播前 0~0.20 m和0.20~0.40 m土层基础地力"

年份
Year
土层
Soil layer
(m)
容重
Bulk density
(g cm-3)
有机质
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
全氮
Total N
(g kg-1)
碱解氮
Alkali-hydrolysable N
(mg kg-1)
速效磷
Available P
(mg kg-1)
速效钾
Available K
(mg kg-1)
2018-2019 0-0.20 1.31 17.80 1.12 84.71 27.84 93.72
0.20-0.40 1.35 13.01 0.88 49.99 15.50 61.54
2019-2020 0-0.20 1.31 16.41 1.14 74.60 30.86 81.61
0.20-0.40 1.35 12.63 0.81 43.22 16.74 47.98

表2

生长季、品种、播种方式对强筋小麦籽粒产量、品质和氮素利用率等参数影响的方差分析"

变异来源
Source of variation
籽粒产量
Grain yield
氮素利用率
NUE
蛋白质含量
GPC
单粒含氮量
Ntot
面团稳定时间
Stability time
面包体积
Loaf volume
生长季S 16.32*** 16.26*** 73.96*** 256.06*** 19.66*** 6.40*
品种C 201.58*** 201.47*** 170.89*** 227.54*** 30.86*** 89.64***
播种方式P 514.50*** 514.62*** 0.29 0.03 0.34 1.48
S×C 69.52*** 69.48*** 46.13*** 63.74*** 5.77** 35.30***
C×P 6.95** 6.97** 1.37 0.56 0.24 0.94
S×P 1.96 1.95 1.57 0.27 0.07 0.09
S×C×P 5.95** 5.96** 1.73 0.07 0.44 0.31

表3

播种方式对强筋小麦籽粒产量及其构成因素的影响"

生长季
Growth season
品种
Cultivars
播种方式
Sowing pattern
籽粒产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
穗数
Spike number
(´104 hm-2)
穗粒数
Grains per spike
单位面积粒数
Grains per unit land area
(´104 m-2)
粒重
Grain weight
(mg)
2018-2019 济麦44
Jimai 44
常规条播 Drilling 7045.85 b 522.00 b 35.17 a 1.84 b 44.13 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 8094.86 a 607.11 a 34.47 b 2.09 a 44.47 a
泰山27
Taishan 27
常规条播 Drilling 8388.16 b 571.78 b 42.30 b 2.42 b 39.87 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 9895.95 a 651.55 a 43.58 a 2.84 a 40.06 a
藁优5766
Gaoyou 5766
常规条播 Drilling 8194.36 b 600.67 b 41.75 a 2.51 b 37.57 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 9154.68 a 680.89 a 41.35 a 2.82 a 37.38 a
洲元9369
Zhouyuan 9369
常规条播 Drilling 8557.63 b 490.89 b 53.07 b 2.61 b 37.77 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 9694.96 a 552.00 a 53.65 a 2.96 a 37.63 a
2019-2020 济麦44
Jimai 44
常规条播 Drilling 7663.93 b 733.14 b 31.19 b 2.29 b 38.53 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 8553.62 a 778.63 a 32.62 a 2.54 a 38.73 a
泰山27
Taishan 27
常规条播 Drilling 7684.36 b 608.82 b 44.78 b 2.73 b 32.40 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 8585.19 a 643.89 a 47.29 a 3.04 a 32.42 a
藁优5766
Gaoyou 5766
常规条播 Drilling 8877.50 b 812.75 b 32.23 b 2.62 b 38.96 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 9549.90 a 847.25 a 33.24 a 2.82 a 38.97 a
洲元9369
Zhouyuan 9369
常规条播 Drilling 9011.54 b 769.22 b 33.84 b 2.60 b 39.79 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 10,661.95 a 860.20 a 35.62 a 3.06 a 39.99 a

图1

播种方式对强筋小麦氮素利用率及其构成因素的影响 不同小写字母表示在0.05水平上差异显著。误差线表示3 次重复的标准误。"

表4

播种方式对强筋小麦籽粒品质的影响"

生长季
Growth season
品种
Cultivars
播种方式
Sowing pattern
蛋白质含量
GPC
(%)
单粒含氮量
Ntot
(mg grain-1)
湿面筋含量
Wet gluten
(%)
面团稳定时间
Stability time
(min)
面包体积
Loaf volume
(mL)
2018-2019 济麦44
JM44
常规条播 Drilling 15.21 a 1.22 a 36.03 a 15.88 a 918.33 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 15.25 a 1.22 a 37.23 a 16.98 a 927.50 a
泰山27
TS27
常规条播 Drilling 14.06 a 0.97 a 34.27 a 11.18 a 975.83 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 14.11 a 0.97 a 33.97 a 12.69 a 995.00 a
藁优5766
GY5766
常规条播 Drilling 14.35 a 1.04 a 35.50 a 26.40 a 843.33 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 14.44 a 1.03 a 37.23 a 26.66 a 883.33 a
洲元9369
ZY9369
常规条播 Drilling 13.94 a 1.07 a 38.10 a 12.19 a 850.83 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 13.84 a 1.10 a 37.87 a 12.10 a 844.17 a
2019-2020 济麦44
JM44
常规条播 Drilling 14.41 a 1.15 a 30.90 a 15.14 a 812.50 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 14.31 a 1.14 a 31.46 a 14.68 a 820.83 a
泰山27
TS27
常规条播 Drilling 12.88 a 0.96 a 29.80 a 11.77 a 947.50 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 12.98 a 0.95 a 29.22 a 10.36 a 968.33 a
藁优5766
GY5766
常规条播 Drilling 13.26 a 0.94 a 29.97 a 16.51 a 789.17 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 13.32 a 0.93 a 29.57 a 18.45 a 797.00 a
洲元9369
ZY9369
常规条播 Drilling 12.92 a 0.80 a 32.23 a 5.33 a 736.67 a
宽幅播种 Wide range 12.85 a 0.81 a 32.53 a 7.12 a 719.17 a

图2

播种方式对强筋小麦开花期和成熟期氮素积累的影响 不同小写字母表示在0.05水平上差异显著。误差线表示3次重复的标准误。"

表5

播种方式对强筋小麦氮素积累、转运及对籽粒氮素贡献的影响"

年份
Growth
season
品种
Cultivar
播种方式
Sowing pattern
籽粒氮素积累量
Grain nitrogen accumulation
(kg hm-2)
花前氮素向籽粒转运
Remobilized nitrogen from vegetation organs
at anthesis to grains
花后氮素吸收量
Nitrogen assimilation after anthesis
转运量
RA (kg hm-2)
转运率
NRE (%)
对籽粒氮素
贡献率
CPG (%)
吸收量UA
(kg hm-2)
对籽粒氮素贡献率
CPG (%)
2018-2019 济麦44
JM44
常规条播
Drilling
187.99 b 136.09 b 76.14 a 72.39 a 51.90 b 27.61 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
216.54 a 144.39 a 72.59 b 66.70 b 72.16 a 33.30 a
泰山27
TS27
常规条播
Drilling
206.92 b 162.85 b 74.26 a 78.71 a 44.07 b 21.30 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
245.02 a 178.48 a 72.69 a 72.84 b 66.55 a 27.16 a
藁优5766
GY5766
常规条播Drilling 206.27 b 166.81 a 78.31 a 80.88 a 39.45 b 19.12 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
231.93 a 174.26 a 77.08 b 75.14 b 57.67 a 24.86 a
洲元9369
ZY9369
常规条播
Drilling
209.34 b 167.46 a 74.79 a 79.98 a 41.88 b 20.02 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
235.44 a 176.15 a 73.15 b 74.84 b 59.29 a 25.17 a
年份
Growth
season
品种
Cultivar
播种方式
Sowing pattern
籽粒氮素积累量
Grain nitrogen accumulation
(kg hm-2)
花前氮素向籽粒转运
Remobilized nitrogen from vegetation organs
at anthesis to grains
花后氮素吸收量
Nitrogen assimilation after anthesis
转运量
RA (kg hm-2)
转运率
NRE (%)
对籽粒氮素
贡献率
CPG (%)
吸收量
UA
(kg hm-2)
对籽粒氮素贡献率
CPG (%)
2019-2020 济麦44
JM44
常规条播
Drilling
193.69 b 134.73 b 62.27 a 69.58 a 58.96 b 30.42 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
214.71 a 144.81 a 61.97 a 67.46 b 69.90 a 32.54 a
泰山27
TS27
常规条播
Drilling
189.86 b 122.02 b 62.38 a 64.27 a 67.84 b 35.73 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
210.50 a 130.13 a 61.20 a 61.82 b 80.37 a 38.18 a
藁优5766
GY5766
常规条播
Drilling
222.08 b 133.85 a 67.75 a 60.27 a 88.24 b 39.73 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
239.90 a 138.90 a 63.70 b 57.91 b 100.99 a 42.09 a
洲元9369
ZY9369
常规条播
Drilling
220.10 b 148.44 b 68.90 b 67.45 a 71.67 b 32.55 b
宽幅播种
Wide range
259.03 a 163.31 a 72.89 a 63.05 b 95.73 a 36.95 a
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