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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (1): 131-143.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84024

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片衰老和产量的影响

刘妍(),刘兆新,何美娟,刘婷如,杨坚群,甄晓宇,栗鑫鑫,李向东(),杨东清()   

  1. 山东农业大学农学院 / 作物生物学国家重点实验室, 山东泰安 271018
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-11 接受日期:2018-08-20 出版日期:2018-09-28 发布日期:2018-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 李向东,杨东清 E-mail:liuyansdtz@163.com;lixdong@sdau.edu.cn;chengyang2364@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD11B04-2);国家自然科学基金项目(30840056);国家自然科学基金项目(31171496);山东省现代农业产业技术体系花生创新团队首席专家专项资助(SDAIT-04-01)

Effects of tillage modes in winter fallow period on leaf senescence and pod yield in continuous cropping peanut

Yan LIU(),Zhao-Xin LIU,Mei-Juan HE,Ting-Ru LIU,Jian-Qun YANG,Xiao-Yu ZHEN,Xin-Xin LI,Xiang-Dong LI(),Dong-Qing YANG()   

  1. Agronomy College, Shandong Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China
  • Received:2018-02-11 Accepted:2018-08-20 Online:2018-09-28 Published:2018-09-28
  • Contact: Xiang-Dong LI,Dong-Qing YANG E-mail:liuyansdtz@163.com;lixdong@sdau.edu.cn;chengyang2364@126.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Technology Support Program of China(2014BAD11B04-2);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(30840056);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31171496);Shandong Modern Agricultural Technology & Industry System(SDAIT-04-01)

摘要:

大田连作条件下种植大花生品种“山花108”, 以冬闲期免耕晾晒土地后整地种植(冬闲免耕露地, MGLD)为对照, 设置冬闲免耕覆膜(冬闲期免耕晾晒土地后整地覆膜种植, MGFM)、冬闲翻耕露地(冬闲期翻耕晾晒土地后整地种植, FGLD)、冬闲翻耕覆膜(冬闲期翻耕晾晒土地后整地覆膜种植, FGFM)、冬闲压青露地(前茬花生收获后常规种植冬小麦, 于花生种植前粉碎还田后整地种植, YQLD)、冬闲压青覆膜(前茬花生收获后常规种植冬小麦, 于花生种植前粉碎还田后整地覆膜种植, YQFM)5种处理, 探究对连作花生叶片衰老、光合特性和产量的影响。结果表明, 覆膜、冬闲翻耕与压青处理均可提高植株功能叶片光合色素含量、净光合速率、气孔导度及蒸腾速率, 降低胞间CO2浓度; 同时提高叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)及过氧化物酶(POD)活性, 降低丙二醛(MDA)含量, 延缓叶片衰老, 进而增加荚果产量。YQFM、FGFM、MGFM处理的荚果产量较YQLD、FGLD、MGLD处理分别增加5.11%、6.77%、3.70%; 与MGFM处理相比, YQFM、FGFM处理分别增产14.83%、8.30%; 与MGLD处理相比, YQLD、FGLD处理分别增产13.30%、5.18%, 并且增产幅度由高到低依次是YQFM、YQLD、FGFM、FGLD、MGFM处理。冬闲压青覆膜处理的产量和经济效益最佳。

关键词: 连作花生, 冬闲期耕作方式, 衰老特性, 产量

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted using large peanut variety Shanhua 108 with five treatments, including mulching after no tillage in winter fallow period (MGFM), planting peanut after plowing tillage in winter fallow period (FGLD), mulching after plowing tillage in winter fallow period (FGFM), planting peanut after previous crop wheat as green manure straw returned to the field (YQLD), mulching after previous crop wheat as green manure straw returned to the field (YQFM), and the conventional planting method, planting peanut after non tillage in winter fallow period (MGLD) as the control. The treatments of mulching, green manure and plowing tillage significantly improved photosynthetic pigment content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO2 concentration in functional leaves. Meanwhile, the above three treatments also significantly increased leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activities, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, thereby delaying leaf senescence and increasing pod yield. The pod yield of YQFM, FGFM and MGFM treatments increased by 5.11%, 6.77%, 3.70% compared with YQLD, FGLD, and MGLD treatments. Compared with MGFM treatment, YQFM and FGFM treatments significantly increased pod yield by 14.83%, 8.30%, respectively. Compared with MGLD treatment, the pod yield under YQLD and FGLD treatments significantly increased by 13.30%, 5.18%, respectively, and YQFM, YQLD, FGFM, FGLD, and MGFM treatments had the increase of pod yield from high to low in order. From the perspective of pod yield and economic benefit, YQFM is the optimum treatment.

Key words: continuous cropping peanuts, tillage modes in winter fallow period, leaf senescence characteristics, pod yield

表1

试验设计"

处理
Treatment
耕作方式
Tillage mode
冬闲期翻耕晾晒土地后整地种植FGLD 前茬花生收获后于10月10日翻耕, 冬闲晾晒土地, 直至花生播种前于次年5月5日旋耕两遍, 花生播种后不覆膜。
The land was plowed on October 10th in winter fallow period after former peanuts were harvested. Then rotary tillage was conducted twice on May 5th of following year, and peanuts were not covered with film after sowing.
冬闲期翻耕晾晒土地后整地覆膜种植FGFM 前茬花生收获后于10月10日翻耕, 冬闲晾晒土地, 直至花生播种前于次年5月5日旋耕两遍, 花生播种后覆膜。
The land was plowed on October 10th in winter fallow period after former peanuts were harvested. Then rotary tillage was conducted twice on May 5th of following year, and peanuts were covered with film after sowing.
前茬花生收获后常规种植冬小麦, 于花生种植前粉碎还田后整地种植YQLD 前茬花生收获后于10月10日翻耕, 旋耕2遍, 种上小麦, 至灌浆初期次年5月5日进行小麦秸秆压青还田, 翻耕, 旋耕两遍, 花生播种后不覆膜。
The land was plowed with rotary tillage twice on October 10th in winter fallow period after former peanuts were harvested, and then wheat was planted. The wheat straw as green manure was returned to the field on May 5th of following year, and land was plowed with rotary tillage twice. Then peanuts were not covered with film after sowing.
前茬花生收获后常规种植冬小麦, 于花生种植前粉碎还田后整地覆膜种植YQFM 前茬花生收获后于10月10日翻耕, 旋耕2遍, 种上小麦, 至灌浆初期次年5月5日进行小麦秸秆压青还田, 翻耕, 旋耕两遍, 花生播种后覆膜。
The land was plowed with rotary tillage twice on October 10th in winter fallow period after former peanuts were harvested, and then wheat was planted. The wheat straw as green manure was returned to the field on May 5th of following year, and land was plowed with rotary tillage twice. Then peanuts were covered with film after sowing.
冬闲期免耕晾晒土地后整地种植MGLD 前茬花生收获后不翻耕, 冬闲晾晒土地, 于次年5月5日进行翻耕, 然后旋耕两遍, 花生播种后不覆膜。
Non tillage was conducted in winter fallow period after former peanuts were harvested. Then land was plowed with rotary tillage twice on May 5th of the following year, and peanuts were not covered with film after sowing.
冬闲期免耕晾晒土地后整地覆膜种植MGFM 前茬花生收获后不翻耕, 冬闲晾晒土地, 于次年5月5日进行翻耕, 然后旋耕两遍, 花生播种后覆膜。
Non tillage was conducted in winter fallow period after former peanuts were harvested. Then land was plowed with rotary tillage twice on May 5th of following year, and peanuts were covered with film after sowing.

表2

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生土壤容重、孔隙度和有机质含量的影响"

项目
Item
土层
Soil layer (cm)
处理 Treatment
YQFM YQLD FGFM FGLD MGFM MGLD
土壤容重
Soil bulk density
(g cm-3)
0-10 1.28 d 1.33 c 1.34 c 1.39 b 1.41 b 1.45 a
10-20 1.31 d 1.35 c 1.38 c 1.43 b 1.44 b 1.48 a
20-30 1.47 d 1.50 cd 1.52 bc 1.53 bc 1.55 b 1.59 a
土壤孔隙度
Soil porosity (%)
0-10 51.07 a 49.73 b 49.69 b 47.36 c 47.02 c 45.35 d
10-20 49.91 a 48.32 b 48.23 b 46.91 c 46.87 c 45.41 d
20-30 44.57 a 42.73 b 42.67 b 41.45 bc 41.24 c 39.90 d
有机质
Soil organic matter content (g kg-1)
0-10 11.96 a 11.72 a 11.25 b 10.98 c 10.65 d 10.34 e
10-20 10.87 a 10.52 b 10.11 c 9.67 d 9.48 d 9.21 e
20-30 6.38 a 6.01 b 5.88 b 5.85 b 5.61 c 5.42 d

表3

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片色素含量的影响"

项目
Item
处理
Treatment
生育时期 Growth stage
2016 2017
花针期
FP
结荚期
PS
饱果期
PF
收获期
HS
花针期
FP
结荚期
PS
饱果期
PF
收获期
HS
叶绿素a YQFM 1.73 a 2.16 a 1.62 a 1.41 a 1.84 a 2.25 a 1.69 a 1.42 a
Chl a YQLD 1.65 b 2.06 b 1.55 b 1.34 b 1.41 b 2.09 b 1.60 b 1.35 b
FGFM 1.75 a 1.95 c 1.49 c 1.31 b 1.89 a 1.98 c 1.46 c 1.33 b
FGLD 1.67 b 1.87 d 1.37 d 1.25 c 1.80 a 1.93 d 1.39 d 1.26 c
MGFM 1.72 a 1.83 e 1.32 d 1.19 d 1.82 a 1.90 d 1.35 e 1.22 c
项目
Item
处理
Treatment
生育时期 Growth stage
2016 2017
花针期
FP
结荚期
PS
饱果期
PF
收获期
HS
花针期
FP
结荚期
PS
饱果期
PF
收获期
HS
MGLD 1.61 c 1.75 f 1.23 e 1.05 e 1.31 b 1.78 e 1.29 f 1.12 d
叶绿素b YQFM 0.63 a 0.72 a 0.57 a 0.55 a 0.69 a 0.74 a 0.60 a 0.57 a
Chl b YQLD 0.56 b 0.68 b 0.53 b 0.51 b 0.48 bc 0.70 b 0.56 b 0.53 b
FGFM 0.64 a 0.66 b 0.51 b 0.49 b 0.71 a 0.69 b 0.53 bc 0.52 b
FGLD 0.57 b 0.62 c 0.47 c 0.45 c 0.64 ab 0.65 c 0.51 cd 0.48 c
MGFM 0.62 a 0.61 c 0.45 c 0.43 c 0.68 a 0.61 d 0.49 d 0.47 c
MGLD 0.54 b 0.57 d 0.41 d 0.39 d 0.45 c 0.56 e 0.45 e 0.42 d
类胡萝卜素 YQFM 0.36 ab 0.46 a 0.38 a 0.35 a 0.35 ab 0.47 a 0.37 a 0.34 a
Car YQLD 0.31 cd 0.42 b 0.34 b 0.31 b 0.36 a 0.43 b 0.33 b 0.30 b
FGFM 0.38 a 0.41 b 0.33 b 0.30 b 0.36 a 0.42 b 0.32 b 0.29 b
FGLD 0.32 cd 0.37 c 0.29 c 0.26 c 0.37 a 0.38 c 0.29 c 0.25 c
MGFM 0.34 bc 0.36 c 0.28 c 0.25 c 0.32 b 0.37 c 0.28 c 0.24 c
MGLD 0.30 d 0.32 d 0.24 d 0.21 d 0.34 ab 0.33 d 0.24 d 0.20 d
叶绿素a+b YQFM 2.27 b 2.88 a 2.18 a 1.96 a 2.52 a 2.99 a 2.29 a 1.99 a
Chl a+b YQLD 2.14 c 2.74 b 2.08 b 1.85 b 2.41 a 2.79 b 2.16 b 1.88 b
FGFM 2.35 a 2.61 c 2.00 c 1.80 b 2.60 a 2.67 c 1.99 c 1.85 b
FGLD 2.17 c 2.49 d 1.84 d 1.70 c 2.43 a 2.58 d 1.90 d 1.74 c
MGFM 2.25 b 2.44 d 1.77 d 1.62 d 2.50 a 2.51 e 1.84 e 1.69 d
MGLD 2.04 d 2.32 e 1.65 e 1.44 e 2.36 a 2.34 f 1.74 f 1.54 e

图1

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片净光合速率(Pn)的影响 缩写同表3。"

图2

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片气孔导度(Gs)的影响 缩写同表1和表3。"

图3

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片胞间CO2浓度(Ci)的影响 缩写同表1和表3。"

图4

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片蒸腾速率(Tr)的影响 缩写同表1和表3。"

图5

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生叶片SOD、CAT、POD活性和MDA含量的影响(2016年) 缩写同表1和表3。"

表4

冬闲期耕作方式对连作花生产量及经济效益的影响"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
荚果产量
Pod yield
(kg hm-2)
籽仁产量
Kernel yield
(kg hm-2)
单株结果数
Pods per plant
千克果数
Pods per kg
出仁率
Shelling rate (%)
经济效益
Economic benefit
(yuan hm-2)
2016 FGLD 4659.13 c 3585.47 c 18.67 c 549.34 b 68.46 c 12 495.65 c
FGFM 4981.32 b 3775.31 b 21.00 b 544.78 b 68.52 c 13 506.60 a
YQLD 4995.12 b 3795.39 b 22.00 b 526.14 c 69.80 b 13 050.60 b
YQFM 5250.52 a 4058.12 a 23.50 a 521.17 c 70.19 a 13 727.60 a
MGLD 4408.14 d 3350.79 d 16.15 e 567.39 a 67.51 e 11 240.70 e
MGFM 4606.16 c 3556.44 c 17.50 d 562.67 a 67.92 d 11 630.80 d
2017 FGLD 4778.38 c 3605.36 c 20.47 c 515.00 b 71.12 d 13 091.90 c
FGFM 5095.29 b 3735.89 b 22.26 b 510.50 b 71.73 c 14 076.45 b
YQLD 5171.36 b 3802.68 b 23.78 a 485.00 c 73.18 b 13 931.80 b
YQFM 5435.14 a 4238.02 a 24.40 a 479.50 c 74.26 a 14 650.70 a
MGLD 4565.87 d 3299.58 d 16.18 e 538.00 a 70.11 e 12 029.35 d
MGFM 4698.17 c 3582.17 c 17.73 d 533.00 a 70.36 e 12 090.85 d

表5

光合参数、抗氧化系统参数与产量及其构成因素的相关系数"

项目
Item
荚果产量
Pod yield
籽仁产量
Kernel yield
单株结果数
Pods per plant
千克果数
Pods per kg
出仁率
Shelling rate
净光合速率 Pn 0.994** 0.974** 0.975** -0.924** 0.927**
蒸腾速率 Tr 0.989** 0.975** 0.969** -0.910* 0.913*
气孔导度 Gs 0.975** 0.950** 0.971** -0.904* 0.894*
胞间CO2浓度 Ci -0.979** -0.977** -0.972** 0.922** -0.921**
SOD活性 SOD activity 0.991** 0.988** 0.964** -0.930** 0.945**
CAT活性 CAT activity 0.967** 0.967** 0.930** -0.851* 0.861*
POD活性 POD activity 0.990** 0.990** 0.960** -0.913* 0.926**
MDA含量 MDA content -0.994** -0.975** -0.988** 0.955** -0.955**
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