Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agron Sin ›› 2016, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (09): 1391-1401.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2016.01391


Effect of ExogenousPolyamines on Mechanism of Floret Degeneration in Wheat

LÜ Xiao-Kang,WEN Xiao-Xia,LIAO Yun-Cheng,LIU Yang*   

  1. Agronomy College,Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
  • Received:2015-11-29 Revised:2016-05-09 Online:2016-09-12 Published:2016-05-30
  • Contact: 刘杨, E-mail: liuyang0328@126.com, Tel: 029-87082291 E-mail:1175780812@qq.com
  • Supported by:

    This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31301260), theNational Key Technology R&T Program of China (2015BAD22B03-05), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M572604).


Kernel number per spike has a close relationship with floret degeneration in wheat, which is regulated greatly by polyamines (PAs), one of important plant growth regulators. In this study, we applied exogenous spermine (Spm), spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) to the young spikes of cultivars Shuangda 1 (large-spike type) and Xinong 538 (small-spike type) to investigate the effects of PAs on floret degeneration,endogenous hormones, and the carbon and nitrogen changes in wheat floret. The results indicated that exogenous Spd and Spm had similar effects on floret degeneration whereas exogenous Put was in function. In the treatments with external Spd and Spm applied, the floret degeneration was inhibited and the number of fertile floretsincreased significantly. In the external Put treatment, floret degeneration aggravated and the fertile floret number decreased significantly. Such influence by external PAswas different in upper and lower florets of a spike and the upper florets (inferior florets) showed greater effects than the lower ones (superior florets). The concerntrations of endogenous Spd and Spm, zeatin (Z) + zeatin ridoside (ZR),and the ratio of Z+ZR-to-abscisic acid (ABA)in inferior florets increased after applying exogenous Spd and Spm. However, the evolution rate of endogenous ethylene (ETH) in inferior floret decreased. As a result, the total soluble sugar and protein contents increased significantly in inferior floret. In contrast, exogenous Put showed reverse effects compared to Spd and Spm. Our results indicate that PAswere involved in the regulation of floret degeneration by changing the endogenous hormone concerntrations and the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in wheat plants.

Key words: Polyamine, Wheat, Floret degeneration, Hormone, Total soluble sugar, Soluble protein

[1] 王兆龙, 曹卫星, 戴廷波, 周琴. 不同穗型小麦品种小花发育与结实特性研究. 南京农业大学学报, 2000, 23(4): 9?12
Wang Z L, Cao W X, Dai T B, Zhou Q. Characteristics of floret development and grain set in three wheat genotypes of different spike sizes. J Nanjing Agric Uni, 2000, 23(4): 9?12 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[2] 倪英丽. 小麦小花发育差异性的生理基础及栽培措施调控研究. 山东农业大学博士学位论文, 山东泰安, 2013
Ni Y L. Differences in Physiological Basis of Floret Development and Response to Cultivation Regulation in Wheat. PhD Dissertation of Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, China, 2013 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[3] Serrago AR, Miralles DJ, Slafer GA. Floret fertility in wheat as affected by photoperiod during stem elongation and removal of spikelets at booting. Eur J Agron, 2008, 28: 301-308
[4] 王兆龙, 曹卫星, 戴廷波. 小麦小花两极分化中内源植物激素与糖氮含量的变化特征. 作物学报, 2001, 27: 447?452
   Wang Z L, Cao W X, Dai T B. Changes of endogenous plant hormones and soluble sugars and proteins during floret development and degeneration in wheat. Acta Agron Sin, 2001, 27: 447?452 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[5] Liu HP, Dong B H, Zhang Y Y, Liu Z P, Liu Y L. Relationship between osmotic stress and the levels of free, conjugated and bound polyamines in leaves of wheat seedlings. Plant Sci, 2004, 166: 1261?1267
[6] Tomosugi M, Ichihara K, Saito K. Polyamines are essential for the synthesis of 2-ricinoleoyl phosphatidic acid in developing seeds of castor. Planta, 2006, 223: 349?358
[7] 武维华. 植物生理学(第2版). 北京: 科学出版社, 2008
   Wu W H. Plant Physiology (2nd Edition). Beijing: Science Press, 2008 (in Chinese)
[8] 田长恩, 梁承邺, 黄毓文, 刘鸿先. 水稻细胞质雄性不育系及其保持系幼穗发育过程中的多胺代谢. 植物生理学报, 1998, 24: 333?339
    Tian C E, Liang C Y, Huang S W, LIU H X. Metabolism of polyamines during the development of panicles in cytoplasmic male-sterile line and its maintainer line in Oryza sativa L. Acta PhytolSin, 1998, 24: 333?339 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[9] 田长恩, 梁承邺. 多胺对水稻CMS系及其保持系幼穗蛋白质、核酸和活性氧代谢的影响. 植物生理学报, 1999, 25: 222?228
    Tian C E, Liang C Y. Effect of polyamine on the metabolism of protein, DNA, RNA and activated oxygen in the panicles of CMS rice and its maintainer line. Acta Phytol Sin, 1999, 25: 222?228 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[10] 冯剑亚, 余炳果, 曹大铭. 光敏核不育水稻幼穗发育过程中多胺的变化. 南京农业大学学报, 1991, 14(1): 12?16
    Feng J Y, Yu B G, Cao D M. Changes of polyamines in young panicles of PGMR during their development.J Nanjing Agric Uni, 1991, 14(1): 12?16 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[11] 冯剑亚, 余炳果, 曹大铭. 乙烯利和氯化钻对光敏核不育水稻育性及幼穗中多胺和乙烯含量的影响. 南京农业大学学报, 1992, 15(2): 127?129
    Feng J Y, Yu B G, Cao D M. Effects of ethrel and cobalt chloride of fertility and polyamine and ethylene content of young panicles in PGMR. J Nanjing Agric Uni, 1992, 15(2): 127?129 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[12] Ma R, Zhang M, Li B, Du G, Wang J, Chen J. The effects of exogenous Ca2+ on endogenous polyamine levels and drought-resistant traits of spring wheat grown under arid conditions. J Arid Environ, 2005, 63: 177?190
[13] Biesaga KJ, Koscielniak J, Filek M, Krekule M J, Kubon M M. The effect of plant growth regulators and their interaction with electric current on winter wheat development. Acta Physiol Plant, 2010, 32: 987?995
[14] Yang JC, Zhang JH, Liu K, Wang Z Q, Liu L J. Abscisic Acid and Ethylene Interact in rice spikelets in response to water stress during meiosis. J Plant Growth Regul, 2007, 26: 318?328
[15] 王志敏, 王树安, 苏宝林. 乙烯对小麦小花发育和结实的影响. 种子, 1996, (2): 13?15
    Wang Z M, Wang S A, Su B L. The effect of ethylene on floret development and grain set in wheat. Seed, 1996, (2): 13?15 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[16] 王海永, 陈小文, 牛晓雪, 苏贺, 申婷婷, 董学会. 乙烯利对夏玉米果穗生长发育影响及生理机制探究. 玉米科学, 2014, 22(5): 64?70
    Wang H Y, Chen X W, Niu X X, Su H, Shen T T, Dong X H. Influence of ethephon on maize cluster growth and development and the physiological mechanism. J Maize Sci, 2014, 22(5): 64?70 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[17] 杨建昌, 刘凯, 张慎凤, 王学明, 王志琴, 刘立军. 水稻减数分裂期颖花中激素对水分胁迫的响应. 作物学报, 2008, 34: 111?118
    Yang J C, Liu K, Zhang S F, Wang X M, Wang Z Q, Liu L J. Hormones in rice spikelets in responses to water stress during meiosis. Acta Agron Sin, 2008, 34: 111?118 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[18] Huang S, Cerny R E, Qi Y L, Bhat D, Aydt C M, Hanson D D, Malloy K P, Ness L A. Transgenic studies on the involvement of cytokinin and gibberellin in male development. Plant Physiol, 2003, 131: 1270?1282
[19] Ashikari M, Sakakibara H, Lin S, Yamamoto T, Takashi T, Nishimura A, Angeles E R, Qian Q, Kitano H, Matsuoka M. Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. Science, 2005, 309: 741?745
[20] Pieruzzi FP, Dias LLC, Balbuena TS, Santa-Catarina C, Dos S A L, Floh E I. Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm). Ann Bot, 2011, 108: 337?345
[21] Upreti KK, Murti GSR. Response of grape rootstocks to salinity: changes in root growth, polyamines and abscisic acid. Biol Plant, 2010, 54: 730?734
[22] Yang J C, Cao YY, Zhang H, Liu L, Zhang J H. Involvement of polyamines in the post-anthesis development of inferior an superior spikelets in rice. Planta, 2008, 228: 137?149
[23] 刘俊, 吉晓佳, 刘友良. 检测植物组织中多胺含量的高效液相色谱法. 植物生理学通讯, 2008, 38: 596?598
Liu J, Ji X J, Liu Y L. High performance liquid chromatography method for measuring polyamine content in plant tissue. Plant Physiol Commun, 2008, 38: 596?598 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[24] Yang J C, Zhang J H, Wang Z Q, Zhu Q S, Wang W. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling. Plant Physiol, 2001, 127: 315?323
[25] 张蜀秋. 植物生理学实验技术教程. 北京: 科学出版社, 2011
    Zhang S Q. Techniques for Plant Physiology Experiment. Beijing: Science Press, 2011 (in Chinese)
[26] Ning H F, Liu Z H, Wang Q S, Lin Z M, Chen S J, Li G H, Wang S H, Ding Y F. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application on grain phytic acid and protein concentrations in japonica rice and its variations with genotypes. J Cereal Sci, 2009, 50: 49?55
[27] 张木清, 陈如凯. 作物抗旱分子生理与遗传改良. 北京: 科学出版社, 2005. pp 172?174
Zhang M Q, Chen R K. The Molecular Physiological Mechanism and Genetic Improvement for Drought Resistance of Crops. Beijing: Science Press, 2005. pp 172?174 (in Chinese)
[28] Liu Y, Gu D D, Wu W, Wen X X, Liao Y C. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. PloS One, 2013,8: e78196
 [29] Liu Y, Ding Y F, Wang Q S, Meng D X, Wang S H. Effects of nitrogen and 6-benzylaminopurine on rice tiller bud growth and changes in endogenous hormones and nitrogen. Crop Sci, 2011, 51: 786?792
[30] 谈桂露, 付景, 王志琴, 刘立军, 杨建昌. 超级稻花后强、弱势粒多胺浓度变化及其与籽粒灌浆的关系. 作物学报, 2009, 35: 2225?2333
Tan G L, Zhang H, Fu J, Wang Z Q, Liu L J, Yang Y C. Post-anthesis changes in concentrations of polyamines in superior and inferior spikelets and their relation with grain filling of super rice. Acta Agron Sin, 2009, 35: 2225?2333 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[31] 刘杨, 温晓霞, 顾丹丹, 郭强, 曾爱, 李长江, 廖允成. 多胺对冬小麦籽粒灌浆的影响及其生理机制. 作物学报, 2013, 39: 712?719
    Liu Y, Wen X X, Gu D D, Guo Q, Zeng A, Li C J, Liao Y C. Effect of polyamine on grain filling of winter wheat and its physiological mechanism. Acta Agron Sin, 2013, 39: 712?719 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[1] HU Wen-Jing, LI Dong-Sheng, YI Xin, ZHANG Chun-Mei, ZHANG Yong. Molecular mapping and validation of quantitative trait loci for spike-related traits and plant height in wheat [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1346-1356.
[2] GUO Xing-Yu, LIU Peng-Zhao, WANG Rui, WANG Xiao-Li, LI Jun. Response of winter wheat yield, nitrogen use efficiency and soil nitrogen balance to rainfall types and nitrogen application rate in dryland [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1262-1272.
[3] LEI Xin-Hui, WAN Chen-Xi, TAO Jin-Cai, LENG Jia-Jun, WU Yi-Xin, WANG Jia-Le, WANG Peng-Ke, YANG Qing-Hua, FENG Bai-Li, GAO Jin-Feng. Effects of soaking seeds with MT and EBR on germination and seedling growth in buckwheat under salt stress [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1210-1221.
[4] FU Mei-Yu, XIONG Hong-Chun, ZHOU Chun-Yun, GUO Hui-Jun, XIE Yong-Dun, ZHAO Lin-Shu, GU Jia-Yu, ZHAO Shi-Rong, DING Yu-Ping, XU Yan-Hao, LIU Lu-Xiang. Genetic analysis of wheat dwarf mutant je0098 and molecular mapping of dwarfing gene [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 580-589.
[5] FENG Jian-Chao, XU Bei-Ming, JIANG Xue-Li, HU Hai-Zhou, MA Ying, WANG Chen-Yang, WANG Yong-Hua, MA Dong-Yun. Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in layered grinding wheat flour and the regulation effect of nitrogen fertilizer application [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 704-715.
[6] LIU Yun-Jing, ZHENG Fei-Na, ZHANG Xiu, CHU Jin-Peng, YU Hai-Tao, DAI Xing-Long, HE Ming-Rong. Effects of wide range sowing on grain yield, quality, and nitrogen use of strong gluten wheat [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 716-725.
[7] YAN Yan, ZHANG Yu-Shi, LIU Chu-Rong, REN Dan-Yang, LIU Hong-Run, LIU Xue-Qing, ZHANG Ming-Cai, LI Zhao-Hu. Variety matching and resource use efficiency of the winter wheat-summer maize “double late” cropping system [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(2): 423-436.
[8] WANG Yang-Yang, HE Li, REN De-Chao, DUAN Jian-Zhao, HU Xin, LIU Wan-Dai, GU Tian-Cai, WANG Yong-Hua, FENG Wei. Evaluations of winter wheat late frost damage under different water based on principal component-cluster analysis [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(2): 448-462.
[9] CHEN Xin-Yi, SONG Yu-Hang, ZHANG Meng-Han, LI Xiao-Yan, LI Hua, WANG Yue-Xia, QI Xue-Li. Effects of water deficit on physiology and biochemistry of seedlings of different wheat varieties and the alleviation effect of exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(2): 478-487.
[10] XU Long-Long, YIN Wen, HU Fa-Long, FAN Hong, FAN Zhi-Long, ZHAO Cai, YU Ai-Zhong, CHAI Qiang. Effect of water and nitrogen reduction on main photosynthetic physiological parameters of film-mulched maize no-tillage rotation wheat [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(2): 437-447.
[11] MA Bo-Wen, LI Qing, CAI Jian, ZHOU Qin, HUANG Mei, DAI Ting-Bo, WANG Xiao, JIANG Dong. Physiological mechanisms of pre-anthesis waterlogging priming on waterlogging stress tolerance under post-anthesis in wheat [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(1): 151-164.
[12] MENG Ying, XING Lei-Lei, CAO Xiao-Hong, GUO Guang-Yan, CHAI Jian-Fang, BEI Cai-Li. Cloning of Ta4CL1 and its function in promoting plant growth and lignin deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis plants [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(1): 63-75.
[13] WEI Yi-Hao, YU Mei-Qin, ZHANG Xiao-Jiao, WANG Lu-Lu, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, MA Xin-Ming, LI Hui-Qing, WANG Xiao-Chun. Alternative splicing analysis of wheat glutamine synthase genes [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(1): 40-47.
[14] LI Ling-Hong, ZHANG Zhe, CHEN Yong-Ming, YOU Ming-Shan, NI Zhong-Fu, XING Jie-Wen. Transcriptome profiling of glossy1 mutant with glossy glume in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(1): 48-62.
[15] LUO Jiang-Tao, ZHENG Jian-Min, PU Zong-Jun, FAN Chao-Lan, LIU Deng-Cai, HAO Ming. Chromosome transmission in hybrids between tetraploid and hexaploid wheat [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(8): 1427-1436.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!