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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (1): 1-18.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02021

• REVIEW •     Next Articles

Review of biochar structure and physicochemical properties

ZHANG Wei-Ming(), XIU Li-Qun, WU Di, SUN Yuan-Yuan, GU Wen-Qi, ZHANG Hong-Gui, MENG Jun, CHEN Wen-Fu*()   

  1. College of Agriculture, Shenyang Agricultural University / Biochar Engineering Technology Research Center of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110866, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2020-03-17 Accepted:2020-08-19 Online:2021-01-12 Published:2020-09-22
  • Contact: CHEN Wen-Fu E-mail:biochar_zwm@syau.edu.cn;wfchen5512@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China “the Development and Application of Biochar-based Fertilizer in Rice Soil Fertility”(2016YFD0300904-4);State Key Special Program of Biochar-Fertilizer Technology Research and Industrialization Demonstration(2017YFD0200802-02);Liaoning Province Major Science and Technology Platform for University (Biochar Engineering and Technical Research Center);Special Fund for Academicians, and the National Rice Industrial Technology System(CARS01-46)


As a new emerging technology, biochar and its applications have been rapidly developed in recent years. However, due to large differences in carbonization materials and processes, it is difficult to compare or even contrast the results of biochar application studies, thus hindering the development of biochar applications to some extent. For this reason, our paper focuses on the key factors restricted the function of biochar, namely, the structure as well as physical and chemical properties of biochar, and then systematically presents the main research advances in recent years from the following perspectives of biochar such as definition, formation, structure, elemental composition, and other main physical-chemical properties, and property controlling-technologies. The paper analyses and summarizes the common and differential characteristics of biochar structure and physical and chemical properties and clarifies the relevant basic perspectives, statuses, trends, and consensus on the structure and properties of biochar. The structure and fundamental physical and chemical properties of biochar are believed to be the most important factors affecting the roles, function, and effects of biochar. They also determine the application field, scope, amount, objective, and direction of biochar. Therefore, the modification technology or optimal regulation technique is the key to develop the efficacy advantage, potential and values of biochar. By further combining the research and application of biochar, the basic principles and development directions of biochar physicochemical property research in the future focusing on the physical and chemical properties of biochar are evaluated from cycle and sustainable development of resources and material perspectives. This paper aims to provide the basis and reference for the development of basic scientific science and application technology studies on biochar.

Key words: biochar, structure, physicochemical properties, advances

Fig. 1

Biochar structure representation under different carbonization temperature[4] A: the aromatic carbon in biochar structure is increased, mainly part is amorphous carbon. B: the sheets of turbostratic aromatic carbon in biochar structure is increased. C: the biochar structure becomes graphitic."

Table 1

Maximum allowed thresholds of the toxic elements in biochar[111]"

Toxic element
Content (mg kg-1)
砷Arsenic 13-100
镉Cadmium 1.4-39.0
铜Copper 143-6000
铬Chromium 93-1200
镍Nickel 47-420
铅Lead 121-300
锌Zinc 416-7400
汞Mercury 1-17
钼Molybdenum 5-75
钴Cobalt 34-100

Fig. 2

Summary of mechanisms for heavy metals (a) and organic contaminants (b) adsorption on biochars[87]"

Fig. 3

Hydrophobicity (a) and water holding capacity (b) of biochar[133]"

Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of synthesizing biochar-based nano-composites[175]"

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