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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (3): 747-755.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31032


Effects of cutting on the recovery characteristics, grain and straw yield, and quality traits of Qingke

HE Jia-Qi1(), BAI Yi-Xiong1,3,4, YAO Xiao-Hua1,4, YAO You-Hua1,4, AN Li-Kun1,4, WANG Yu-Qin2, WANG Xiao-Ping1, LI Xin1,4, CUI Yong-Mei1,4, WU Kun-Lun1,4,*()   

  1. 1Qinghai University / Qinghai Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences / Qinghai Key Laboratory of Qingke Genetic Breeding / National Improvement Center for Cereal Crops, Qingke Branch in Qinghai Province, Xining 810016, Qinghai, China
    2College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Qinghai University (Qinghai Academy of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine), Xining 810016, Qinghai, China
    3College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
    4Laboratory for Research and Utilization of Qinghai Tibet Plateau Germplasm Resources, Xining 810016, Qinghai, China
  • Received:2023-05-10 Accepted:2023-09-13 Online:2024-03-12 Published:2023-09-27
  • Contact: *E-mail: wklqaaf@126.com
  • Supported by:
    Science and Technology Achievement Transformation Project of Qinghai Province(2020-NK-119);Key Research and Development Project of Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences(2019-NKY-01);National Natural Science Foundation of China(32060483);China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA(CARS-05);Natural Science Foundation Project of Qinghai Province(1-5)


The objective of this study is to investigate the changes in agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of Qingke plants during regeneration and recovery after cutting and to analyze the response patterns of grain and straw yield, as well as quality indicators of Qingke. The findings will provide a theoretical basis for the application of the “food-seed-forage trinity” production model of Qingke and the analysis of regulatory mechanisms for plant regeneration and recovery in Qingke. This experiment was conducted from 2021 to 2022, focused on the Qingke varieties Kunlun 18 and Zang 1257. Using normal growth (CK) as the control, a two-factor split-plot design was adopted. Samples were taken at seven developmental stages: 0 hour (T0), 2 hour (T1), 24 hours (T2), 72 hours (T3) after cutting, jointing stage (T4), heading stage (T5), and grain filling stage (T6), which aimed to analyze the regeneration rate of stem recovery and changes in antioxidant enzymes in the stubble after cutting and to analyze the yield, quality characteristics of Qingke straw and grain, and the rapid response patterns of endogenous hormones after cutting. The results indicated that cutting increased the regrowth of Qingke straw and grain yield. It also leaded to higher levels of crude protein and crude ash content in the stem, while reducing the fiber content. As a result, the relative feeding value of the straw was significantly improved. Cutting promoted the recovery rate of plant height and individual biomass growth in the stem of Qingke. It increased the number of spikes per hectare and 1000-grain weight, resulting in a significant increase in grain yield. Additionally, it leaded to the accumulation of higher levels of crude protein and starch in the grains. After cutting, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the stubble of Qingke increased rapidly. It also significantly increased the content of trans-zeatin riboside (TZR) and isopentenyladenosine (iPA) in the stubble. However, it leaded to a significant decrease in the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the stubble. Cytokinins and auxins in the stubble of Qingke may play important regulatory roles in the rapid response of the antioxidant enzyme system and the rapid regeneration process of above-ground parts after cutting. This study provided the foundation for the analysis of the regulatory mechanisms in the post-cutting regeneration and recovery of Qingke plants.

Key words: regeneration recovery, yield, feed quality, antioxidant enzymes, endogenous hormones

Fig. 1

Effect of cutting on straw yield CK1: normal growth of Kunlun 18; M1: mowing treatment of Kunlun 18; CK2: normal growth of Tibetan 1257; M2: mowing treatment of Tibetan 1257. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at the 0.05 probability level in the same year."

Table 1

Effect of mowing treatment on quality characteristics of barley straw after stubble"

Crude protein (%)
Hemicellulose (%)
Acid detergent fiber (%)
detergent fiber (%)
2021 CK1 4.09 e 8.62 cd 40.80 a 29.56 c 5.73 a 43.82 b 73.29 a 69.51 d
M1 5.13 b 9.69 a 38.46 bc 27.54 e 5.68 a 39.77 e 67.44 c 79.89 b
CK2 4.61 d 8.73 c 39.19 b 32.68 a 5.28 c 45.29 a 71.51 b 69.75 d
M2 5.53 a 9.82 a 37.22 de 30.82 b 5.17 c 41.08 d 63.48 e 83.38 a
2022 CK1 3.90 f 8.41 d 39.33 b 28.50 d 5.64 ab 42.55 c 69.83 b 74.27 c
M1 4.97 c 9.41 b 37.97 cd 26.26 f 5.54 b 39.59 e 65.71 d 80.96 b
CK2 4.59 d 8.56 cd 39.02 b 32.44 a 5.26 c 44.06 b 67.13 cd 75.63 c
M2 5.46 a 9.79 a 36.86 e 30.45 b 5.21 c 41.04 d 63.82 e 82.98 a

Table 2

Effect of mowing on seed yield"

Number of grains per ear
1000-grain weight (g)
Number of spikes per hm-2 (×106)
Grain yield (t hm-2)
2021 CK1 53.77 ab 34.42 d 4.37 c 3.42 d
M1 51.09 cd 35.37 cd 4.43 a 3.59 a
CK2 51.67 cd 37.96 b 4.15 e 3.36 e
M2 49.26 e 39.36 a 4.22 d 3.48 c
2022 CK1 54.64 a 34.94 d 4.35 c 3.44 d
M1 52.61 bc 36.15 c 4.40 b 3.60 a
CK2 52.44 bc 38.21 ab 4.11 f 3.32 f
M2 50.46 de 39.22 a 4.17 e 3.54 b

Table 3

Effects of cutting on grain quality"

Protein content (%)
Starch content (%)
2021 CK1 11.30 d 69.95 d
M1 11.67 b 75.15 a
CK2 11.50 f 72.80 e
M2 12.18 d 73.90 bc
2022 CK1 10.30 c 65.77 ab
M1 11.28 a 71.26 a
CK2 11.10 e 71.30 bc
M2 12.21 a 73.60 ab

Fig. 2

Effect of cutting on stem regeneration recovery characteristics in 2021 and 2022 Fig. a-c show data for 2021 and Fig. d-f show data for 2022. CK1: normal growth of Kunlun 18; M1: mowing treatment of Kunlun 18; CK2: normal growth of Tibetan 1257; M2: mowing treatment of Tibetan 1257. T1: 2 h; T2: 24 h; T3: 72 h; T4: jointing stage; T5: heading stage; T6: filling stage."

Fig. 3

Effect of mowing on stem protective enzyme activity in 2021 and 2022 Fig. a-c show data for 2021 and Fig. d-f show data for 2022. POD: peroxidase; SOD: superoxide dismutase; CAT: catalase. * and ** indicate significant differences at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively. Treatments and fertility periods are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Fig. 4

Effect of mowing on endogenous hormones in the stem in 2021-2022 Fig. a-e show data for 2021 and Fig. f-j show data for 2022. TZR: trans-zeatin nucleoside; iPA: isopentenyl adenosine; tZT: trans-zeatin; IAA: indole-3-acetic acid; ABA: abscisic acid. * and ** indicate significant differences at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively. Treatments and fertility periods are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Fig. 5

Correlation analysis of the relative values of each individual index Ph: plant height; Cs: culm strength; Mb: single plant biomass; TZR: trans-zeatin nucleoside; iPA: isopentenyl adenosine; tZT: trans-zeatin; IAA: indole-3-acetic acid; ABA: abscisic acid; POD: peroxidase activity; SOD: superoxide dismutase activity; CAT: catalase activity. * and ** indicate significant correlation at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively."

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