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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (3): 443-459.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83026


Effects of drip irrigation pattern and water regulation on the accumulation and allocation of dry matter and nitrogen, and water use efficiency in summer maize

Ming-Da YANG1,Xiao-Kang GUAN1,Ying LIU1,Jing-Yu CUI1,Chao-Ming DING1,Jing-Li WANG1,Jing-Li HAN1,Huai-Ping WANG2,Hai-Ping KANG3,Tong-Chao WANG1,*()   

  1. 1 Agronomy College, Henan Agricultural University / Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan, China
    2 Xun County Fengli Seed Industry Co., Ltd., Xunxian 456250, Henan, China
    3 Sheqi County Bureau of Agricultural Plant Protection and Phytosanitary Station, Sheqi 473300, Henan, China
  • Received:2018-03-29 Accepted:2018-10-08 Online:2019-03-12 Published:2018-11-09
  • Contact: Tong-Chao WANG E-mail:wtcwrn@126.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0301106);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31471452);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31601258)


A split-plot experiment was conducted to explore the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and allocation characteristics, and water use efficiency of maize in response to different drip irrigation regimes. Drip underground (DU) and drip surface (DS) were applied with three levels of water treatment [W40, W60, and W80 referring to 40%-50% field water capacity (FWC), 60%-70% FWC, and 80%-90% FWC, respectively]. The nitrogen accumulation and water use efficiency of DU treatment has been significantly increased by 6.18% and 4.85%-8.61% respectively compared with DS treatment. The response of dry matter and nitrogen characteristics to drip irrigation patterns was depended on soil water regulation levels. Under W40 and W60 conditions, DU significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate of summer maize, improved dry matter and nitrogen accumulation after silking and their contribution to grains. At last, DU increased the dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation in grains, yield and nitrogen partial factor productivity by 3.29% to 19.94%, -1.10% to 20.65%, 3.29% to 19.94%, and 3.31% to 23.64% respectively. While under W80 condition, dry matter and nitrogen accumulations, yield and crop evapotranspiration were 6.80% to 12.24%, 5.93%, 8.39% to 14.91%, and 9.73% to 14.57% respectively higher in DS than in DU. In conclusion, drip underground could improve dry matter and nitrogen translocated to grain, and increase yield under limited irrigated condition (W40 and W60), while under adequate water supply (W80), drip surface could enhance the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation with lower water use efficiency due to excessive water consumption.

Key words: drip underground, drip surface, dry matter, nitrogen, water use efficiency

Table 1

Main physical characteristics of soil in experimental plots"

Soil layer (cm)
Field water capacity (%)
Bulk density (g cm-3)
土壤机械组成 Soil mechanical composition (%)
沙粒 Sand 粉粒 Silt 黏粒 Clay
0-20 23.63 1.31 55.89 28.97 15.14
20-40 21.77 1.46 53.61 29.40 16.99
40-60 21.95 1.31 50.73 30.92 18.35
60-80 23.36 1.36 59.01 29.94 11.05
80-100 23.79 1.31 66.42 28.96 4.62

Fig. 1

Meteorological data at the experimental site in maize growth season from June to September of 2014 and 2015"

Table 2

Drip irrigation amount in growing period of summer maize under different treatments (mm) "

Seedling-jointing stage
opening stage
Flare opening-
silking stage
Total drip irrigation amount
2014 DU+W40 42.10 33.13 45.65 53.26 174.15
DU+W60 90.37 73.78 82.50 107.53 354.18
DU+W80 134.53 82.83 122.34 153.60 493.30
DS+W40 46.90 51.23 58.55 24.18 180.85
DS+W60 87.19 71.88 100.67 65.03 324.77
DS+W80 139.21 114.93 127.59 150.56 532.29
2015 DU+W40 30.13 25.24 47.06 62.54 164.97
DU+W60 30.92 43.03 76.84 99.47 250.26
DU+W80 28.45 61.32 106.05 177.53 373.36
DS+W40 36.54 40.33 52.30 55.12 184.29
DS+W60 46.66 49.44 85.61 112.48 294.19
DS+W80 47.56 69.23 122.24 172.51 411.54


Effects of drip irrigation patterns and water regulation on grain yield and water use efficiency"

Fig. 2

Effects of drip irrigation patterns and water regulation on dry matter accumulation of summer maize Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 2."

Table 4

Effects of drip irrigation patterns and water regulation on dry matter remobilization during grain filling and accumulated dry matter after silking of summer maize in 2015"

DMR (kg hm-2)
CDMR (%)
ADM (kg hm-2)
CADM (%)
DU W40 1379.25 ab 22.25 b 4818.60 d 77.75 c
W60 1229.28 b 14.85 c 7047.88 b 85.15 ab
W80 1283.38 b 15.20 c 7161.48 b 84.80 ab
平均值Mean 1297.30 16.98 6342.70 83.02
DS W40 1450.75 a 25.57 a 4221.81 e 74.43 d
W60 1355.37 ab 17.25 c 6499.70 c 82.75 b
W80 1328.63 b 14.52 c 7824.87 a 85.55 a
平均值Mean 1344.92 19.11 6182.13 80.89
Drip irrigation pattern
2.12 10.50* 4.73 10.50*
Water regulation
11.37** 133.03** 876.78** 133.03**
17.86** 44.81** 106.89** 44.81**

Fig. 3

Effects of drip irrigation patterns and water regulation on net photosynthetic rate of summer maize Bars represented by different lowercase letters in the same growing stage are significantly different at the 0.05 probability level among different treatments. Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 2."

Fig. 4

Spatio-temporal dynamics of soil volumetric water content during the growing period of summer maize under different treatments (2014) Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 2."


drip irrigation patterns and water regulation on nitrogen uptake at pre and post-silking of summer smaize"

Table 6

Effects of drip irrigation patterns and water regulation on nitrogen remobilization and its contribution to grain nitrogen of summer maize in 2015"

Nitrogen remobilization (kg hm-2)
Contribution to grain by nitrogen remobilization (%)
叶 Leaf 茎 Stalk 叶 Leaf 茎Stalk
DU W40 23.69 a 10.54 a 27.77 a 12.35 b
W60 23.27 a 12.42 a 22.30 b 11.90 b
W80 22.04 a 12.43 a 21.03 b 11.86 b
平均值Mean 23.00 11.80 23.70 12.04
DS W40 23.01 a 12.63 a 29.55 a 16.22 a
W60 23.94 a 11.29 a 23.82 b 11.23 b
W80 22.55 a 9.91 a 21.08 b 9.26 b
平均值Mean 23.17 11.28 24.82 12.24
Drip irrigation patterns
3.02 2.57 3.35 4.26
Water regulation
4.44 3.92 26.61** 14.89**
3.16 0.85 22.91** 6.33*


Effects of drip irrigation patterns and water regulation nitrogen accumulation and partial factor productivity from applied nitrogen of summer maize"

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